Timeline of Lahore

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The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Lahore, Pakistan.


Prior to 11th century

11th–15th centuries

16th–17th centuries

18th century

19th century

20th century


21st century

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Punjab, Pakistan</span> Province of Pakistan

Punjab is a province of Pakistan. Located in central-eastern region of the country, Punjab is the second-largest province of Pakistan by land area and the largest province by population. It is bordered by the Pakistani provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the north-west, Balochistan to the south-west and Sindh to the south, as well as Islamabad Capital Territory to the north-west and Azad Kashmir to the north. It shares an International border with the Indian states of Rajasthan and Punjab to the east and Indian-administered Kashmir to the north-east. Punjab is the most fertile province of the country as River Indus and its four major tributaries Ravi, Jhelum, Chenab and Sutlej flow through it.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lahore</span> Capital city of Punjab, Pakistan

Lahore is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi and 26th largest in the world, with a population of over 13 million. It is situated in the north-east of the country with River Ravi flowing north-west of the city. It is the capital of the province of Punjab, where it is the largest city. Lahore is one of Pakistan's major industrial and economic hubs. It has been the historic capital and cultural centre of the wider Punjab region, and is one of Pakistan's most socially liberal, progressive, and cosmopolitan cities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sialkot</span> City in Punjab, Pakistan

Sialkot is a city located in Punjab, Pakistan. It is the capital of the Sialkot District and is the 13th most populous city in Pakistan. The boundaries of Sialkot are joined with Jammu in the north east, the districts of Narowal in the southeast, Gujranwala in the southwest and Gujrat in the northwest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Multan</span> City in Punjab, Pakistan

Multan is a city in Punjab, Pakistan, on the bank of the Chenab River. Multan is Pakistan's seventh largest city as per the 2017 census, and the major cultural, religious and economic centre of southern Punjab.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hazuri Bagh</span> Sikh-era garden in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

Hazuri Bagh is a garden in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, bounded by the Lahore Fort to the east, Badshahi Mosque to the west, the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh to the north, and the Roshnai Gate to the south. The garden was built during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, in the style of Mughal gardens. In the centre of the garden stands the Hazuri Bagh Baradari, built by the Maharaja in 1818 to celebrate his capture of the Koh-i-Noor diamond from Shuja Shah Durrani in 1813. The Serai Alamgiri caravanserai formerly stood where Hazuri Bagh is now located.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Punjab</span>

The History of Punjab refers to the past human history of Punjab region which is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent, comprising western Punjab province in Pakistan and eastern Punjab state in India. It is believed that the earliest evidence of human habitation in Punjab traces to the Soan valley of the Pothohar, between the Indus and the Jhelum rivers, where Soanian culture developed between 774,000 BC and 11,700 BC. This period goes back to the first interglacial period in the second Ice Age, from which remnants of stone and flint tools have been found.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lahore Fort</span> Citadel in Lahore, Pakistan

The Lahore Fort is a citadel in the city of Lahore in Punjab, Pakistan. The fortress is located at the northern end of Walled city of Lahore and spreads over an area greater than 20 hectares. It contains 21 notable monuments, some of which date to the era of Emperor Akbar. The Lahore Fort is notable for having been almost entirely rebuilt in the 17th century, when the Mughal Empire was at the height of its splendor and opulence.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Walled City of Lahore</span> Inner historic core of Lahore

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Architecture of Lahore</span> Overview of architecture in Lahore

The Architecture of Lahore reflects the history of Lahore and is remarkable for its variety and uniqueness. There are buildings left from the centuries of rule of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh Empire, as well as from the era of the British Raj, whose style is a mixture of Victorian and Islamic architecture often referred to as Indo-Saracenic. In addition, there are newer buildings which are very modern in their design. Unlike the emphasis on functional architecture in the west, much of Lahore's architecture has always been about making a statement as much as anything else.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kasur</span> City in Punjab, Pakistan

Kasur is a city to south of Lahore, in the Pakistani province of Punjab. The city serves as the headquarters of Kasur District. Kasur is the 24th largest city of Pakistan by population. It is also known for being the burial place of the 17th-century Sufi-poet Bulleh Shah. It is farther west of the border with neighboring India, and bordered to Lahore, Sheikhupura, and the Okara District of Punjab Province. The city is an aggregation of 26 fortified hamlets overlooking the alluvial valleys of the Beas and Sutlej rivers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mughal architecture</span> Indo-Islamic architecture from 16th to 18th century Indian subcontinent

Mughal architecture is the type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent. It developed from the architectural styles of earlier Muslim dynasties in India and from Iranian and Central Asian architectural traditions, particularly Timurid architecture. It also further incorporated and syncretized influences from wider Indian architecture, especially during the reign of Akbar. Mughal buildings have a uniform pattern of structure and character, including large bulbous domes, slender minarets at the corners, massive halls, large vaulted gateways, and delicate ornamentation; examples of the style can be found in modern-day Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sikh Empire</span> Empire on the Indian subcontinent, 1799–1849

The Sikh Empire was a state originating in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent. The empire existed from 1799, when Maharaja Ranjit Singh captured Lahore, to 1849, when it was defeated and conquered in the Second Anglo-Sikh War. It was forged on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh Misl. At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire extended from Gilgit and Tibet in the north to the deserts of Sindh in the south and from the Khyber Pass in the west to the Sutlej in the east as far as Oudh. It was divided into four provinces: Lahore, which became the Sikh capital; Multan; Peshawar; and Kashmir from 1799 to 1849. Religiously diverse, with an estimated population of 4.5 million in 1831, it was the last major region of the Indian subcontinent to be annexed by the British Empire.

The recorded history of Lahore, the second largest city-district of Pakistan, covers thousands of years. Lahore is regarded as the post medieval or modern day capital and largest city of the Punjab region, it has since its creation changed hands from Ghaznavid, Hindu, Buddhist, Greek, Muslim, Mughal, Ghorid, Maratha, Sikh and the British, thereby becoming the cultural capital and the heart of modern-day Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Majha</span> Region in the central parts of the historical Punjab region

Majha is a region located in the central parts of the historical Punjab region split between India and Pakistan. It extends north from the right banks of the river Beas, and reaches as far north as the river Jhelum. People of the Majha region are given the demonym "Mājhī" or "Majhail". Most inhabitants of the region speak the Majhi dialect, which is the basis of the standard register of the Punjabi language. The most populous city in the area is Lahore on the Pakistani side, and Amritsar on the Indian side of the border.

History of Sialkot, the capital of Sialkot District, is a city situated in the north-east of the Punjab province in Pakistan at the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. The city is about 125 km (78 mi) north-west of Lahore and only a few kilometres from Jammu in India.

It is estimated that the city of Lahore, Pakistan, has a Muslim majority with 94.7% and Christian minority constitute 5.1% of the population and rest Sikhs and Hindus constitute the remaining 0.2%. There is also a small but longstanding Zoroastrian community.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sikh period in Lahore</span>

The Sikh Rule in Lahore initiated from the conquest and rule of the Sikh Misls and extended till the Sikh Empire of Ranjit Singh which ended in 1849. The Sikhs began gaining power following the decline of the Mughal Empire in Punjab and consisted of a collection of autonomous Punjabi Misls, which were governed by Misldars, mainly in the Punjab region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Badshahi Mosque</span> Iconic 17th-century Mughal-era mosque in Lahore, Pakistan

The Badshahi Mosque is an iconic Mughal-era congregational mosque in Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab. The mosque is located opposite of Lahore Fort in the outskirts of the Walled City of Lahore, and is widely considered to be one of Lahore's most iconic landmarks.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.


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  13. 1 2 John F. Riddick (2006), History of British India, Praeger Publishers, ISBN   9780313322808
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  21. Percy Brown (1908), Lahore Museum, Punjab: A Descriptive Guide to the Department of Archaeology & Antiquities, Lahore: Printed at the Civil and Military Gazette Press, OCLC   44611240, OL   23293985M
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  25. 1 2 "Museums and Galleries in Pakistan". Islamabad: National Fund for Cultural Heritage. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
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  28. Ian Talbot (2007), "A Tale of Two Cities: The Aftermath of Partition for Lahore and Amritsar 1947–1957", Modern Asian Studies, 41 (1): 151–185, doi:10.1017/s0026749x05002337, JSTOR   4132347, S2CID   143274396
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Published in 19th century

  • David Brewster, ed. (1830). "Lahore". Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. Edinburgh: William Blackwood.
  • C. Masson (September–November 1840), "Memorandum on Lahore, the Sikhs, their Kingdom and its Dependencies", Proceedings of the Bombay Geographical Society
  • Charles Masson (1842), "Lahore", Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan, and the Panjab, London: Richard Bentley
  • J.H. Stocqueler (1854), "Lahore", Hand-book of British India (3rd ed.), London: Allen and Co.
  • "Lahore". Street's Indian and Colonial Mercantile Directory for 1870. London: Street. 1870.
  • Thornton, Thomas Henry. A Brief Account of the History and Antiquities of Lahore. Lahore: Government Civil Secretariat Press, 1873.
  • Thomas Henry Thornton; John Lockwood Kipling (1876). Lahore. Lahore: Printed at the Government Civil Secretariat Press.
  • Kanhaiya Lal. (1884) Tarikh-e-Lahore. Lahore, Pakistan: Aslam Asmat Printers.
  • Edward Thornton (1886), "Lahore", in Roper Lethbridge and Arthur N. Wollaston (ed.), Gazetteer of the Territories under the Government of the Viceroy of India, London: W. H. Allen & Co., OCLC   710600
  • Edwin Lord Weeks (1894), "Lahore and the Punjab", Harper's New Monthly Magazine, vol. 89, pp. 650–672, hdl:2027/njp.32101064076175
  • Joachim Hayward Stocqueler (1900), "Lahore", The Oriental Interpreter and Treasury of East India Knowledge, London: Cox

Published in 20th century

  • Muhammad Baqir (1952). Lahore, past and present; being an account of Lahore compiled from original sources. Lahore: Panjab University Press. OCLC   8816775.
  • Lahore Development Authority. Lahore Urban Development and Traffic Study. 5 vols. Lahore, 1980.
  • Lahore Development Authority. The Walled City of Lahore. Lahore, 1981.
  • Samuel V. Noe. “Old Lahore and Old Delhi: Variations on a Mughal Theme.” Ekistics XLIX (1982), pp. 306–19.
  • Mohammed A. Qadeer. Lahore, Urban Development in the Third World. Lahore: Vanguard Books, 1983.
  • Ahmad Nabi Khan. “Lahore: the Darus Saltanat of the Moghul Empire under Akbar (1556–1605).” Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan XXI, no.3 (1984), pp. 1–22.
  • Muhammad Saeed (1989). Lahore, A Memoir. Lahore: Vanguard. ISBN   9694020085.
  • F.S. Aijazuddin. Lahore: Illustrated Views of the 19th Century. Lahore: Vanguard Books, Ltd., 1991.
  • Ajaz Anwar (1996). Old Lahore (3rd ed.). Lahore.
  • Ajaz Anwar (1997), "Lahore and Delhi: Two Sides of a Mirror", India International Centre Quarterly, 24 (2/3): 274–283, JSTOR   23005453
  • Som Anand (1998). Lahore, portrait of a lost city. Lahore: Vanguard Books.
  • Nazir Ahmad Chaudhry. A Short History of Lahore and Some of Its Monuments. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, 2000.

Published in 21st century

  • Journal of Asian Civilizations XXIV, no. 2 (2001). Special issue on Lahore in the Ghaznavid period.
  • F.S. Aijazuddin. Lahore Recollected: An Album. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publishers, 2003.
  • Y. Lari. Lahore – Illustrated City Guide. Karachi, Pakistan: Heritage Foundation Pakistan 2003.
  • Mohammad Rafiq Khan (2006), "Banning Two-stroke Auto-rickshaws in Lahore: Policy Implications", Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, 45 (4): 1169–1185, doi: 10.30541/v45i4IIpp.1169-1185 , JSTOR   41260675
  • P. Jackson; P.A. Andrews (2007). "Lahore (Lahawr)". In C.E. Bosworth (ed.). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill. p. 299+. ISBN   9789004153882.
  • Ian Talbot. Divided Cities: Partition and Its aftermath in Lahore and Amritsar, 1947–1957. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • William J. Glover (2007), Making Lahore Modern: Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City, USA: Univ of Minnesota Press, ISBN   9780816650217
  • Abdul Rehman (2009), "Changing Concepts of Garden Design in Lahore from Mughal to Contemporary Times", Garden History, 37 (2): 205–217, JSTOR   27821596