Karachi Agreement

Last updated

Karachi Agreement
Type Delimitation of Cease-Fire Line
Context Post Indo-Pakistani War 1947
Drafted13 August 1948
Signed27 July 1949;70 years ago (1949-07-27)
LocationKarachi, Pakistan
Mediators United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan
NegotiatorsMilitary representatives of India and Pakistan
Signatories Lt. Gen. S. M. Shrinagesh
on behalf of India
Maj. Gen. W. J. Cawthorn
on behalf of Pakistan
Hernando Samper and M. Delvoie
from UNCIP
PartiesFlag of India.svg  India
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Flag of the United Nations.svg United Nations

The Karachi Agreement of 1949 was signed by the military representatives of India and Pakistan, supervised by the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan, establishing a cease-fire line in Kashmir following the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. [1] It established a cease-fire line which has been monitored by United Nations observers from the United Nations since then. [2]



The Security Council Resolution 39 of April 1948 established a UN Commission (United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan — UNCIP) to mediate between India and Pakistan in order to bring about a cessation of fighting in Kashmir and to make arrangements for a popular plebiscite. After negotiations with the two sides, the Commission passed a three-part resolution in August 1948 and subsequently added a 'supplement'. The three parts dealt with ceasefire, terms for truce, and procedures for negotiation regarding the plebiscite. Both the countries accepted the resolution and a ceasefire was achieved on 31 December 1948.


The princely state of Jammu and Kashmir with the current Line of Control defined in 1972 (similar to that of 1949) Kashmir Jammu Map.png
The princely state of Jammu and Kashmir with the current Line of Control defined in 1972 (similar to that of 1949)

The Karachi Agreement, formally called the Agreement Between Military Representatives of India and Pakistan Regarding the Establishment of a Cease-Fire Line in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, was signed on 27 July 1949, supervised by the Truce Subcommittee of the UNCIP. [1]

The signatories were:

  1. Lt. Gen. S. M. Shrinagesh, on behalf of India
  2. Maj. Gen. W. J. Cawthorn, on behalf of Pakistan
  3. Hernando Samper and M. Delvoie, on behalf of the UNCIP.

The other members of the Indian delegation were Maj. Gen. K. S. Thimayya, Brig. Sam Maneckshaw, Maj. S. K. Sinha (who acted as the aide-de-camp for Gen. Srinagesh), and the secretaries of the Defence Ministry and the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs. The Pakistani delegation included Maj. Gen. Nazir Ahmed and Brig. Sher Khan and civil servants M. Ayub and A. A. Khan. The military representatives of the two sides negotiated for a week starting 18 July to demarcate the positions under their control. [3] [4]

S. K. Sinha stated that the Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru briefed the Indian delegation before the Karachi meeting, wherein he informed them that the UN Resolution conceded the legality of Kashmir's accession to India and, so, any "no man's land" would belong to India. The Pakistani delegation would need to produce proof to the UN Commission of factual positions of their control for all the territory they claim. Sinha stated that, based on this principle, the agreement demarcated several hundred square miles of territory on the Indian side even though there were no Indian troops in that territory. [5]

The ceasefire line of 1949 Page 2 - CFL as shown on UN Map to Karachi Agreement 1949.JPG
The ceasefire line of 1949

The 830 kilometre long ceasefire line established in the agreement started from a southernmost point just west of the Chenab river in Jammu. It ran in a rough arc northwards and then northeastwards to the map coordinate NJ9842, about 19 km north of the Shyok river. [6]

From the map point NJ9842 it was said to run due north to the international boundary with China, at a distance of about 60–65 km. Since there were no troops in that area of inaccessible glacial terrain, no effort was made to extend the ceasefire line between NJ9842 and the China border. This area, of the Siachen Glacier, eventually became a bone of contention between India and Pakistan. [7]

Another anomaly arose at the southern end of the ceasefire line in Jammu. From the terminus of the ceasefire line to the international boundary between Indian and Pakistani Punjab, there was a gap of over 200 km, which was covered by a recognised "provincial boundary" between Pakistani Punjab and the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. India generally referred to this boundary as the "international border", whereas Pakistan referred to it as the "border" or the "working border". [7]

Map of the Agreement

U.N. document number S/1430/Add.2 [8] (which is the second addendum to the 1949 Karachi Agreement) shows the Cease Fire Line (CFL) marked on the Map of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Title of this addendum reads:

Map of the State of Jammu and Kashmir showing the Cease Fire Line as Agreed Upon in the Karachi Agreement, Ratified by the Governments of India and Pakistan on 29 and 30 July Respectively. (See Annex 26 to the third Interim Report of the United Nation Commission for India and Pakistan) [9] [10]

U.N. Map illustrating Cease Fire Line as per Karachi Agreement

Page-1 of U.N. Map Number S/1430/Add.2 to Karachi Agreement 1949 Page 1 - CFL as shown on UN Map to Karachi Agreement 1949.JPG
Page-1 of U.N. Map Number S/1430/Add.2 to Karachi Agreement 1949
Page-2 of U.N. Map Number S/1430/Add.2 showing CFL Page 2 - CFL as shown on UN Map to Karachi Agreement 1949.JPG
Page-2 of U.N. Map Number S/1430/Add.2 showing CFL
Page-3 U.N. Map Number S/1430/Add.2 showing CFL terminating at NJ9842 Page 3 - CFL as shown on UN Map to Karachi Agreement 1949.JPG
Page-3 U.N. Map Number S/1430/Add.2 showing CFL terminating at NJ9842

The Karachi Agreement between India and Pakistan established a cease-fire line to be supervised by the military observers. These observers, under the command of the Military Advisor, formed the nucleus of the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP). On 30 March 1951, following the termination of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP), the Security Council, by Resolution 91 (1951) decided that UNMOGIP should continue to supervise the cease-fire line in Kashmir. UNMOGIP's functions were to observe and report, investigate complaints of cease-fire violations and submit its findings to each party and to the Secretary General. [11]

See also

Related Research Articles

Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts Wars between India and Pakistan

Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of dominions of India and Pakistan. The two countries have been involved in a number of wars, conflicts and military stand-offs. The Kashmir issue and across the border terrorism have been the cause of conflicts between the two countries mostly with the exception of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 where conflict originated due to turmoil in erstwhile East Pakistan.

Line of Control demarcation line between India and Pakistan over the disputed region of Kashmir

The term Line of Control (LoC) refers to the military control line between the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir—a line which does not constitute a legally recognized international boundary, but serves as the de facto border. Originally known as the Cease-fire Line, it was redesignated as the "Line of Control" following the Simla Agreement, which was signed on 3 July 1972. The part of the former princely state that is under Indian control is known as the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Pakistani-controlled part is divided into Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan. The northernmost point of the Line of Control is known as NJ9842. The India–Pakistan border continues from the southernmost point on the LoC.

History of Kashmir

The history of Kashmir is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions, comprising the areas of Central Asia, South Asia and East Asia. Historically, Kashmir referred to the Kashmir Valley. Today, it denotes a larger area that includes the Indian-administered union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, the Pakistan-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan, and the Chinese-administered regions of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.

The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed on 10 January 1966 that resolved the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. Peace had been achieved on 23 September by the intervention of the external powers that pushed the two nations to cease fire, afraid the conflict could escalate and draw in other powers.

Ceasefire temporary stoppage of war

A ceasefire, also spelled cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. Ceasefires may be declared as part of a formal treaty, but they have also been called as part of an informal understanding between opposing forces.

The Simla Agreement, or Shimla Agreement, was signed between India and Pakistan on 2 July 1972 in Shimla, the capital city of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. It followed from the Bangladesh Liberation war in 1971 that led to the independence of Bangladesh, which was earlier known as East Pakistan and was part of the territory of Pakistan. India entered the war as an ally of Bangladesh which transformed the war into an Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. The agreement was ratified by the Parliaments of both the nations in the same year.

Siachen Glacier glacier located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalayas

The Siachen Glacier is a glacier located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalayas at about 35.421226°N 77.109540°E, just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends. At 76 km (47 mi) long, it is the longest glacier in the Karakoram and second-longest in the world's non-polar areas. It falls from an altitude of 5,753 m (18,875 ft) above sea level at its head at Indira Col on the China border down to 3,620 m (11,875 ft) at its terminus. The entire Siachen Glacier, with all major passes, is currently under the administration of India since 1984. Pakistan controls the region west of Saltoro Ridge, far away from the glacier, with Pakistani posts located 3,000 ft below more than 100 Indian posts on Saltoro Ridge.

Operation Meghdoot Indian military operation to capture Siachen Glacier

Operation Meghdoot was the code-name for the Indian Armed Forces operation to capture the Siachen Glacier in the Kashmir region, precipitating the Siachen Conflict. Launched on 13 April 1984, this military operation was the first assault launched in the highest battlefield in the world. The military action resulted in Indian troops gaining control of the entire Siachen Glacier.

A United Nations Military Observer (UNMO) is an observer for the UN. They have been described as, "the eyes and ears of the security council." Several Observer missions have been executed. An example of a currently running observer mission is the UNMOGIP at the border between India and Pakistan, which being "Set up in 1949, ...was deployed in January of that year to supervise the ceasefire agreed between India and Pakistan in the State of Jammu and Kashmir [and since] renewed hostilities in 1971, ...monitors the ceasefire called for by the United Nations Security Council." .

The United Nations has played an important role in maintaining peace and order in Jammu and Kashmir soon after the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, when a dispute erupted between the two States on the question of Jammu and Kashmir. India took this matter to the UN Security Council, which passed resolution 39 (1948) and established the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) to investigate the issues and mediate between the two countries. Following the cease-fire of hostilities, it also established the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) to monitor the cease-fire line.

Siachen conflict 1984-2003 Indo-Pakistani territorial clashes

The Siachen conflict, sometimes referred to as the Siachen War, was a military conflict between India and Pakistan over the disputed Siachen Glacier region in Kashmir. A cease-fire went into effect in 2003. The contended area is nearly 1,000 square miles (2,600 km2) of territory. The conflict was started in 1984 by India's successful capture of the Siachen Glacier as part of Operation Meghdoot. India took control of the 70-kilometre-long (43 mi) Siachen Glacier and its tributary glaciers, as well as all the main passes and heights of the Saltoro Ridge immediately west of the glacier, including Sia La, Bilafond La, and Gyong La. Pakistan controls the glacial valleys immediately west of the Saltoro Ridge. According to TIME magazine, India gained more than 2500 km2 of territory because of its military operations in Siachen.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 39, adopted on January 20, 1948, offered to assist in the peaceful resolution of the Kashmir Conflict by setting up a commission of three members; one to be chosen by India, one to be chosen by Pakistan and the third to be chosen by the other two members of the commission. The commission was to write a joint letter advising the Security Council on what course of action would be best to help further peace in the region.

The United Nations Security Council Resolution 47, adopted on 21 April 1948, concerns the resolution of the Kashmir conflict. After hearing arguments from both India and Pakistan, the Council increased the size of the Commission established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 39 to five members, instructed the Commission to go to the subcontinent and help the governments of India and Pakistan restore peace and order to the region and prepare for a plebiscite to decide the fate of Kashmir.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 80 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council Resolution 80, adopted on March 14, 1950, having received the reports of the Commission for India and Pakistan, as well as a report from General A. G. L. McNaughton, the Council commended India and Pakistan for their compliance with the ceasefire and for the demilitarization of Jammu and Kashmir and agreement on Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz as the future Plebiscite Administrator.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 91, adopted on March 30, 1951, noting a report by Sir Owen Dixon, the United Nations Representative for India and Pakistan, stating that the main point of difference of preparing the state of Jammu and Kashmir for the holding of a plebiscite were as follows; the procedure for and extent of demilitarization, the degree of control over the exercise of the functions of government necessary to ensure a free and fair plebiscite.

Major General Janak Singh CIE, OBI, was a prime minister of Jammu and Kashmir.

Pakistan officially joined the United Nations (UN) on 30 September 1947 just over a month after it came into existence. Today, it is a charter member and participates in all of the UN's specialised agencies and organisations. Pakistan has been elected seven times into the UN Security Council, with the most recent term in 2013. It is also one of the countries which has had a diplomat, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, serve a term as the President of the United Nations General Assembly.

History of Azad Kashmir

The history of Pakistan administered Kashmir, a part of the Kashmir region [|administered]] by Pakistan, is related to the history of over all Kashmir region during the Dogra rule. Pakistan administered Kashmir borders the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the south and west respectively, Gilgit–Baltistan to the north and the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir to the east.

The 5th Battalion the 4th Gorkha Rifles, is an infantry battalion of the 4 Gorkha Rifles, a Rifle regiment of the Indian Army. The 5th Battalion the 4th Gorkha Rifles (GR), was raised in January 1963, in the wake of the Chinese Offensive, in Arunachal Pradesh, and Ladakh, India, from bases in Tibet, in 1962.

2014–2015 India–Pakistan border skirmishes A series of armed skirmishes between India and Pakistan

The India–Pakistan border skirmishes (2014–2015) were a series of armed skirmishes and firing exchanges between the Border Security Force and Pakistan Rangers along the Line of Control (LoC) in the disputed Kashmir region, as well as Punjab. Started from mid-July 2014, military officials and media reports of both countries gave different accounts of the incidents, each accusing the other of initiating the hostilities. The incident sparked outrage both in Pakistan and India and harsh reactions by the Indian and Pakistan armed forces and governments.


  1. 1 2 Wirsing, War or Peace on the Line of Control? 1998, p. 9.
  2. Hilaire, United Nations Law and the Security Council 2005, pp. 29-30.
  3. Bhattacharya, What Price Freedom 2013, pp. 151–152.
  4. Ganguly, Sumit (31 March 2016), Deadly Impasse, Cambridge University Press, pp. 134–, ISBN   978-0-521-76361-5
  5. Claude Arpi, The myths of wild roses and Pakistani presence in Siachen, Daily News and Analysis, 28 May 2012.
  6. Wirsing, War or Peace on the Line of Control? 1998, pp. 9-10.
  7. 1 2 Wirsing, War or Peace on the Line of Control? 1998, p. 10.
  8. "UN Map showing CFL - UN document number S/1430/Add.2" (PDF). Dag Digital Library. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  9. U.N. Commission for India and Pakistan: annexes to the interim report (PDF), Dag Digital Library - the United Nations, p. 83, archived from the original (PDF) on 18 January 2016, retrieved 3 June 2015
  10. Treaty Series (PDF) (Volume 81 ed.), United Nations Treaty Collection, p. 274, retrieved 4 June 2015
  11. Time U.N. observers left Kashmir: India