This is a timeline of modern Israeli history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Israel and its predecessor states, along with important events
|The Russian emperor Alexander III issued the May Laws, severely restricting the rights of Jews in the Pale of Settlement.
|First Aliyah : Ten Hovevei Zion pioneers from Kharkiv established the city of Rishon LeZion in the Ottoman Empire.
|Theodor Herzl published Der Judenstaat , arguing for the establishment of an independent Jewish state.
|First Zionist Congress : A congress of some two hundred delegates of zionist organizations, most from Eastern Europe, convened in Basel.
|First Zionist Congress: The Congress adopted the Basel Program, setting out as the goal of the zionist movement the establishment of a Jewish homeland.
|Balfour Declaration calls for the establishment of the Jewish Homeland
|The League of Nations assigns Britain the creation of Mandatory Palestine
|World War II: Germany and the Soviet Union invades Poland and The Holocaust occurred in German-occupied Europe killing 6 million Jews.
|United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine that proposed a creation of one Arab state and one Jewish state passes with the Jewish leaders accepted and Arab states rejected the move. A major civil war between the Arab populations and Jewish populations began shortly after.
|On the last day of the British Mandate, David Ben-Gurion, executive head of the World Zionist Organization and chairman of the Jewish Agency for Israel, issued the Israeli Declaration of Independence which declared the establishment of a Jewish state on Mandatory Palestine in the land of Israel to be known as the State of Israel.
|1948 Arab–Israeli War : Hours after the expiration of the British Mandate of Palestine, Iraq, Egypt, Jordan and Syria invaded Israel.
|1949 Israeli legislative election : Elections were held to a constituent assembly. Ben-Gurion's center-left Mapai won a plurality of seats.
|1948 Arab–Israeli War: The first of the 1949 Armistice Agreements ending the war was signed between Israel and Egypt. An armistice line was agreed along the prewar border with the exception that Egypt remained in control of the Gaza Strip.
|The first government of Israel, in which Mapai, the Jewish United Religious Front, the liberal Progressive Party, the Sephardim and Oriental Communities and the Arab Democratic List of Nazareth ruled in coalition with Ben-Gurion as prime minister, was established.
|The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted United Nations General Assembly Resolution 273, according to which Israel was admitted to membership.
|Ben-Gurion proclaimed Jerusalem the capital of Israel.
|The Israeli legislature the Knesset passed the Law of Return, which granted all Jews the right to migrate to and settle in Israel and obtain citizenship.
|Suez Crisis : In a broadcast speech, Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser gave a codeword order for the occupation and nationalization of the Suez Canal and the closure of the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping.
|Suez Crisis: The Israeli air force began bombing Egyptian forces in the Sinai Peninsula.
|Eight agents of the Israeli internal security service Shin Bet and its foreign intelligence service Mossad abducted Adolf Eichmann, the Nazi officer primarily responsible for the actual implementation of the Holocaust, near his home in San Fernando, Buenos Aires.
|The martial law imposed on Israeli Arabs from the founding of the State of Israel was lifted completely.
|Six-Day War : The Israeli air force destroyed the Egyptian air force on the ground over a period of three hours.
|Six-Day War: Israel signed a ceasefire with its enemies Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq. It remained in control of the formerly Egyptian Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula, the Syrian Golan Heights and the Jordanian West Bank and East Jerusalem.
|Mayor Teddy Kollek of Jerusalem announced that the city had been fully reunified.
|A Boeing 727-200 serving as Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 from Tripoli to Cairo was shot down over the Sinai Peninsula by Israeli fighter aircraft, killing over one hundred passengers and crew.
|Lillehammer affair : A team of fifteen Mossad agents assassinated a Moroccan waiter in Lillehammer in a case of mistaken identity.
|Yom Kippur War : Egyptian and Syrian forces simultaneously attacked Israeli positions in the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights, respectively, on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur.
|Operation Nickel Grass : The United States began an airlift of tanks, artillery, ammunition and supplies to Israel.
|Yom Kippur War: Israel, Egypt and Syria agreed to a ceasefire. Israel remained in control of new territory north of the Golan Heights and west of the Suez Canal in the south.
|Operation Entebbe : Sayeret Matkal freed some hundred hostages held at Entebbe International Airport by hijackers belonging to the Palestinian nationalist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – External Operations and the far-left Revolutionary Cells.
|1977 Israeli Air Force Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion crash : An Israeli Air Force Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion crashed in the Jordan Valley, killing some fifty soldiers.
|Israel and Egypt signed the Camp David Accords at the White House. The framework agreement provided for the establishment of an autonomous authority in the West Bank and Gaza Strip and for withdrawal of Israeli forces from the Sinai Peninsula in exchange for the establishment of full diplomatic relations with Egypt.
|Egypt and Israel signed the Egypt–Israel peace treaty under the framework of the Camp David Accords at the White House.
|The old Israeli shekel replaced the Israeli pound as the currency of Israel.
|The Knesset passed the Jerusalem Law, asserting that Jerusalem was and would remain the undivided capital of Israel.
|Operation Opera : Israel carried out a surprise air strike on an Iraqi nuclear reactor some ten miles southwest of Baghdad.
|The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) forcibly evacuated Yamit per the terms of the Egypt–Israel peace treaty.
|Shlomo Argov, the Israeli ambassador to the United Kingdom, was shot in the head in London in an attempted assassination organized by Iraq's Iraqi Intelligence Service and carried out by the Palestinian nationalist Abu Nidal Organization.
|1982 Lebanon War : The IDF invaded southern Lebanon in response to repeated attacks by the Palestinian nationalist Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), whose militants were sheltered there, on Israeli civilians.
|Bus 300 affair : Four Palestinian nationalists hijacked a bus from Tel Aviv to Ashkelon and took its forty passengers hostage.
|Bus 300 affair: Sayeret Matkal forces stormed the bus. Two hijackers and one hostage were killed. The two surviving hijackers were taken to a nearby field and shot.
|Operation Moses : The first of some eight thousand Ethiopian Jews were covertly evacuated to Israel from refugee camps in Sudan.
|Operation Moses: Prime minister Shimon Peres confirmed the existence of the airlift. Sudan immediately halted flights.
|The Cabinet voted to cancel development of the IAI Lavi.
|First Intifada : Protests began in the Jabalia Camp in response to the death of four Palestinian civilians in a car crash with an IDF truck.
|Mount Carmel Forest Fire : A forest fire began on Mount Carmel which would burn over two square miles over the next three days.
|Gulf War : An Iraqi Scud missile landed in Ramat Gan, killing three and injuring nearly a hundred.
|Operation Solomon : An airlift began which would transport some fourteen thousand Ethiopian Jews from Ethiopia to Israel over a thirty-six-hour period.
|Madrid Conference of 1991 : A conference opened in Madrid with the goal of reviving the Israeli–Palestinian peace process.
|Israel deported some four hundred Palestinians to Lebanon.
|Israel and the PLO signed the Oslo I Accord in Washington, D.C. The accords provided for the withdrawal of some IDF forces from the West Bank and Gaza Strip and for the establishment of a self-governing authority for the Palestinians, the Palestinian National Authority.
|Israel and Jordan signed the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in the Arabah. The treaty clarified the borders of the two countries and their water rights; each pledged that neither would allow a third country to use its territory to stage an attack on the other.
|Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin : The radical nationalist Yigal Amir, an opponent of the Oslo Accords, shot and killed prime minister Yitzhak Rabin after a rally in Tel Aviv.
|1997 Israeli helicopter disaster : Two transport helicopters en route to southern Lebanon collided in midair above She'ar Yashuv, killing all on board.
|Maccabiah bridge collapse : A pedestrian bridge collapsed over the Yarkon River in Tel Aviv, killing four.
|Israel withdrew the last of its forces from southern Lebanon.
|October 2000 events : The first of a series of riots began in which thirteen Arabs and one Jew would be killed over nine days.
|2000 Hezbollah cross-border raid : The Lebanese Shia Islamist militant group and political party Hezbollah abducted three Israeli soldiers from the Israeli administered side of the Blue Line, the internationally recognized border.
|Assassination of Rehavam Ze'evi : Tourism minister Rehavam Ze'evi was shot at a Jerusalem hotel by Hamdi Quran of the Palestinian nationalist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. He died of his injuries that night in hospital.
|Construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier began.
|Some four hundred prisoners, the remains of sixty Lebanese militants and civilians, and maps showing the locations of Israeli mines in southern Lebanon, were transferred to Hezbollah in exchange for the bodies of the three soldiers abducted in 2000, as well as the abducted Israeli reservist Elhanan Tannenbaum.
|Israeli disengagement from Gaza : The last Israeli settlers and security personnel were withdrawn from the Gaza Strip.
|Prime minister Ariel Sharon suffered a severe hemorrhagic stroke and fell into a coma. The designated acting prime minister Ehud Olmert became acting prime minister.
|2006 Hezbollah cross-border raid : Hezbollah forces crossed into Israel and ambushed two IDF vehicles, killing three soldiers and capturing two others.
|2006 Lebanon War : Israeli forces began shelling Lebanese territory in response to the Hezbollah attack of earlier that morning.
|Operation Orchard : Israel carried out a surprise air strike on a suspected nuclear reactor in Syria's Deir ez-Zor Governorate.
|Gaza War : Israel began conducting a series of airstrikes on assets of the Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization Hamas in the Gaza Strip in response to ongoing rocket fire on the western Negev.
|Gaza War (2008–09): The war ended with a unilateral Israeli ceasefire.
|Gaza flotilla raid : The navy boarded a flotilla organized by the Free Gaza Movement and the Turkish Foundation for Human Rights and Freedoms and Humanitarian Relief, which was attempting to break an Israeli and Egyptian blockade of the Gaza Strip, in international waters. During the takeover, a violent confrontation erupted on board the MV Mavi Marmara in which nine activists were killed.
|Mount Carmel Forest Fire : A forest fire began on Mount Carmel which would kill forty and burn nearly twenty square miles over the next three days.
|2011 Israeli social justice protests : Filmmaker Daphni Leef set up a tent in Habima Square and invited others to join a protest over the absence of affordable housing.
|2011 attack on the Israeli Embassy in Egypt : A crowd of thousands of Egyptian protestors breached the Israeli embassy in Cairo.
|Gilad Shalit prisoner exchange : Hamas released the Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit to Egypt in exchange for one thousand Palestinian other Arab prisoners held in Israel, including some three hundred serving life sentences for planning and perpetrating terror attacks.
|Operation Pillar of Defense : The IDF began an eight-day anti-Hamas operation in the Gaza Strip, a response to ongoing rocket fire on the western Negev, with an airstrike on the senior officer Ahmed Jabari.
|2014 Israel–Gaza conflict : The IDF launched a series of airstrikes against Hamas targets in the Gaza Strip.
|United States recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel : U.S. President Donald Trump formally announces the United States recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.
|United States recognition of Israel's sovereignty over the Golan Heights : U.S. President Donald Trump signed a presidential proclamation to officially recognize Israel's sovereignty over the Golan Heights.
|2021 Meron stampede : The deadliest civil disaster in Israel's history.
|2021 Israel–Palestine crisis
The Gaza Strip, or simply Gaza, is a polity and the smaller of the two Palestinian territories. On the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, Gaza is bordered by Egypt on the southwest and Israel on the east and north.
This timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict lists events from 1948 to the present. The Israeli–Palestinian conflict emerged from intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine between Palestinian Jews and Arabs, often described as the background to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The conflict in its modern phase evolved since the declaration of the State of Israel on May 14, 1948 and consequent intervention of Arab armies on behalf of the Palestinian Arabs.
Sderot is a western Negev city and former development town in the Southern District of Israel. In 2021, it had a population of 30,553.
Palestinian political violence refers to actions carried out with the intent to achieve political objectives that can involve the use of force, some of which are considered acts of terror, by Palestinians; often in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Common objectives of political violence by Palestinian nationalists include self-determination in and sovereignty over Palestine, or the "liberation of Palestine" and recognition of a Palestinian state, either in place of both Israel and the Palestinian territories, or solely in the Palestinian territories. Some perpetrators of these acts support the dismantling of the State of Israel and its replacement with a Palestinian Arab state.. More limited goals include the release of Palestinian prisoners or the Palestinian right of return. Other motivations include personal grievances, trauma or revenge.
Ayoob Kara is an Israeli Druze politician. He has served as a member of the Knesset for Likud in four spells between 1999 and 2021, and as Minister of Communications.
Gilad Shalit is a former MIA soldier of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) who, on 25 June 2006, was captured by Palestinian militants in a cross-border raid via tunnels near the Israeli border. Hamas held him captive for over five years until his release on 18 October 2011 as part of a prisoner exchange deal.
The State of Israel and the Republic of Turkey formally established diplomatic relations in March 1949. Less than a year after the Israeli Declaration of Independence, Turkey recognized Israeli sovereignty, making it the world's first Muslim-majority country to do so. Both countries gave high priority to bilateral cooperation in the areas of diplomacy and military/strategic ties, while sharing concerns with respect to the regional instabilities in the Middle East. In recent decades, particularly under Turkey's Erdoğan administration, the two countries' relationship with each other has deteriorated considerably. However, diplomatic ties were reinstated after a successful normalization initiative in mid-2022.
This is the Timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict in 2007.
The Gaza–Israel conflict is a localized part of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The conflict originated with the Israeli withdrawal from Gaza in 2005. Following the withdrawal, Hamas won the 2006 Palestinian legislative election, and a civil war between Hamas and Fatah in 2007 culminated in Hamas gaining control over Gaza. In response to Hamas's takeover, Egypt and Israel imposed an extensive blockade of the Gaza Strip that devastated Gaza's economy. International rights groups have decried the blockade as a form of collective punishment, while Israel defended it as necessary to prevent weapons and dual-use goods from entering the territory. Since 2006, Hamas and Israel have fought five wars, the most recent in 2023.
Israeli casualties of war, in addition to those of Israel's nine major wars, include 9,745 soldiers and security forces personnel killed in "miscellaneous engagements and terrorist attacks", which includes security forces members killed during military operations, by fighting crime, natural disasters, diseases, traffic or labor accidents and disabled veterans whose disabilities contributed to their deaths. Between 1948 and 1997, 20,093 Israeli soldiers were killed in combat, 75,000 Israelis were wounded, and nearly 100,000 Israelis were considered disabled army veterans. On the other hand, in 2010 Yom Hazikaron, Israel honored the memory of 22,684 Israeli soldiers and pre-Israeli Palestinian Jews killed since 1860 in the line of duty for the independence, preservation and protection of the nation, and 3,971 civilian terror victims. The memorial roll, in addition to IDF members deceased, also include fallen members of the Shin Bet security service, the Mossad intelligence service, the Israel Police, the Border Police, the Israel Prisons Service, other Israeli security forces, the pre-state Jewish underground, and the Jewish Brigade and the Jewish Legion.
The Free Gaza Movement (FGM) is a coalition of human rights activists and pro-Palestinian groups formed to break Egypt and Israel's blockade of the Gaza Strip and publicise the situation of the Palestinians there. FGM has challenged the Israeli–Egyptian blockade by sailing humanitarian aid ships to Gaza. The group has more than 70 endorsers, including Desmond Tutu and Noam Chomsky.
A blockade has been imposed by Israel and Egypt on the movement of goods and people in and out of the Gaza Strip following Hamas's takeover in 2007. The blockade aimed to isolate Hamas and prevent the smuggling of weapons into Gaza. It has also led to significant humanitarian challenges, as it restricts the flow of essential goods, contributes to economic hardship, and limits the freedom of movement for Gaza's residents.
Since 2001, Palestinian militants have launched tens of thousands of rocket and mortar attacks on Israel from the Gaza Strip as part of the continuing Arab–Israeli conflict. The attacks, widely condemned for targeting civilians, have been described as terrorism by the United Nations, the European Union, and Israeli officials, and are defined as war crimes by human rights groups Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch. The international community considers indiscriminate attacks on civilian targets to be illegal under international law. Palestinian militants say rocket attacks are a response to Israel's block of Gaza, but the Palestinian Authority has condemned them and says rocket attacks undermine peace.
Reactions to the Gaza flotilla raid on 31 May 2010 ranged from fierce condemnation to strong support for Israel.
Events in the year 2010 in Israel.
Events in the year 2005 in Israel.
The Mount Carmel Forest Fire was a deadly forest fire that started on Mount Carmel in northern Israel, just south of Haifa. The fire began at about 11:00 local time on 2 December 2010, and spread quickly, consuming much of the Mediterranean forest covering the region. With a death toll of 44, it was the deadliest civil disaster in Israeli history until the 2021 Meron stampede. Those killed included 36 Israel Prison Service members, most of them new recruits, as well as three senior police officers, among them the chief of Haifa's police, and three firefighters, among them a 16-year-old volunteer. More than 17,000 people were evacuated, including several villages in the vicinity of the fire, and there was considerable property and environmental damage.
Events in the year 2011 in Israel.
Fewer Israeli civilians died in Palestinian attacks in 2006 than in any year since the Palestinian uprising began in 2000. Palestinian militants killed 23 Israelis and foreign visitors in 2006, down from a high of 289 in 2002 during the height of the uprising. Most significant, successful suicide bombings in Israel nearly came to a halt. Last year, only two Palestinian suicide bombers managed to sneak into Israel for attacks that killed 11 people and wounded 30 others. Israel has gone nearly nine months without a suicide bombing inside its borders, the longest period without such an attack since 2000[...] An Israeli military spokeswoman said one major factor in that success had been Israel's controversial separation barrier, a still-growing 250-mile (400 km) network of concrete walls, high-tech fencing and other obstacles that cuts through parts of the West Bank. 'The security fence was put up to stop terror, and that's what it's doing,' said Capt. Noa Meir, a spokeswoman for the Israel Defense Forces. [...] Opponents of the wall grudgingly acknowledge that it's been effective in stopping bombers, though they complain that its route should have followed the border between Israel and the Palestinian territories known as the Green Line. [...] IDF spokeswoman Meir said Israeli military operations that disrupted militants planning attacks from the West Bank also deserved credit for the drop in Israeli fatalities.