Timeline of Burmese history

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This is a timeline of Burmese or Myanmar history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Burma and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Burma. See also the list of Burmese leaders.


Millennia: 2nd BCE–1st BCE  · 1st–2nd  · 3rd
Centuries: 15th BCE  · 14th BCE  · 13th BCE  · 12th BCE  · 11th BCE  · 10th BCE  · 9th BCE  · 8th BCE  · 7th BCE  · 6th BCE  · 5th BCE  · 4th BCE  · 3rd BCE  · 2nd BCE  · 1st BCE

15th century BCE

1500s BCE Earliest evidence of copper and bronze works, rice growing, domesticating chickens and pigs in Irrawaddy valley

14th century BCE

13th century BCE

12th century BCE

10th century BCE

9th century BCE

8th century BCE

7th century BCE

6th century BCE

5th century BCE

500 BCE Iron-working settlements south of present-day Mandalay

4th century BCE

3rd century BCE

2nd century BCE

180 BCE Beikthano city fortified by Pyu people who had entered the Irrawaddy valley from north; beginning of Pyu city-states

1st century BCE

Centuries: 1st  · 2nd  · 3rd  · 4th  · 5th  · 6th  · 7th  · 8th  · 9th  · 10th  · 11th  · 12th  · 13th  · 14th  · 15th  · 16th  · 17th  · 18th  · 19th  · 20th

1st century

70Pyu city of Halin in existence

2nd century

200The Pyu convert to Buddhism (to 400)

3rd century

4th century

5th century

6th century

7th century

7th century Mon migrations to Lower Burma from Haribhunjaya and Dvaravati (present-day Thailand) (to 900)
64021 MarchThe Pyu of Sri Ksetra Kingdom launch the Burmese calendar with the start date of 22 March 638. [note 1]

8th century

9th century

832 Pyu city-states destroyed by Nanzhao raids
84923 December Pyinbya founds Pagan (Bagan)

10th century

c. 980Earliest evidence of Pagan walls
984Earliest evidence of Burmese alphabet (according to an 18th-century recast stone inscription) [1]

11th century

1004Pagan sends embassy to Song court at Bianjing
1035Earliest evidence of Burmese alphabet (at the Mahabodhi Temple, India) [2]
104411 August Anawrahta ascends to Pagan throne
1050sAnawrahta founds Pagan Kingdom including, Thaton, near Shan States, North Arakan, Malay Peninsula (to 1060)
1056Anawrahta converted to Theravada Buddhism by Shin Arahan
105717 MayPagan conquers Thaton Kingdom according to the Burmese chronicles
1071Anawrahta helps restart Theravada Buddhism in Ceylon
1082–84Rebellion in Lower Burma by Yamankan
108421 April Kyansittha becomes king
1090Kyansittha builds Ananda Temple

12th century

1102Earliest inscription of the word Mranma (Myanmar) (in Mon script) [3]
1106Burmese embassy to Song China
1113 Myazedi inscription, earliest evidence of a more settled Burmese alphabet
1118Pagan restores Letyaminnan to north Arakanese throne
1144 Alaungsithu builds Thatbyinnyu Temple
1170Affirmation of Burman leadership of Pagan: Burmese becomes the primary written language, replacing Mon and Pyu
1174 Narapatisithu founds the Royal Burmese Armed Forces, the first known standing army in Burmese history
1180 Ceylonese raids to Bassein (Pathein)
Schism develops in Burmese Buddhism; majority of monks shift to Mahavihara school
1190The word Mranma first appears in Burmese [3]
1200Dhamaavisala Dhammathat code of law compiled

13th century

1210Kyaukse weir built
121118 AugustSithu II dies and Htilominlo succeeds
1218Htilominlo builds Htilominlo Temple, the last of the great temples
123519 July Kyaswa becomes king of Pagan
12566 May Narathihapate placed on Pagan throne
1273First mention of Mian (for Mranma) in Chinese [3]
1277April The first Mongol invasion begins
127917 April Thawun Gyi and Thawun Nge found Toungoo (Taungoo) as a frontier outpost
128322 SeptemberSecond Mongol campaign begins
1285c. 11 January Wareru seizes governorship of Martaban (Mottama)
12863 MarchPagan and Mongol commands sign ceasefire agreement
JuneBurmese embassy led by Shin Ditha Pamauk leaves for Beijing
1287JanuaryThe Pagan Empire acknowledges suzerainty of the Mongol Empire
30 January Wareru declares independence and founds Kingdom of Ramanya
1 JulyKing Narathihapate is assassinated
128930 May Kyawswa becomes king of Pagan
1293Wareru receives recognition as a vassal of Sukhothai
1296Wareru and Tarabya decisively defeat a major Pagan invasion
129720 March Kyawswa receives recognition by the Mongol Emperor as a Mongol vassal [4]
17 DecemberKyawswa overthrown and Myinsaing Kingdom founded [4]
1298June/JulyRamanya receives recognition as a tributary of the Mongols [4]
12998 May Saw Hnit placed as Myinsaing's puppet king of Pagan

14th century

130115 January Last Mongol invasion begins
6 AprilMongol forces retreat from Myinsaing
13034 AprilMongols evacuate Tagaung, retreat to Yunnan [5]
1307c. 14 January Wareru is assassinated and Hkun Law succeeds the Martaban throne
131013 April Athinkhaya dies
131110 April Saw O becomes king of Martaban
13137 February Thihathu founds Pinya Kingdom
131515 May Sagaing secession begins
131626 March Saw Yun's completes fortification of capital Sagaing
1323by 28 September Saw Zein become king of Martaban
13275 February Tarabya I becomes king of Sagaing
1330Martaban defeats Sukhothai; throws off nominal allegiance to Sukhothai
13401 September Uzana I abdicates Pinya throne
134429 March Kyawswa I becomes undisputed ruler of Pinya
135012 December Kyawswa II becomes king of Pinya
135223 February Thihapate becomes king of Sagaing
1356Massive Shan raids into Upper Burma begin (to 1368)
135919 MarchKyawswa II dies and Narathu succeeds Pinya throne
1362 Binnya U raises the height of the Shwedagon Pagoda to 66 feet
1364c. February Byattaba seizes Martaban; Binnya U sets up camp at Donwun
April Maw forces sack Sagaing
MayMaw forces sack Pinya
September Thado Minbya takes over Pinya
136526 FebruaryThado Minbya founds Ava Kingdom
13675 September Swa Saw Ke becomes king of Ava
1369Byattaba drives Binnya U out to Pegu (Bago)
1370Shan state of Kale becomes tributary of Ava
1373North Arakan asks for a Burmese regent
1383by 28 OctoberPrincess Maha Dewi becomes regent of Hanthawaddy Pegu
13844 January Razadarit becomes king of Pegu
1385 Forty Years' War between Ava and Hanthawaddy Pegu begins
1389Razadarit consolidates all three Mon-speaking regions in Lower Burma
1400April Tarabya becomes king of Ava
25 November Minkhaung I becomes king of Ava

15th century

1406Arakan vassal to Ava or Hanthawaddy Pegu (To Ava: 1406–1407, 1412–1413; To Pegu 1407–1412; 1413–1422/(1430?) (to 1430)
Ava conquers Shan States of Mohnyin, Mogaung, Hsipaw
141513 March Minye Kyawswa killed in action
143016 November Min Saw Mon founds city of Mrauk-U [6]
1437Mrauk-U conquers Thandwe, unifying the entire Arakan coast for the first time
1459Mrauk-U conquers Chittagong
1446 Chinese invade Upper Burma, demanding surrender of a runaway Shan chief. His dead body was given up. Chinese records say events occurred in 1448–1449
1450 Binnya Kyan increases the height of the Shwedagon Pagoda to 302 feet
Rise of early Burmese vernacular literature
1480Multiple rebellions by its vassals against Ava's rule. Prome, Yamethin and Mohnyin break away (to 1490)
1482 Thado Minsaw successfully breaks away from Ava, founds Prome Kingdom
1485 Mingyi Nyo becomes ruler of Toungoo; stays loyal to Ava

16th century

15017 April Narapati II becomes king of Ava
1502Ava cedes Kyaukse to Toungoo to buy its loyalty, and cedes Shwebo District to Mohnyin
151016 OctoberToungoo declares independence from Ava
152713 March Confederation of Shan States conquers Ava, and installs Thohanbwa as vassal king
153024 November Tabinshwehti becomes king of Toungoo
1534c. November Toungoo–Hanthawaddy War (1534–41) begins
1538c. NovemberToungoo forces capture Pegu; Toungoo–Ava War (1538–45) begins
1539c. 31 MarchPegu made capital of Toungoo Kingdom
1541MayToungoo forces capture Martaban
154512 OctoberToungoo forces invades Arakan
154730 January Min Bin and Tabinshwehti agree to a truce
1547November First Burmese invasion of Siam begins
1549FebruaryBurmese and Siamese commands agree to a truce
155030 AprilTabinshwehti is assassinated
155111 January Bayinnaung takes Toungoo
155522 JanuaryBayinnaung captures Ava, and annexes Upper Burma
1557January–MarchBayinnaung annexes cis-Salween Shan States; abolishes animal sacrifice at Popa Hill and human sacrifice at Shan Hills
15582 AprilBayinnaung annexes Lan Na
1563AprilBayinnaung captures farther Shan States (Kengtung and Chinese Shan states)
156418 February Siam becomes Burmese vassal following the Burmese–Siamese War (1563–64)
15652 JanuaryBurmese forces capture Vientiane, capital of Lan Xang
156812 MayPegu learns of Siamese rebellion
15692 August Burmese–Siamese War (1568–69) restores Burmese rule in Siam
15746 DecemberBurmese forces capture Vientiane
158110 OctoberBayinnaung dies, and his eldest son Nanda succeeds
15843 MaySiam declares independence
1584–95 Repeated Burmese invasions fail to reconquer Siam. Siam regains Tenasserim coast up to Mawlamyaing
1597All regions of the kingdom now in revolt
1599Fall of First Toungoo Empire after Pegu sacked by the Arakanese and Toungoo (city) forces. Siam captures the entire Tenasserim coast to Martaban. Arakanese capture delta ports; appoint Portuguese mercenary de Brito governor of Syriam
Siamese invasions take Martaban (1600) and Lan Na (1602) (to 1605)
1600 Nyaungyan restores central rule to Upper Burma and Shan States (to 1606)

17th century

1603De Brito at Syriam declares independence from Arakan, repels Arakanese attacks (to 1605)
1609Portuguese mercenary Tibao captures Sandwip in East Bengal, northernmost Arakanese territory
161329 March Anaukpetlun captures Portuguese Syriam
1614DecemberAnaukpetlun recaptures the Tenasserim coast down to Tavoy, and all of Lan Na
1617 Min Khamaung recovers Sandwip. Beginning of Arakanese raids on Dakha
1619 English East India Company sends a representative to Pegu
1625Arakanese sack Dakha
1627English and Dutch East India companies open branches in Burma
1635Capital moved to Ava from Pegu
1638 Thalun's revenue inquest
1660Arakanese use coined currency
1658 Yongli Emperor of Ming China given refuge at Sagaing
1659–1661Renegade Ming forces occupy near Shan states and attack Ava
166215 JanuarySurrender of the Yongli Emperor to Qing forces
Siamese invasion of Lan Na and Tenasserim repelled (to 1664)
1666January Mogul Empire defeats Arakan and captures Chittagong Province
1677English and Dutch East India companies close branches in Burma
1683Dutch East India Company closes its branch in Arakan
1688 French East India Company opens a branch in Syriam

18th century

1709English open a branch in Syriam
1724 Meiteis raid Upper Burma (to 1749)
1727OctoberLan Na revolts; defeats Ava's attacks (1727–1728) and (1731–1732)
1735China annexes northern Shan States (present-day Kachin State, northern Shan State, and trans-Salween Shan State)
174029 NovemberThe Mon of Lower Burma break away, found Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom
Restored Hanthawaddy gradually pushes upcountry and captures Ava, ending the Tougnoo dynasty. The Siamese move up their control up the Tenasserim coast, taking Tavoy and then Martaban by 1751 (to March 1752)
175229 February Alaungpaya founds the Konbaung dynasty
23 MarchToungoo dynasty falls
20 April Konbaung-Hanthawaddy War begins
175326 AprilEnglish seize Negrais
17555 MayAlaungpaya captures Dagon, having conquered the Irrawaddy delta in April
175625 JulyAlaungpaya captures French-defended Syriam.
Alaungpaya sends a punitive expedition to Manipur
17576 MayPegu captured; end of Restored Hanthawaddy
1758NovemberKonbaung armies overrun Manipur, reassert Burmese authority in northern Shan States which had been annexed by the Chinese in the 1730s (to 1759)
17596 OctoberEnglish driven out at Negrais
1760May Burmese invasion of Siam falls short; regains the Tenasserim coast to Tavoy
1763JanuaryLanna rebellion put down
1765January–MarchBurmese armies capture Laotian states of Luang Prabang and Vientiane
March Hsinbyushin puts down a rebellion in Manipur
23 JulyCapital moved to Ava
23 AugustStart of Burmese–Siamese War (1765–67)
DecemberStart of Chinese invasions (1765–69) of Burma
17677 AprilBurmese armies sack Ayutthaya; end of Ayutthaya Kingdom
1768January–MarchBurmese armies withdrawn from Siam and redeployed to the Chinese front. Burmese defenses against the Chinese invasions held. Siam recaptures all of its territories (except Tenasserim) (to 1770)
176922 DecemberEnd of Sino-Burmese War
1770JanuaryRebellion in Manipur put down
177515 JanuaryLan Na (Chiang Mai) revolts, seeks and receives Siamese help.
AprilHsinbyushin raises the Shwedagon Pagoda to its present height
NovemberAnother Burmese invasion of Siam fails; Southern Lan Na becomes Siamese vassal (to 1776)
1778DecemberLaotian states (Luang Prabang and Vientiane) stop paying tribute, switch sides to Siam
178313 MayCapital moved to Amarapura
17852 JanuaryKonbaung armies capture Mrauk U, ending five centuries of Arakanese independence
Bodawpaya's invasion of Siam fails; Lan Na now firmly in Siamese camp (to 1786)
1787Defeats Siamese invasion of Tenasserim
1790Resumes diplomatic relationship with China
1792Defeats another Siamese invasion of Tenasserim
1797 Burmese invasion of Lan Na and Luang Prabang fails

19th century

1802Ceylonese monks seek ordination at Amarapura
1803 Siamese invasion of Kengtung fails (to 1804)
1809 Burmese invasion of Junkceylon (Phuket) fails (to 1812)
1814FebruaryBurma annexes Manipur
1817 Assam becomes tributary to Burma
1819Burmese put down rebellions in Assam and Manipur
18223 JuneBurmese put down another rebellion in Assam, and make it a Burmese province
18245 MarchStart of First Anglo-Burmese War
182624 FebruaryEnd of First Anglo-Burmese War; Burma cedes Arakan, Assam, Manipur and Tenasserim
1849Defeats Siamese invasion of Kengtung (to 1855)
1852 Second Anglo-Burmese War; British seize Lower Burma
1853British expand Rangoon (modern-day downtown Yangon)
185923 May Mindon moves capital to newly founded city of Mandalay
1866Head of reform movement, Crown Prince Kanaung is assassinated.
1871 Fifth Buddhist council convenes
1875MarchMindon cedes Karenni States to the British to avoid annexation
1878 Rangoon College founded
188529 November Third Anglo-Burmese War; end of Burmese monarchy
1886British "pacification" of Burma (to 1896)
1 JanuaryBurma is proclaimed a British colony. February: Burma is proclaimed a province of British India

20th century

1920 First Rangoon University strike [ citation needed ]
1921The Dyarchy reforms begin
1930Nationalist and leftist Dobama Asiayone founded
Peasants' rebellion (to 1932)
1936 Second Rangoon University strike [ citation needed ]
1937Burma is separated from British India and becomes a separate colony
1938 Third Rangoon University strike and nationwide strikes[ citation needed ]
1941 Burma Independence Army formed with Japanese help
1942 Japanese occupation of Burma. Thai occupation of Kengtung (to 1945)
1945Return of British rule
194712 February Panglong Agreement signed by Shan, Kachin, Chin and Burman leaders to gain independence from the British [7]
19 July Aung San and most of his cabinet assassinated. U Nu and his AFPFL party prepare to take power from the British by finishing Burma's first constitution [8]
24 September 1947 Constitution guarantees the Federated Shan States (later Shan and Kayah states), Kachin State, and Karen State, the right to secede after a period of ten years after independence
19484 JanuaryBurma gains independence from the United Kingdom with U Nu as Prime Minister [9]
1949 Insurgencies begin
1950 Burmese Army repels Nationalist Chinese invasion of Shan State (to 1961)
1958Caretaker government, led by army Chief of Staff General Ne Win, formed following a split in the ruling AFPFL party. (Caretaker Gov. rule until 1960)
1960U Nu's party faction wins decisive victory in 1960 elections, but his promotion of Buddhism as the state religion and his tolerance of separatism angers the military.
1961 U Thant becomes 3rd Secretary-General of the United Nations. Yangon hosts Second Southeast Asian Peninsular Games
19622 MarchDemocratically elected government of U Nu is overthrown by Ne Win, who abolishes the federal system and inaugurates "the Burmese Way to Socialism" – nationalising the economy, forming a single-party state with the BSPP as the sole political party, and banning independent newspapers
7 JulyGovernment guns down student protesters
1969Yangon hosts Fifth Southeast Asian Peninsular Games
1974Ne Win proclaims a new constitution. Chin Special Division becomes Chin State; Mon State is created out of Tenasserim Division. Government guns down student protesters following U Thant's death
1985Repeated demonetization of higher denomination kyat notes; Intensification of economic hardship on general populace (to 1987)
1988 Nationwide uprising brings down Ne Win's government. Military crushes protests, forms a ruling junta, promises elections
1989Junta changes the English spellings of geographic names, including the country's name (to Myanmar)
1990 National League for Democracy wins 82% of the seats in the general election. Junta refuses to hand over power, jails NLD leader Aung San Suu Kyi
Western nations and Japan begin economic sanctions against Myanmar
1991Aung San Suu Kyi is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
1997Myanmar is admitted to ASEAN

21st century

2003FebruaryA major bank run in private banking occurs
20057 May Bombings kill 11 people and injured 162
6 NovemberJunta moves the capital to Naypyidaw
2007Junta suppresses anti-government protests, killing scores of protesters, including Buddhist monks
2008 2008 Constitution reserves 25% of the seats in a bicameral Hluttaw to the military.
2 May Cyclone Nargis kills nearly 140,000 people and devastates the Irrawaddy delta
200927–30 August 1st Kokang incident occurs
201015 April Bombings kill 10 people and injured 178
21 OctoberGovernment changes country's flag and its official name is adopted as "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" [7]
NovemberThe 2010 general election gives the victory to military-backed USDP [7]
NovemberAung San Suu Kyi is released from house arrest [7]
201131 JanuaryThe first session of Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (parliament) convenes
24 MarchAn earthquake occurs in Shan State
30 March Thein Sein becomes President of Burma
Reforms in Burma begins
2012 Economic sanctions imposed by the European Union and the United States are eased
13 JanuaryProminent political prisoners including Min Ko Naing are released
1 April National League for Democracy wins in by-elections
2 MayAung San Suu Kyi becomes a lawmaker
June–October Rakhine State riots occurs
9 NovemberA train crash kills at least 27 people and injured 80
NovemberGovernment suppresses copper mine protests
2013March–OctoberTensions between Buddhist and Muslim flare into violent clashes in various cities
11–17 October Bombings kill 3 people and injured 10
11–22 December 27th Southeast Asian Games takes place
201414–20 January 7th ASEAN Para Games takes place
March–AprilA nationwide census takes place (Total population 51,486,253)
12–13 November Ninth East Asia Summit takes place
2015February–June 2nd Kokang incident occurs
MarchGovernment suppresses education law protests
July–September Severe flooding occur
10 NovemberThe 2015 general election gives the victory to NLD
22 NovemberA major landslide kills at least 116 people
20161 FebruaryThe second session of Pyithu Hluttaw (lower house) convenes
3 FebruaryThe second session of Amyotha Hluttaw (upper house) convenes
8 FebruaryThe second session of Assembly of the Union (Union Parliament) convenes
8 FebruaryThe second session of State and Region Hluttaws (regional parliaments) convenes
30 March Htin Kyaw becomes President of Myanmar
6 April Aung San Suu Kyi becomes State Counsellor of Myanmar (de facto prime minister)

See also


  1. (Maha Yazawin Vol. 1 2006: 143): The calendar was reset in year 640 CE. The starting epochal date of the Burmese calendar was 22 March 638. Year 2 of the Burmese calendar began on 21 March 640 per (Eade 1989: 39).

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  1. Aung-Thwin 2005: 198
  2. Aung-Thwin 2005: 172, 198
  3. 1 2 3 Hall 1960: 13
  4. 1 2 3 Than Tun 1959: 119–120
  5. Than Tun 1959: 122
  6. Myanma Swezon Kyan Vol. 9 1964: 425
  7. 1 2 3 4 World Statesmen – Myanmar (Burma)
  8. Burma Chronological History
  9. Burma profile