Timeline of Yemeni history

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This is a timeline of Yemeni history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Yemen and its predecessor states. To understand the context to these events, see History of Yemen. See also the List of rulers of Saba and Himyar, the list of Imams of Yemen and the list of presidents of Yemen.


24th century BC

23rd century BC

2300 BCAccording to some legends, the Arabs of the South unite under the leadership of Qahtan.

22nd century BC

21st century BC

2100 BCto the East of Qahtan A'ad settles Oman.

Centuries: 20th BC  · 19th BC  · 18th BC  · 17th BC  · 16th BC  · 15th BC  · 14th BC  · 13th BC  · 12th BC  · 11th BC  · 10th BC  · 9th BC  · 8th BC  · 7th BC  · 6th BC  · 5th BC  · 4th BC  · 3rd BC  · 2nd BC  · 1st BC

20th century BC

2000 BCwe don't know

19th century BC

18th century BC

17th century BC

16th century BC

1600 BCthe Qahtanis began to move to the Tihama coasts and the lowlands. A tradeline began to flourish along the red Sea Tihama coasts. During this period the Qahtanis began to settle East Africa in small trading colonies in neighboring East Africa.

15th century BC

14th century BC

13th century BC

12th century BC

11th century BC

10th century BC

9th century BC

900 BCthe Qahtanis began using a Variant of the Phoenician script, this will lead to the recording of the South Arabian history, from this point on.

8th century BC

800 BC Ma'een kingdom builds its capital in Baraqish.
the Sabeans build their capital on the edge of the mountains regions in Sirwah.
the Qatabanians rise as Sabean vassals in the region known now (AD 1990) as central and east Yemen.
Hadhramawt rise as Sabean vassal kingdom in the region known now (AD 1990) as eastern Yemen.
Awsan appears as independent nation in a region that will partly controlled by the Qatabanians.
719 BCThe temple of Marib is finished.
718 BCWar between Ma'een and the Sabeans.
716 BCAfter securing their borders with Ma'een the Sabeans moved their capital to the more accessible Marib.
715 BCThe Sabeans control the trade line and started recording diplomatic relationships with Assyria.
Sumhu`alay Yanuf and his son Yatha`amar Bayyin complete building the Marib Dam.

7th century BC

700 BCthe Qatabanians build Timna and rebel against the authority of Saba
675 BC Karib'il Watar defeats the rebellion and brings all of South Arabia under the Sabean rule.

6th century BC

600 BCSaba reaches its height of power and extends its hegemony across the Red sea establishing the Dm't Kingdom, this will be the nucleus of the Semitic culture of East Africa. Although it is not the first attempt of the Qahtanis to expand their rule to the African coast.

5th century BC

500 BCthe Dam of Marib breaks, Saba suffers from drought and rebellions.
the Ma'een kingdom allied with the Qatabanians and Hadramites rebel against Saba and gain their independence.
Ma'een establishes itself as the dominant kingdom in the North of Yemen extending its authority on the Northern Red Sea coasts and establishes military/trading colonies as far as Sinai.

4th century BC

370 BCQahtani tribes attack the Persians out of Musqat in the Eastern tip of the Arabian peninsula. From that time on Qahtanis replaced the Ancient Arabs 'Ad in Oman.

3rd century BC

2nd century BC

110 BC Himyar rises against Qataban.

1st century BC

100 BCMa'een declines gradually mainly due to the Roman control of the new sea trade routes.
Himyar starts expanding on the expense of the war-torn kingdom of Saba.
the remains of the Qhatani Jurhum tribe integrate their lineage under Nizar bin Ma'ad bin Adnan. From this point on they become the Adnanites.
Himyar allied itself with most of the Qahatni tribes of the lowlands and central highlands, annexing most of Saba and Southern Qataban, but Hadhramout repels them.
25 BCThe Romans encouraged by the civil war in South Arabia attempt to invade the region, but fail to survive the Arabian desert.
Sabean civil war, Himyar closes in on Saba and takes over most of the Sabean central highlands, red sea coasts territory. Saba breaks into two smaller states in the northern highlands and the desert region around the capital Marib.

Centuries: 1st  · 2nd  · 3rd  · 4th  · 5th  · 6th  · 7th  · 8th - 9th - 10th - 11th - 12th - 13th - 14th - 15th - 16th - 17th - 18th - 19th - 20th

1st century AD

100the kingdom of Aksum dominates East Africa and takesover the Sabean trading/military colonies.
the Kahlan tribes remain as the only tribes still loyal to the Sabean state at Marib, Kahlan tribes cornered to the area between Sana'a and Marib in the North of Yemen.

2nd century

200Jews settle Yemen.
Himyar captures most of Qataban.
Himyar annexes the Sabean state of Marib.
after the loss of Marib Saba, Kahlans septs Azd, Hamdan, Lakhm, Tai headed north except for the Hashid and Bakil tribes of Hamdan of Gurat Saba (Arabic : جرت) and Kindah in the Ramlah Desert.

3rd century

211Hadhramout allies itself with Qataban and Aksum attacking Himyar from the West and the east.
217while the Himyarites are fighting the Hadhramout/Qataban alliance in the east, the Aksumites capture the Himyarite capital Zafar.
221Hadhramout annexes Qataban and reaches its height of power.
222the Aksumites attempt to capture Hadhramout from the coast.
225during the reign of Sha`irum Awtar the Himyarites/Sabeans attack the Kingdom of Hadhramout from the East and capture their capital.
227the Gurat Sabeans and Himyar ally themselves against the Aksumites and retake Zafar. The Aksumites lose all their territories in South Arabia except for Tihama.
229Himyar recaptures Southern Tihama and controls the Major East African ports across from Muza'a. The Aksumites keep the Northern strip of Tihama.
The Kahlani Imran bin Azd branch expel the Persians from Oman.
231The Kahlani Jifna bin Azd branch settles Syria and Lakhm settles Mesopotamia.
280Himyar annexes the last Sabean enclave to its Kingdom.
300Himyar annexes Hadhramout expanding its borders to Dhofar Oman. to the East of their borders the Azd bin Imran (Azd Uman).

4th century

320Himyar annexes Socotra.
325From Al-Ramlah in Yemen, Shiekh of Kindah makes alliances with Adnani tribes of Najd.
390 Abu-Kariba Asad King of Himyar converts to Judaism and spreads the religion in the region.

5th century

425Himyar appoints Akil al-Murar ibn Amr as the first Hujr of its Northern Kindite colonies.
480 Amr al-Mansur ibn Hudjr rises his status to the king (vassal to Himyar) and bring the Northern part of the Arabian peninsula under Himyarite control.
500Christianity spreads in Najran/Tihama strip an area still allied to the Christian Aksum kingdom.
two Jews from Yathrib travel to Himyar in hopes of converting the people of Himyar into Judaism.

6th century

523King Dhu Nuwas converts to Judaism, he begins a campaign to convert the Himyarites into Judaism. Himyarites convert in big numbers except in Najran.
525At this time Himyar included all the Arabian Peninsula (via Kindah) and he was angered by the Najrani chief refusal to leave Christianity. Dhu Nawas took Najran and massacred 20,000 Najrani Christians.
The Christian Aksumites defeat Dhu Nawas and annex Himyar, starting a period of persecution against the Yemenite Jews. Third of the population of Yemenite Jews is exiled to Aksum.
570The Dam of Marib broke for the third and final time, triggering another migration of Yemeni tribes. The Qur'an itself refers to the collapse of the Marib Dam as a punishment on the Sabaeans for their ungratefulness to God.
Under Khosrau I, Persian forces expel the Aksumites with the help of Dhu Yazin. Persians later assassinate Dhu Yazin and try to establish their rule over all Yemen. But they fail and a number of autonomous kingdoms are established.

7th century

628The final Persian governor of Yemen, Badhan, converted to Islam, thus nominally submitting the entirety of Yemen to the new faith. [1]
632 Al-Aswad al-Ansi proclaims himself prophet and attracts a large following. He captures Sana'a, but is killed by the Persian al-Abna' shortly after. [2]
660Yemen is captured by the pro-Umayyad forces during the First Fitna. [3]
686 Kharijites under Najda ibn Amir attack Yemen during the Second Fitna. [4]
687Kharijite attacks continue, and Sana'a is forced to submit to Najda ibn Amir. [4]

8th century

740Imam Zayd ibn Ali, founder of Fiver Islam leads revolt in Kufa against Umayyads. The revolt is brutally crushed and Zayd killed. Some followers remained in Medina, when Imam Al-Hadi Yahya would bring Zaidiyyah to Sa'dah in the thirteenth century. [5]

9th century

893Imam al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya arrives in Yemen for the first time. [6]
897Establishment of the Zaydi imamate under al-Hadi at Saada.

10th century

11th century

12th century

1165Mass conversions from Judaism to Islam.
1173 Saladin annexes both the Hejaz and Yemen to his Ayyubid sultanate. [7]

13th century

1229The Rasuliden dynasty rules Yemen until 1453.

14th century

15th century

16th century

1514In response to Portuguese occupation of Kamaran island, a fleet from the Mamluk Sultanate attack and occupy the western and southern shores of the Timurid territory in Yemen. [8]
1517Ottomans capture Egypt and eliminate the Mamluk dynasty, then move on to Yemen, where they occupy Aden. Sana'a and the rest of Yemen remain under the Zaidi dynasty.
1538AugustAdmiral Sulayman Pasha captures Aden for Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in order to provide an Ottoman base for raids against Portuguese possessions on the western coast of the Indian subcontinent. [7] [9]
1540Residents of Aden rise up against the Ottomans, slaughter the garrison and invite Portuguese protection. The Portuguese stay until driven out by the Ottoman fleet under Admiral Peri Pasha. [9]
1595Imam Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad begins a rebellion against the Ottomans that would last for 30 years. [10]

17th century

1618British establish a "factory" (trading post) at Mocha on the Red Sea coast. [11]
1630The East India Company begins trade in coffee from Mocha, which held a monopoly on the plant at the time. [12]
1635The Ottomans are expelled from Yemen.

18th century

1728Fadl ibn Ali, chief of the Abdali tribe, declares Lahej an independent sultanate. [13]
1735Fadl ibn Ali's forces capture Aden and make it part of the Sultanate of Lahej. [13]
1785Americans begin to compete with British for the coffee trade from Mocha and by 1800 would become the main exporters of Yemen's most important article of foreign trade. [11]

19th century

1837Forces of Muhammad Ali, nominally the Egyptian vassal of the Ottoman Empire, occupy Ta'izz. The British warn him against further military movements. [14]
1839In response to an incident in which Arab traders plundered a British vessel, Captain Haines sailed against Aden and finding resistance bombards then occupies it for the East India Company's Bombay Presidency, requiring the Sultan of Lahej to accept British protection. Aden will serve as a major refueling port when the Suez Canal opens in 1869. [15]
1849Ottomans establish presence on the Red Sea coast, but the Ottoman force sent to take Sana'a is massacred after accepting invitation to enter the city. [14]
1850sBeginning of "the time of corruption," which would last till the end of the century. Zaidis lost major ports to other tribes; widespread food shortages; rivalry for the imamate; with Qāsimī rule collapsing, Turkish incursions into the highlands meet with support. [16]
1872Ottomans occupy the northern Yemen, taking Sana'a and spreading out southward around Ta'izz. [14] Imam Al-Mutawakkil al-Muhsin withdraws to the north. [16]

20th century

1904 Yahya Muhammad Hamid ed-Din, a descendant of Imam al-Qasim, becomes Imam and takes regnal name of al-Mutawakkil 'ala Allah ("He who relies on God"). [17]
1911JanuaryAt a time when the Ottoman Empire was trying to pacify Albania and was facing hostile moves by Italy against Libya, both Imam Yahya and Muhammad ibn Ali al-Idrisi, Emir of Asir rose up against the Turks, causing the Ottomans to send 30,000 troops from Libya to respond. [18] Forced to fight in the highlands, Yemen became "the graveyard of the Turks." [19]
1911OctoberTreaty of Daan: When war with Italy broke out, the Ottomans were forced to accept Zaidi autonomy in the highlands, while remaining in possession of the Red Sea coast. Turkey also provided financial aid to Imam Yahya. The agreement, which conceded most of the demands Imam Yahya had been making since 1908, stopped the almost continuous war between the Turks and Zaidis, even though the Ottoman parliament did not ratify it until 1913. [18]
1914MarchAnglo-Turkish Treaty on boundaries concludes work of Anglo-Turkish Boundary Commission which had begun in 1902. The powers agree on division between their respective realms in Yemen, a division that would more-or-less later serve as the boundary between North and South Yemen. [18]
1918Early DecemberTurkish governor of Yemen informs Imam Yahya that "Franks" (the European allies) had overrun Anatolia and that the Ottomans would be forced to withdraw from Yemen. Through a series of alliances, tribal wars and intrigues Yahya would consolidate Zaidi hold over to the south of Sa'da (including Sana'a) and would begin moving north against the Idrisi state of Asir. [20]
1926September 2Treaty of friendship between Italy and Imam Yahya. Italy becomes the first power to recognize Yahya as King of Yemen.
1934February 11Treaty of Sana'a between Yemen and Great Britain. The parties agree on a modus vivendi without resolving claims of sovereignty on either side.
1934May 20Treaty of Taif ends brief border war between Al-Saud and Yemen. Yemen cedes Asir to Saudi Arabia. [21]
1944JuneHaving fled the court of the Crown Prince in Ta'izz, Ahmad Muhammad Numan, Muhammad Mahmud al-Zabayri and Zayd al-Mawshki arrive in Aden where later that year they would form the Free Yemeni Party. [22]
1946March 4The United States recognizes the Kingdom of Yemen by letter from President Harry S. Truman to Imam Yahya, providing for the appointment of an American Special Diplomatic Mission to the Kingdom. [23]
1948February 17Yahya assassinated. He would be succeeded by his son Ahmad who rallied northern tribesmen to defeat nationalist opponents of feudal rule.
1955March 31-April 1Army officers who objected to Imam Ahmad's conservative rule, especially his harsh and summary punishments, laid siege to the Elurdhi fortress in Taiz while the Imam was inside. The Imam's brothers supported the coup attempt with Emir Abdullah bin Yahyi (purportedly reformist minded) accepting the army's call to replace Ahmad and Emir Abbas telegraphed support from Sana'a. Crown prince al-Badr rallied tribal support and Liberals (local and emigres in Cairo) among others supported him. The siege was raised and Ahmad restored on April 5, and both Abdullah and Abbas were executed. [24] [25]
1956April 21Jiddah Pact: Imam Ahmad, Premier Nasser (of Egypt) and King Saud (of Saudi Arabia) sign pace in Jeddah pledging the armies of all three would be placed under a single command to repel invasion. Nasser expressed his goal to "spoil British imperialist plans in the Middle East," but Egypt had no then pending dispute with Britain unlike Yemen (which disputed the border with Aden and the ownership of the Red Sea island of Kamana) and Saudi Arabia (which Britain accused of fomenting anti-British sentiment among tribes on their border). [26]
1958March 8As a concession to pro-Nasserite opinion and to avoid Egyptian aid to republican opposition, Yemen enters loose federation with the United Arab Republic to form the United Arab States. The signing ceremony took place in Damascus between Egypt's President Nasser and crown prince Muhammad al-Badr. [27]
1958AprilAden's colonial governor Sir William Luce warns British government against too hasty a withdrawal from Aden citing the possible hostile threat of Egypt and the Soviet Union aiding Yemen in securing domination over Aden. [28]
1959February 11Six West Aden protectorate states (but not the colony of Aden itself) join the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South and the Federation and Britain signed a "Treaty of Friendship and Protection," which detailed plans for British financial and military assistance. [29]
1959AprilImam Ahmad, gravely ill, departs for Italy for treatment. Muhammad al-Badr left in charge brings in Egyptian development experts and rattles sabers against Britain in Aden. [30]
1959August 13Sana'a Radio broadcasts a message from Imam Ahmad that he had returned and had discovered plots. He said that there would be some whose "heads would be cut off" and others' "heads and legs would be cut off." [31] Suspecting that Egypt was supporting republicans within Yemen, Ahmad sent many Egyptian civil, educational and military advisers back to Cairo and stopped the work of others. [32]
1962September 18Imam Ahmad dies. Crown prince al-Badr succeeds him, unopposed. [33]
1962September 26A federation of South Arabia formed, uniting Aden and the federated hinterlands under British auspices. [34]
1962September 26During the night, the building in which Imam al-Badr worked was surrounded and shelled by tanks. Egypt-backed Junior army officers seize power and proclaim the Yemen Arab Republic, sparking an eight-year civil war between royalists supported by Saudi Arabia and republicans backed by Egypt. [34] The British government, though divided, decides to support the royalists. [35]
1962NovemberEgypt announces the formation of the National Liberation Army to free southern Yemen from British rule. [35]
1963October 14Two nationalist groups, the Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen and the National Liberation Front begin an armed revolt (Aden Emergency) against British control in South Yemen. Fighting began in Radfan, but the British quickly subdued it. [36]
1965JuneBritain invokes emergency powers to deal with increasing unrest in Aden. [37]
1966FebruaryBritain announces (in a reversal) that Aden was not vital to its commercial security and would be abandoned (naval base and all) by 1968. [38]
1967November 30 Southern Yemen granted independence by Great Britain and begins a socialist experiment.
1986January 13Gangland-style assassination attempt by the guard of South Yemen President Ali Nasser Mohammed al-Hassani on his rivals in the 15-member Politboro, killing Vice President Ali Antar and sparking gun fight among Politboro members. Twelve days of street fighting in Aden followed until the hard-line Marxists gained control and President Hassani was driven into exile. [39]
1989February 16Heads of states of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan and Yemen announce form Baghdad the formation of the Arab Cooperation Council. [40]
1990May 22 Yemeni unification.
1990August 6Yemen abstains from UN Security Council resolutions authorizing military action against Iraq (as a result of its invasion of Kuwait). As a result, 800,000 Yemeni workers are expelled from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.
1994May 5Southern Yemen attempts to secede, sparking a civil war, which is brought to an end in July when northern forces capture Aden.
1999September 23 Ali Abdullah Saleh receives 99.3% of the vote in the first presidential election by universal suffrage.

21st century

2000October 12While refueling at a water-borne platform off the port of Aden, the USS Cole, a guided-missile destroyer, was attacked by terrorist affiliated with Al-Qaeda who detonated C-4 plastic explosives to tear a whole in the hull, killing 17 soldiers. The next day a bomb exploded at the British embassy in Sana'a but resulted in no casualties. [41]
2004June 18Police crack down on Zaidi demonstrators in capital and arrest large numbers. [42] Fearing the followers of Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi to be an imminent treat and using claims that they were setting up unlicensed religious centers and engaging in violent demonstrations against the US and Israel, President Selah sends troops to northern province of Sa'ada to locate Sheikh al-Houthi and his followers. [43] Resistance by Houti followers triggers Shia insurgency.
2004September 10Yemen interior and defense ministries announce that Sheikh al-Houthi had been killed with a number of his aides. [44] The government earlier claimed that it had "crushed" the Houthi rebellion, [43] but the conflict would continue until the present,"characterized by continuous fighting of varying intensity, punctuated by multiple ceasefires and mediation attempts" (the government counted six phases of "active fighting" by 2010). [45]
2009week of December 13US begins air strikes on suspected Al-Qaeda personnel and locations at the request of Yemen government. [46]
2011March 18Jumaa al-Karama (Friday of Dignity): Massacre of protestors against President Ali Abdullah Saleh leads to massive protests and the revolution that would end his 22-year rule. [47]
2011June 3After months of peaceful protest against his rule, President Saleh narrowly survives an attack by mortar against a mosque at the presidential compound. [48]
2011November 23In ceremony in Riyadh President Saleh and opposition politicians sign Gulf Cooperation Council brokered deal, whereby President Saleh would step down, transfer executive power to Vice President Hadi and a national unity cabinet would be formed. [49] [50]
2011December 7Pursuant to November 23 agreement, Yemen forms unity government under Prime Minister Mohammed Basindawa made up balanced between the ruling General People's Congress Party and the opposition. [51]
2012February 21In election to replace President Saleh, Vice President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi receives 99.6% of the vote in uncontested race. Despite lack of choice, turnout said to be higher than expected. [52]
2013March 18National Dialogue, a conference brokered by the Gulf Cooperation Council and endorsed by the United Nations and made up of over 500 delegates representing the wide array of the political spectrum [53] conveneded to draft a new constitution for Yemen, begins. President Hadi says that the unrest in the south is the most difficult issue before them. [54]
2014September 21 Houthi rebels sign peace agreement brokered by UN envoy Jamal Benomar designed to give the rebels participation in new government and result in withdrawal of rebel military forces from Sana'a. The next day the rebel forces consolidated their hold on the capital. [55]
2014October 9Hours after Houthis force Prime Minister-designate Ahmed Awad bin Mubarak to turn down post, suicide bomber detonates bomb near Tahir Square in Sana'a just as a Houthi rally was to begin. Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula takes credit for the attack. [56]
2015January 22Following resignation of cabinet and prime minister Khaled Bahah Yemen's president Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi resigns in the face of control of the capital by rebel Huthi forces, which had besieged his residence and abducted his chief of staff, Ahmed Awad bin Mubarak. [57]
2015February 6Houthi rebels announce that they have dissolved parliament and installed a five-member "presidential council" which will form a transitional government to govern for two years which would include a transitional national council of 551 members. The UN refused to acknowledge the "unilateral" announcement. [58]
2015March 25At a new conference by its ambassador to the US, Saudi Arabia announces the beginning of "Operation Storm of Resolve" involving airstrikes against Huthi rebel targets in and near Sana'a. Saudi Arabian television reported that the UAE, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Jordan, Morocco and Sudan were sending aircraft, and Egypt, Jordan, Sudan and Pakistan were willing to send ground troops. The US said it was providing "logistical and intelligence support". [59]

See also


  1. Smith 1987, p. 137.
  2. Landau-Tasseron 2010, pp. 415–416.
  3. Landau-Tasseron 2010, p. 417.
  4. 1 2 Landau-Tasseron 2010, p. 418.
  5. Hathaway 2006, p. 199.
  6. Douglas, J. Leigh (1987). The Free Yemeni Movement 1935-1962. The American University in Beirut. p. 2. (Hereafter "Douglas.")
  7. 1 2 Chatterji, Nishoy C. (1973). Muddle of the Middle East. Vol. 1. Abhinav Publications. p. 195. (Hereafter "Chatterji.")
  8. Hathaway 2006, p. 201.
  9. 1 2 Kour, Z.H. (1981). The History of Aden, 1839-72. Frank Cass & Co., Ltd. p. 2. ISBN   978-0714631011. (Hereafter "Kour.")
  10. Kour, pp. 2-3.
  11. 1 2 Kour, p. 4.
  12. Wilbur, Marguerite Eyer (1945). The East India Company and the British Empire in the Far East. Stanford University Press. p. 203.
  13. 1 2 Kour, p. 3.
  14. 1 2 3 Dresch, Paul (2000). History of Modern Yemen. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN   978-0521794824. (Hereafter "Dresch.")
  15. Farah, Caesar E. (2002). The Sultan's Yemen: 19th-Century Challenges to Ottoman Rule . I.B.Tauris. p.  120. ISBN   978-1860647673.
  16. 1 2 Dresch, p. 4
  17. Dresch, p. 5.
  18. 1 2 3 Childs, Timothy Winston (1990). Italo-Turkish Diplomacy and the War Over Libya: 1911-1912. E.J. Brill. pp. 25–26 & n. 128.
  19. Dresch, p. 6.
  20. Dresch, pp. 28–31.
  21. "Peace Parley in Arabia; Terms Submitted to Yemen at Taif, London Legation Says" . New York Times. May 21, 1934. p. 6.
  22. Douglas, pp. 18, 62–63, 73.
  23. "A Guide to the United States' History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, Since 1776: Yemen". Office of the Historian, U.S. State Department. n.d. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
  24. Dresch, p. 78.
  25. "Yemen Reported Restoring Ruler" . New York Times. April 6, 1955. p. 3. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
  26. Caruthers, Osgood (April 22, 1956). "Egypt Concludes Pace with Yemen and Saudi Arabia". New York Times. pp. 1, 3. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
  27. Caruthers, Osgood (March 9, 1958). "Nasser Is Pressing His Attack on Saud; Yemen Joins Union" . New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
  28. Smitson, Scott. "The Road to Good Intentions: British Nation-building in Aden" (PDF). Center for Complex Operations Case Study No. 10. p. 9. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  29. Smitson, pp. 10–11.
  30. Dresch, pp. 83–84.
  31. Dresch, p. 84.
  32. "Yemen Shelving Aides from Cairo" . New York Times. November 22, 1959. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
  33. Eagle, A. B. D. R. (August 14, 1996). "Obituary: Imam Muhammad al-Badr" . The Independent. Archived from the original on 2022-05-07. Retrieved May 3, 2015.
  34. 1 2 Dresch, p. 87.
  35. 1 2 Dresch, p. 91.
  36. Dresch, pp. 96–97.
  37. Dresch, pp. 100–101.
  38. Dresch, p. 102.
  39. Kifner, John (February 9, 1986). "Massacre with Tea: Southern Yemen at War". New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
  40. Ryan, Curtis R. (September 1998). "Jordan and the Rise and Fall of the Arab Cooperation Council". Middle East Journal. 52 (3): 386–401. JSTOR   4329219.
  41. "Attack on the USS Cole". al-bab. Archived from the original on June 16, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  42. Glosemeyer, Iris (Fall 2004). "Local Conflict, Global Spin: An Uprising in the Yemeni Highlands". Middle East Report. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
  43. 1 2 "Yemen army 'crushes' rebellion". BBC News. August 6, 2004. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
  44. "Yemeni forces kill rebel cleric". BBC News. October 9, 2004. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  45. Salmoni, Barak (July 20, 2010). "Yemen's Forever War: The Houthi Rebellion". The Washington Institute. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
  46. Shanker, Thom; Landler, Mark (December 18, 2009). "U.S. Aids Yemeni Raids on Al Qaeda, Officials Say". New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
  47. Finn, Tom (February 27, 2014). "Beyond the Walls of Yemen's Revolution". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  48. Worth, Robert F.; Kasinof, Laura (June 3, 2011). "Yemeni President Wounded in Palace Attack". New York Times. Retrieved May 3, 2015.
  49. Rashad, Marwa (November 23, 2011). "Yemen's Saleh signs deal to give up power". Reuters. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
  50. Stuster, J. Dana (November 24, 2011). "Dictator Pledges to Step Down, but Yemen's Crisis Is Not Over". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
  51. Almasmari, Hakim; Jamjoom, Mohammed (December 7, 2011). "Yemen national unity government named". CNN. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
  52. Kasinov, Laura (February 24, 2012). "Yemen Gets New Leader as Struggle Ends Calmly". New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  53. For a list of the parties represented, and their allocation of delegtes, seeAgence France-Presse (March 18, 2013). "Yemen National Dialogue Conference participants". The National. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
  54. "Yemen national dialogue conference begins". BBC News. March 18, 2013. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
  55. Salisbury, Peter; Kerr, Simeon (September 22, 2014). "Houthi rebels consolidate control of Yemen capital". Financial Times. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  56. Ghobari, Mohammad; El Gamal, Rania (October 10, 2014). "Al Qaeda claims responsibility for Sanaa suicide bombings". Reuters. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  57. Calamur, Krishnadev (January 22, 2015). "Yemen's President, Cabinet Resign Amid Political Chaos". NPR. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  58. "Yemen's Houthis form own government in Sanaa". Aljazeera. February 6, 2015. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
  59. "Saudi Arabia launches air strikes in Yemen". BBC News. March 26, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2015.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Yemen</span> Aspect of history

The history of Yemen describes the cultures, events, and peoples of what is one of the oldest centers of civilization in the Near East. Its relatively fertile land and adequate rainfall in a moister climate helped sustain a stable population, a feature recognized by the ancient Greek geographer Ptolemy, who described Yemen as Eudaimon Arabia meaning "fortunate Arabia" or "Happy Arabia". Yemenis had developed the South Arabian alphabet by the 12th to 8th centuries BC, which explains why most historians date all of the ancient Yemeni kingdoms to that era.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yemen</span> Country in West Asia

Yemen, officially the Republic of Yemen, is a country in West Asia. It is located in the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula, and borders Saudi Arabia to the north and Oman to the northeast. It shares maritime borders with Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia. Covering 555,000 square kilometres and having a coastline of approximately 2,000 kilometres, Yemen is the second-largest Arab sovereign state on the Arabian Peninsula. Sanaa is its constitutionally stated capital and largest city. The country's population is estimated to be 34.4 million as of 2023. Yemen is a member of the Arab League, the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ahmad Muhammad Numan</span> Yemeni politician (1909–1996)

Ahmad Muhammad Numan was an educator, propagandist and politician. He was one of the main progenitors of modern Yemeni nationalism. Numan was a founder of the Free Yemeni Movement, a propagandist in Cairo for the Yemeni Unionists, and served once as foreign minister and twice as prime minister of the Yemen Arab Republic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ahmad bin Yahya</span> King and Imam of Yemen from 1948 to 1962

Ahmad bin Yahya Hamidaddin was the penultimate king of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen, who reigned from 1948 to 1962. His full name and title was H.M. al-Nasir-li-Dinullah Ahmad bin al-Mutawakkil 'Alallah Yahya, Imam and Commander of the Faithful, and King of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of the Yemen.

ʿIkrima ibn Abī Jahl ʿAmr ibn Hishām was a leading opponent-turned companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a Muslim commander in the Ridda wars and the conquest of Syria. In the latter campaign, he was slain by Byzantine forces.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Saada</span> City in Yemen

Saada, a city and ancient capital in the northwest of Yemen, is the capital and largest city of the province of the same name, and the county seat of the county of the same name. The city is located in the mountains of Serat (Sarawat) at an altitude of about 1,800 meters and had an estimated population of 51,870 in 2004, when it was the tenth largest city in Yemen.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baraqish</span> Town in Al Jawf Governorate, Yemen

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Banu Abs</span> Arab Tribe

The Banu Abs are an ancient Bedouin tribe that originated in central Arabia. They form a branch of the powerful and numerous Ghatafan tribes. They still inhabit the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa but have spread to many other regions of the world, as well. Their descendants today include the large Al Qubaisat tribe located in United Arab Emirates, Bani Rasheed tribe located in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Yemen, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Sudan, Eritrea, and Jordan, and the Banu Rawaha located mostly in Oman and the UAE. They are known to be the second strongest tribe after The Prophet's Tribe. Parts of the Mahas tribe of the Butana region in Sudan are also linked by blood to the Banu Abs due to intermarriage between the Sudanese Rashaida tribe and the Mahas peoples. One of the earliest stories concerning this tribe was the famous classical love and war story of Antar and Abla.

Islam came to Yemen around 630 during Muhammad's lifetime and the rule of the Persian governor Badhan. Thereafter, Yemen was ruled as part of Arab-Islamic caliphates, and became a province in the Islamic empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya</span> 10th-century Arab religious leader; founder of the Zaydi Imamate in Yemen

Abūʾl-Ḥusayn Yaḥyā ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn al-Qāsim ibn Ibrāhīm al-Ḥasanī, better known by his honorific title of al-Hādī ilāʾl-Ḥaqq, was a religious and political leader in the Arabian Peninsula. He was the first Zaydi imam who ruled portions of Yemen from 897 to 911. He is also the ancestor of the Rassid Dynasty which ruled Yemen intermittently until the North Yemen Civil War in 1962.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Saudi Arabia–Yemen relations</span> Bilateral relations

Saudi Arabia and Yemen relations refers to the current and historical relationship between the neighbouring sovereign states of Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The two countries at one time did enjoy good relations and closely cooperated in military, economic and cultural issues. Now because of the ongoing Yemeni Civil War and the realignments of power in the Middle East with the emergence of al-Qaeda and the radicalization of some factions of Islam, Saudi Arabia has led a military intervention into Yemen.

The Free Yemeni Movement was a nationalist political movement active in the politics of North Yemen from the mid-1930s until the 1962 coup, which ushered in the Yemen Arab Republic and the eight-year North Yemen Civil War.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Aden, Yemen.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Sana'a, Yemen.

Abu'l-Qāsim al-Ḥasan ibn Faraj ibn Ḥawshab ibn Zādān al-Najjār al-Kūfī, better known simply as Ibn Ḥawshab, or by his honorific of Manṣūr al-Yaman, was a senior Isma'ili missionary from the environs of Kufa. In cooperation with Ali ibn al-Fadl al-Jayshani, he established the Isma'ili creed in Yemen and conquered much of that country in the 890s and 900s in the name of the Isma'ili imam, Abdallah al-Mahdi, who at the time was still in hiding. After al-Mahdi proclaimed himself publicly in Ifriqiya in 909 and established the Fatimid Caliphate, Ibn al-Fadl turned against him and forced Ibn Hawshab to a subordinate position. Ibn Hawshab's life is known from an autobiography he wrote, while later Isma'ili tradition ascribes two theological treatises to him.

ʿAlī ibn al-Faḍl al-Jayshānī was a senior Isma'ili missionary from Yemen. In cooperation with Ibn Hawshab, he established the Isma'ili creed in his home country and conquered much of it in the 890s and 900s in the name of the hidden Isma'ili imam, Abdallah al-Mahdi Billah. After the establishment of the Fatimid Caliphate in Ifriqiya in 909, and the public proclamation of al-Mahdi Billah as caliph, Ibn al-Fadl denounced al-Mahdi as false, and instead declared himself to be the awaited messiah. His erstwhile colleague, Ibn Hawshab, refused to follow him, so Ibn al-Fadl turned against him and forced him to capitulate. Ibn al-Fadl's dominion collapsed swiftly after his death in October 915. In January 917, his stronghold of Mudhaykhira was seized by the Yu'firids, his children captured, and his two sons executed.

Abu Yahya Abdallah ibn Yahya ibn Umar ibn al-Aswad ibn Abdallah ibn al-Harith ibn Mu'awiya ibn al-Harith al-Kindi, better known by his laqab of Talib al-Haqq, was the leader of an Ibadi revolt against the Umayyad Caliphate in southern Arabia during the Third Fitna.

Hammad al-Barbari was an Abbasid general and governor. His name “al-Barbari” refers to his Berber origin. Ya’qubi states that he was born in Tunis.

Isma'il ibn Yusuf ibn Ibrahim ibn Abdallah ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib was a Hasanid Alid who rose in revolt against the Abbasid Caliphate in the Hejaz in 865–866, during the Anarchy at Samarra.

Abu Hamza al-Mukhtar ibn Awf al-Azdi al-Salimi was an Ibadi Kharijite rebel leader who seized control of Mecca and Medina during the Ibadi revolt.