Timeline of Indian history

Last updated

This is a timeline of Indian history , comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in India and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of India. See also the list of governors-general of India, list of prime ministers of India and Years in India.


Timeline of Indian history.jpg

Pre-historic India

Pre-90th century BCE

4,000,000 – 100,000 BCE
Tools crafted by proto-humans that have been dated back two million years have been discovered in the northwestern subcontinent. [1] [2] The earliest archaeological site in the subcontinent is the palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley. [3] Soanian sites are found in the Sivalik region across what are now India, Pakistan, and Nepal. [4] [5] [6] Some of the Bhimbetka rock shelters were inhabited by Homo erectus more than 100,000 years ago. [7] [8]

Madrasian culture sites have been found in Attirampakkam (Attrambakkam=13° 13' 50", 79° 53' 20"), which is located near Chennai (formerly known as Madras), Tamil Nadu. [9] Thereafter, tools related to this culture have been found at various other locations in this region. Bifacial handaxes and cleavers are typical assemblages recovered of this culture. [10] Flake tools, microliths and other chopping tools have also been found. Most of these tools were composed of the metamorphic rock quartzite. [9] The stone tool artifacts in this assemblage have been identified as a part of the second inter-pluvial period in India. [11]

Evidence for presence of Hominins with Acheulean technology 150,000–100,000 BCE in Tamil Nadu. [12]

Technology similar to contemporary artifacts found used by Homo sapiens in Africa found in Jwalapuram around 74000 BCE.

Paleolithic industries in South India Tamil Nadu 30,000 BCE [13]

90th–50th century BCE

9,000 BCE
Early Neolithic culture with first confirmed semi-permanent settlements appeared 11000 years ago in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh, India. Some of the Stone Age rock paintings found among the Bhimbetka rock shelters are approximately 30,000 years old. [14]

The ancient history of the region includes some of Indian subcontinent's oldest settlements [15] and some of its major civilisations. [16] [17]

Bronze Age India

50th–40th century BCE

4000 BCEPhase of the Indus Valley Civilisation begins. The civilization used an early form of the Indus signs, now called Indus script.

Over the course of the next 1000–1500 years, inhabitants of the Civilization developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin) had elaborate urban planning, baked brick houses, efficient drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings. [18] The civilization depended significantly on trade, was the first civilization to use wheeled transport in the form of bullock carts, and also used boats. [19]

30th century BCE-20th century BCE

2800 BCEThe Indus Valley Civilization expands across the whole of modern-day Pakistan, much of northern India, and large parts of Afghanistan, with Harappa and Mohenjo-daro becoming large metropolises. [20]
2600 BCEEnd of the Early Indus Valley Civilization culture. Start of Mature Indus Valley Civilization culture

19th century BCE

1900 BCEEnd of Mature Indus Valley Civilization culture, late Indus Valley Civilization period starts

18th century BCE

1800 BCE Adichanallur urn-burial site in Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu. In 2004, a number of skeletons dating from around 3,800 years ago.

Iron Age India

17th century BCE

1700 BCE Brihadratha also known as Maharatha, was the initiator of the Brihadratha dynasty, the earliest ruling dynasty of Magadha.
Jarasandha was the son of Brihadratha and became the 2nd ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding his father
Sahadeva of Magadha became the 3rd ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Jarasandha
1661 BCESomadhi became the 4th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Sahadeva of Magadha
1603 BCESrutasravas became the 5th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Somadhi

16th century BCE

1539 BCEAyutayus became the 6th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Srutasravas
1503 BCE Niramitra became the 7th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Ayutayus

15th century BCE

1500 BCEEarly Vedic period (to 1000 BCE)
1463 BCESukshatra became the 8th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Niramitra
1405 BCEBrihatkarman became the 9th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Sukshatra

14th century BCE

1400 BCE Gopala Dynasty established by Gopa
1382 BCESenajit became the 10th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Brihatkarman
1332 BCESrutanjaya became the 11th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Senajit

13th century BCE

1300 BCE Cemetery H culture comes to an end
1300 BCEEnd of late Indus Valley Civilization period
1292 BCEVipra became the 12th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Srutanjaya
1280 BCE Pundravardhana Kingdom was established sometime before 1280 BCE.
1257 BCESuchi became the 13th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Vipra

12th century BCE

1200 BCE Rigveda Codified. Kuru Kingdom Established.
1199 BCEKshemya became the 14th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Suchi
1171 BCESubrata became the 15th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Kshemya
1107 BCEDharma became the 16th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Subrata

11th century BCE

1043 BCEDharma stepped down as the 16th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha.
1008 BCESusuma became the 17th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Dharma

10th century BCE

1000 BCEMiddle and Late Vedic period (to 500 BCE)
1000 – 300 BCEKanchi district, gold mine of Megalithic sites in Tamil Nadu, South India [21]
1000- 900 BCE Kingdom of Videha was established.
1000- 900 BCE Panchala Kingdom was established.
970 BCEDridhasena became the 18th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Susuma
912 BCESumati became the 19th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Dridhasena

9th century BCE

879 BCE Subala became the 20th ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Sumati
877 BCEBirth of Parsvanatha, 23rd Jain Tirthankara (traditional date)
857 BCESunita became the 21st ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Subala
841 BCE Gopala Dynasty was de-established.
817 BCESatyajit became the 22nd ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Sunita

8th century BCE

767 BCEViswajit became the 23rd ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Satyajit
732 BCERipunjaya became the 24th and the last ruler of the Barhadratha dynasty of Magadha succeeding Viswajit.

7th century BCE

700 BCEThe Upanishads, a sacred text of Hinduism, are written.
700 BCE Kingdom of Kosala was established. Kosala belonged to the Northern Black Polished Ware culture (c. 700–300 BCE).

6th century BCE

600 BCESixteen Maha Janapadas ("Great Realms" or "Great Kingdoms") emerge.
The Vedic period ends.
The Chola, Pandya, and Chera dynasties are established.
The capital of the Early Pandyan Kingdom was initially Korkai, all around 600 BCE, and was later moved to Koodal (now Madurai) during the reign of Nedunjeliyan I.
599 BCE Mahavira of the 24th Tirthankara is born. This turns out to become the most famous wave of Jainism.
563 BCE Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini into a leading royal family in the republic of the Shakyas, which is now part of Nepal.
543 BCEThe Vanga-based Prince Vijaya (c. 543 BCE) married a daughter of the Pandyan king of Madurai, to whom he was sending rich presents every year. Sinhala chronicle Mahavamsa or the Great Chronicle of Sri Lanka mentions this event [ citation needed ]
538 BCE Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian Achaemenid Empire reached up to northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent, today's Afghanistan, which later proved to be his nemesis and caused his death.
527 BCE Nirvana of Mahavira,
525 BCE Kuru Kingdom was de-established.

5th century BCE

483 BCEProposed Mahaparinirvana date of Gautama Buddha at Kushinagar.

4th century BCE

400 BCESiddhartha Gautama 'Buddha' of the Shakya polity in S. Nepal, founds Buddhism (older date: 563–483 BCE)
350 BCE Panini, labelled as the father of linguistics, a resident of Gandhara, describes the grammar and morphology of Sanskrit in the text Ashtadhyayi. Panini's standardized Sanskrit is known as Classical Sanskrit.
333 BCEPersian rule in the northwest ends after Darius 3 is defeated by Alexander the Great, who establishes the Macedonian Empire after inheriting the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
326 BCE Ambhi king of Takshila surrenders to Alexander.
Porus who ruled parts of the Punjab, fought Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes River.
321 BCE Maurya Empire is founded by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha after he defeats the Nanda dynasty and Macedonian Seleucid Empire. Mauryan capital city is Pataliputra (Modern Patna in Bihar)
305 BCE Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleucus Nicator of the Seleucid Empire.
304 BCESeleucus gives up his territories in the subcontinent (Afghanistan/Baluchistan) to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants. Seleucus offers his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta to seal their friendship.

Classical India

3rd century BCE

290 BCE-270 BCE Pingala, ancient Indian mathematician and poet writes the Chandaḥśāstra (also called the Pingala-sutras), which presents the first known description of a binary numeral system.
273 BCE Ashoka the Great regarded as the greatest ancient Indian emperor, grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, ascends as emperor of the Maurya Empire.
266 BCE Ashoka conquers and unifies most of Indian subcontinent, along with most of Afghanistan and Balochistan.
265 BCE Kalinga War takes place between Ashoka and the kingdom of Kalinga.
After conquering Kalinga, Ashoka reportedly regrets what he has done, leading him to adopt Buddhism, which then becomes the quasi-official state religion of the Mauryan Empire.
261 BCEConquest of Kalinga
260 BCEAshoka inscribes the Edicts of Ashoka, written down using Brahmi script. The Edicts describe his Buddhist religious views and his commitment to the welfare of his subjects.
232 BCEAshoka dies and is succeeded by Kunala.
230 BCE Simuka declares independence from Mauryan rule and establishes the Satavahana Empire.

2nd century BCE

200 BCE Kuninda Kingdom is established.
Tolkāppiyam describes the grammar and morphology of Tamil; it is the oldest existing Tamil grammar (dates vary between 200 BCE and 100 CE). (to 100 BC)
Indo-Greek Kingdom (also known as the Yavana Kingdom) is established. It was a Hellenistic-era Greek kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern-day Pakistan and northwestern India). The kingdom was founded when the Graeco-Bactrian king Demetrius (and later Eucratides) invaded India from Bactria in 200 BC. During its existence, the kingdom was ruled over by 30 successive kings, with Menander I being the most famous Indo-Greek king.
184 BCEThe Mauryan Empire, declines
165/155 BCE Menander I becomes the king of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. Menander is noted for having become a patron and convert to Greco-Buddhism and he is widely regarded as the greatest of the Indo-Greek kings.

1st century BCE

100 BCEBirth of Charaka, ancient Indian physician who writes the Charaka Samhita, an ancient text that describes theories on human body, etiology, symptomology and therapeutics for a wide range of diseases and is based on the Agnivesha Samhitā.
65 BCEThe Pandyan king sends ambassadors to the Greek and Roman lands.
58 BCEBeginning of Vikram Era
1 BCEFall of the Indo-Greek Kingdom.

1st century

35 Western Satraps formed.
52 St. Thomas arrives in Muziris (modern-day North Paravur and Kodungalloor in Kerala State, India).
68Establishment of the Kushan Empire by Kujula Kadphises.
79 Gautamiputra Satkarni becomes Satavahana emperor and starts Shalivahana era calendar after defeating Scythian king Maues.
100 or afterSugar was first produced from sugarcane plants in northern India sometime after the first century. [22]

2nd century

113 Vima Kadphises becomes the ruler of the Kushan Empire. He was the Kushan Emperor to first introduce gold coinage, in addition to the existing silver and copper coinage.
127 Kanishka ascends the throne of the Kushan Empire, succeeding Vima Kadphises. Under his reign, the Kushan Empire reached its zenith.

3rd century

240Sri-Gupta starts the Gupta Empire in Magadha, with its capital in Pataliputra
250The Vakataka Dynasty in the Deccan is formed by Vindyashakti. He rules until 275.
275The Pallava dynasty is established
Pravarasena ascends the throne of the Vakataka Dynasty, expanding his empire. He was the first Vakataka ruler who called himself a Samrat, or emperor. He is perhaps the only emperor in his dynasty.

4th century

320 Chandragupta I ascends the Gupta throne.
335 Samudragupta ascends the Gupta throne and expands the empire.
345 Kadamba Kingdom established by Mayurasharma, Banavasi as its capital and they were the first kingdom to use Kannada in administration.
380 Chandragupta II, Samudragupta's son becomes the Gupta Emperor.
390 Prabhavatigupta, a Gupta Princess who was the daughter of Chandragputa II, becomes the regent of the Vakataka dynasty after the death of her husband Rudrasena II, effectively ruling the Vakatakas until 410.

5th century

413 Kumaragupta I, Adopted the title of Mahendraditya.
455 Skandagupta, Faced Hunas effectively.
467Invasions by the Huna.

Pallavas became a major power during the reign of Mahendravarman I (571 – 630 CE)

475 Harishena takes over the Vakataka Dynasty. He was a great patron of Buddhist Art. The World Heritage monument Ajanta Caves is a surviving example of his works.
476Birth of Aryabhata, ancient Indian mathematician and astronomer who goes on to write the Aryabhatiya, a Sanskrit astronomical treatise and the Arya-siddhanta.

Medieval India

6th century

502 Mihirakula becomes the ruler of the Alchon Huns. He was the second and last of the Alchon Huns. He was considered to be an extremely violent and cruel ruler. He destroyed many Buddhist monasteries in his kingdom.
528Confederation of Indian rulers Yashodharman, Narasimhagupta and Adityavardhana defeat the Huna emperor Mihirakula in the Battle of Sondani.
528–540 Yashodharman conquers vast territories from the Hunas and Guptas after the Battle of Sondani, and establishes the short-lived Aulikara Empire
554Collapse of Gupta Empire after the death of Vishnugupta.
573 Varāhamihira, ancient Indian astrologer, astronomer, and polymath writes the Pañcasiddhāntikā, a treatise on mathematical astronomy which summarises five earlier astronomical treatises by five authors.

7th century

606 Harshavardhana crowned Monarch.
628Ancient Indian mathematician and astronomer Brahmagupta completes the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta, a text on mathematical astronomy explaining the role of zero, rules for manipulating both negative and positive numbers, a method for computing square roots, methods of solving linear and quadratic equations, and rules for summing series, Brahmagupta's identity, and Brahmagupta's theorem. Brahmagupta also first describes gravity as an attractive force, and uses the term "gurutvākarṣaṇam (गुरुत्वाकर्षणम्)]" in Sanskrit to describe it. [23]
637 Badami Chalukya power at its peak. Pulakeshin II pushes north up to the Narmada and defeats the invading Harshavardhana of Kanauj
665Ancient Indian mathematician and astronomer Brahmagupta completes the astronomical treatise Khandakhadyaka covering topics such as the longitudes of the planets, diurnal rotation, lunar and solar eclipses, risings and settings, the moon's crescent and conjunctions of the planets.

8th century

700According to the Qissa-i Sanjan, the immigrants Parsi are granted permission to stay by the local ruler Jadi Rana
711Arab commander of the Umayyad Caliphate, Muhammad ibn Qasim defeats Raja Dahir, king of Sindh Region in modern-day Pakistan
728 Narasimhavarman II of the Pallava dynasty constructs the Shore Temple of Mamallapuram
736 Delhi is re-established by Bilan Deo Tomar also known as Anangpal Tomar
738Confederacy of Indian kings consisting of Nagabhata I of Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty and Bappa Rawal, ruler of Mewar defeat Arab Umayyad Caliphate invasion attempts in the Battle of Rajasthan (738 CE)
739 Avanijanashraya Pulakeshin of the Chalukyas of Navasarika kingdom defeats an invasion attempt by the Arab Umayyad Caliphate. [24]
753Establishment of Rashtrakuta Kingdom of Manyakhet by Dantidurga by defeating Chalukyas of Badami
753 Saindhava naval fleet defeats Arab naval fleet sent by the Arab governor of Sindh.
776 Saindhava naval fleet under Agguka I defeats second Arab naval expedition. [25] [26]
788Birth of Adi Shankara

9th century

800 Vikramashila University is established by the Pala emperor Dharmapala in present day Bhagalpur district in Bihar, in early 9th century
814Nripatunga Amoghavarsha I becomes Rashtrakuta emperor. Kannada literature flourishes.
836 Gurjara-Pratihara (to 910)

10th century

935 Chandrapur University established in 935 CE by Srichandra, a ruler of the Chandra dynasty
985 Rajaraja Chola ascends to the throne of Chola empire. He expands the empire to Sri Lanka and to the north to include Kalinga kingdom
993 Rajaraja Chola invades Sri Lanka and captures the northern half of Sri Lanka.

11th century

1000Invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni Begins(1000-1025) CE
1003–1010The Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur is built by Raja Raja Chola I.
1014Rajaraja Chola adds the Lakshadweep and Maldives islands to the Chola empire. [27]
Rajendra Chola I became the king of Chola empire after his father Rajaraja Chola. During his reign, he extended the influences of the already vast Chola empire up to the banks of the river Ganges in the north and across the ocean. Rajendra's territories extended coastal Burma, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Maldives, conquered the kings of Srivijaya (Sumatra, Java and Malay Peninsula in South East Asia) and Pegu islands with his fleet of ships. He defeated Mahipala, the Pala king of Bengal and Bihar, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital called Gangaikonda Cholapuram. The Cholas became one of the most powerful dynasties in Asia during his reign. The Tamil Chola armies exacted tribute from Thailand and the Khmer kingdom of Cambodia. Rajendra Chola I was the first Indian king to take his armies overseas and make conquests of these territories, even though there is epigraphical evidence of Pallava presence in these very areas.
1014 Mahmud Ghazni defeats the Hindu Shahi king Trilochanapala and annexes Punjab.

He then attempts to invade Kashmir, but is defeated by Samgrāmarāja

101726 AprilSri Ramanujacharya is born at Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu.
1021Mahmud of Ghazni again attempts to invade Kashmir, but is defeated by Samgrāmarāja
102530 AprilLast invasion of Mahmud Ghazni, sacked and destroyed temple of Somnath
1027The Sun Temple of Modhera is completed by Bhima I of the Chaulukya dynasty
103030 April Alberuni arrives in India; death of Mahmud of Ghazni
103315 June Suhaldev, king of Shravasti defeats and kills Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud, nephew of Mahmud of Ghazni.
1035The Brihadisvara Temple, Gangaikonda Cholapuram is built by Rajendra Chola I.
1058 Soomra dynasty ends the Arab domination and establishes its own rule over Sindh.

12th century

1120 Kalyani Chalukyas power at its peak. Vikramaditya VI ushers in Vikrama Chalukya era.
1121 Ajayaraja II, of the Chahamanas of Shakambhari dynasty repulse Ghaznavid invasions.
1134Life of Basaveshwara, philosopher and social reformer. (to 1196)
114930 SeptemberBirth of the Great poet and writer of India Chand Baradai in Lahore
1150 Bhāskara II, mathematician and astronomer writes the Siddhānta Shiromani, consisting of three books Līlāvatī on arithmetic and measurement, Bijaganita on algebra and Gaṇitādhyāya and Golādhyāya on astronomy.
1157The Kalachuris of Kalyani under Bijjala II capture Kalyani
1175 Muhammad of Ghor invades India. [28]
1178Forces of the Chaulukya king Mularaja II led by his regent mother Naikidevi defeat Ghurid invaders led by Muhammad of Ghor who escapes back to Ghazni, in the Battle of Kasahrada.
1191 First Battle of Tarain between Mohammed Ghori and Prithviraj III. Ghori is defeated by Prithivi Raj Chauhan III.
1192 Second Battle of Tarain fought between Muhammed Ghori and Prithviraj Chauhan III. Prithviraj Chauhan III is defeated by Mohammed Ghori.
1193Muslim general Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji destroys the ancient university of Vikramashila
1194 Battle of Chandawar fought between Muhammad of Ghor and Jaichand of Kannauj. Ghori defeated Jayachandra and killed him.

13th century

120615 March Khokhars killed Muhammad Ghori during a raid on his camp on the Jhelum River. Marks the end of 14 Years of Ghurid rule over northern India (1192-1206).
120612 June Qutb ud-Din Aibak establishes slave Dynasty (Mamluk) later to be known as Delhi Sultanate. Marks Beginning Of Delhi Sultanate of 320 Years over India(1206-1526).
1206 Raja Prithu defeats Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji, destroying his army of 12,000 with only about 100 survivors. [29] [30]
1210 Qutb-ud-din Aibak died while playing polo.
1210 Shams ud-Din Iltutmish;was the third ruler of the  Delhi Sultanate, belonging to the  Mamluk dynasty (Slave Dynasty). He introduced IQTA (Tax, revenue) system. Died in 1236
1211–1215 Anangabhima Deva III of the Eastern Ganga dynasty in present-day Odisha defeats invasions by Ghiyāth ad-Dīn ʿIwaz Khalji the ruler of Bengal. [31]
1221 Genghis Khan invades Punjab in pursuit of the fleeing Khwarezm Shah Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu and defeats him in the Battle of the Indus.
1226 Raja Prithu repulses invading forces of Ghiyas ud din Balban the ninth sultan of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi, in present-day Assam [29] [30]
1229 Sandhya (ruler of Kamarupa) in present-day Assam drives Muslims out of his territory and captures territory till Karatoya river. Thereafter, to avenge previous defeats, he invades the western border of Gaur (Lakhnauti) and annexes regions across the Karatoya into his kingdom.
1236 Narasingha Deva I ruler of the Eastern Ganga dynasty in present-day Odisha launches attacks against the Turko-Afghan rulers of Mamluk dynasty in Bengal that had captured Bihar and Bengal and not only repulses their attacks, but pushes them as far back as Padma River in current-day Bangladesh. [31]
123610 NovemberRule of Razia Sultana – Daughter of Iltutmish.
1238October Sri Madhwacharya born in Pajaka near Udupi, Karnataka
124014 OctoberMurder of Razia Sultan by Turkish nobles.(Chalisa)
1243 Narasingha Deva I ruler of the Eastern Ganga dynasty defeats Tughral Tughan Khan of the Mamluk Sultanate of Delhi in the Battle of Katasin and annexes several districts of Bengal into his empire.
1246–66Rule of Nasiruddin Mahmud with support of Balban (Wazir and powerful member of Chalisa). Chalisa- a council of 40 members
1250The Konark Sun Temple is completed, built by Narasingha Deva I.
1257The Kamrup kingdom, led by its ruler Sandhya defeats and executes Malik Ikhtiyaruddin Yuzbak, the Mamluk Governor of Bengal. His domains are split between the Kamrup kingdom and Narasimhadeva I of the Eastern Ganga Empire.
1266–1286Rule of Balban; Chalisa wiped out.
1267The Mahanubhava philosophy established by Chakradhar Swami.
1275Birth of saint Dnyaneshwar.
1290Murder of Muiz ud din Qaiqabad by Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji, an army commander.
1290–96Jalal-ud-din Khilji. Founder of Khiliji Dynasty

14th century

1309Alauddin Khalji sends Malik Kafur to South. Malik Kafur Lays siege on the Kakatiya Capital Warangal and Extracts Tribute. The diamond Kohinoor was among the loot collected.
1310 Ala-ud-din Khilji's army under Malik Kafur occupies Devagiri ending the Seuna Yadava Kingdom
1311Malik Kafur attacks the Hoyasalas. In the aftermath of the destruction Hoyasalas abandon the old capital Halebidu. He later attacks Madurai. The attacks on Warangal, Halebidu and Madurai is accompanied by wide scale killing, destruction of temples and repatriation of wealth back to Delhi.
1323 Ulugh Khan (Muhammad bin Tughluq) defeats Prataparudra II ending the Kakatiya dynasty
1333Prithvi Chand II of the Hindu Katoch kingdom of Kangra defeats the army of Muhammad bin Tughluq who loses nearly all his 10,000 soldiers and is forced to retreat. [32]
1334 Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka with assistance from the Hoysala ruler Veera Ballala III leads a rebellion against the Tughluq rule of Delhi Sultanate, driving it out of Warangal region in present-day Telangana.
1336 Vijayanagara Empire established by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I.
Rana of Mewar Hammir Singh defeats and captures Tughlaq dynasty ruler Muhammad bin Tughluq in the Battle of Singoli.
1340Birth of great mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama who goes on to found the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics and write the Venvaroha, which describes the methods for the computation of the true positions of the Moon at intervals of about half an hour for various days in an anomalistic cycle.
1343 Veera Ballala III captured and killed in the Battle of Kannanur.
1347Governor Hasan Gangu revolts against Muhammad bin Tughluq founding the Bahmani Sultanate
1351 Samma Dynasty assumes rule over Sindh
1370 Bukka, the Vijayanagara ruler and his son Kumara Kamapna capture the entire Tamil speaking parts.
1398 Timur plunders Lahore

15th century

1401 Dilawar Khan establishes the Malwa Sultanate in present-day northern India
1407 Zafar Khan: governor of Gujarat, declares himself as Sultan Muzaffar Shah founding the Gujarat Sultanate/Muzaffarid dynasty
1414 Khizr Khan, deputized by Timur to be the governor of Multan takes over Delhi founding the Sayyid dynasty
1424 Deva Raya II succeeded his father Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya as monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire
1437 Rana Kumbha of Mewar and Rao Ranmal Rathore of Marwar defeat and take prisoner Mahmud Khalji, Sultan of the Malwa Sultanate in the Battle of Sarangpur
1442Rana Kumbha of Mewar defeats Mahmud Khalji in the Battle of Mandalgarh
1443 Abdur Razzaq visits India
1446Rana Kumbha of Mewar defeats Mahmud Khalji in the Battle of Banas
Mallikarjuna Raya succeeds his father Deva Raya II
144926 September Sankardev, founder of Ekasarana Dharma was born in Nagaon, Assam.
1450 Shri Guru Ravidas Ji was born in 1450 in Varanasi. He was an Indian mystic poet-sant of the Bhakti movement during the 15th to 16th century CE. Venerated as a guru in the region of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, the devotional songs of Ravidas have had a lasting impact upon the bhakti movement.
145119 April Bahlul Khan Lodhi ascends the throne of the Delhi sultanate starting the Lodhi dynasty
1456 Rana Kumbha of Mewar defeats the combined armies of Shams Khan (sultan of Nagaur) and Qutbuddin Ahmad Shah II (Sultan of Gujarat) in the Battle of Nagaur and captures Nagaur, Kasili, Khandela and Shakambhari. Nagaur Sultanate ceases to exist.
146915 April Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism is born
148314 FebruaryBirth of Babur in Andijan, Fergana Valley in Central Asia
1485 Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya drives out Praudha Raya ending the Sangama Dynasty
1486Advent of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, founder of Gaudiya Vaishnavism and leader of the world's first civil disobedience movement, in Navadwip, West Bengal
1490Ahmadnagar declares independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year thus breaking up the Bahmani Sultanate.
149230 March Satal Rathore of Marwar kills Afghan warlord Gudhla Khan in the Battle of Peepar, to rescue 140 girls abducted by the Afghans. He later succumbs to injuries sustained in the battle.
149820 May Vasco de Gama was the first portage's sailor first voyage from Europe to India and back (in 1499)

Colonial India

16th century

1503 Kingdom of Cochin is taken over by the Portuguese creating the first European settlement in India.
1508 3 FebruaryThe Christian-Islamic power struggle in Europe and the Middle East. Spills over into the Indian Ocean as Battle of Chaul during the Portuguese-Mamluk War
1509 3 February Battle of Diu marks the beginning of the dominance of the Europeans in the Asian naval theater.
1510 20 May Portuguese India (to 1961)
1518 Kingdom of Mewar under Rana Sanga defeats Lodi Empire under Ibrahim Lodhi in the Battle of Khatoli, gains control over north eastern Rajasthan.
1519 Kingdom of Mewar under Rana Sanga defeats the Malwa Sultanate and the Gujarat Sultanate in the Battle of Gagron, obtains control of Malwa.
1519 The Kingdom of Mewar under Rana Sanga again defeats Lodi Empire under Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Dholpur, extends control up to Agra.
1520 Vijayanagara Empire under Krishnadevaraya defeats the Sultanate of Bijapur in the Battle of Raichur.
Rana Sanga leads a coalition of Rajput armies to invade the Gujarat Sultanate, reinstates Raimal as the Rao of Idar. The Sultan of Gujarat is forced to flee to Muhammadabad.
Death of mystic poet-sant of the Bhakti movement Shri Guru Ravidas.
1522 Portuguese land on the Coromandel Coast
1523 Portuguese explorers established Santhome Church above the Tomb of Saint Thomas the Apostle in Chennai.
1526 21 AprilSultan Ibrahim Lodi, of the Delhi Sultanate, angers local nobles, who respond by inviting Babur, the Mughal ruler of Kabul, to invade Delhi and Agra. The local population, plus the possession of artillery, assists Babur in killing the Sultan (whose soldiers desert him) at the Battle of Panipat. Marks the Beginning of Mughal Empire for 231 Years Rule Over India (1526-1757) CE.
1527 17 MarchBabur bribes Mewar general Silhadi promising Silhadi a kingdom, if Silhadi betrays Mewar King Rana Sanga in Battle of Khanwa, thus leading to the annexation of Mewar.
1530 Astronomer-mathematician Jyeṣṭhadeva of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics writes the Yuktibhāṣā, a major treatise on mathematics and astronomy in Malayalam
28 March,27 JanuaryBabur [8] completes his Baburnama, reflecting on society, politics, economics, history, geography, nature, flora and fauna, which to this day is a standard textbook in 25 countries. Babur dies, and is succeeded by his son Humayun.
1532 Ahoms under king Suhungmung defeat Turbak Khan of the Bengal Sultanate in Battle of Hatbor.
1539 Battle of Chausa fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri in which Humayun defeated.
Guru Angad Dev becomes second guru of Sikhs.
1540 18 SeptemberBattle of Kannauj fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri and Humayun was completely defeated. Humayun lost the Mughal empire to Afghans (Suri Dynasty), and passed 12 years in exile.
9 MayBirth of Maharana Pratap Singh of Mewar ( son of Maharana Udai Singh II )
1542 15 OctoberBirth of Akbar at Umerkot.
1545 22 MayDeath of Sher Shah Suri and succeeded by Islam Shah Suri.
1552 26 March Guru Amar Das becomes third Guru of Sikhs.
1554 22 NovemberDeath of Islam Shah Suri.
1555 22 MayHumayun regained the throne of Delhi from the hands of weak successors of Sher Shah.
1556 27 JanuaryHumayun converts from Sunni Islam to Shia Islam, to gain the alliance of the Shah of Persia. Humayun dies, and is succeeded by his son Akbar.
7 OctoberHindu king Hemu defeats Mughal forces in the Battle of Tughlaqabad
5 NovemberHindu king Hemu establishes 'Hindu Raj' in North India and bestowed with title of "Vikramaditya"; Second Battle of Panipat fought between Hemu and Akbar's forces in which Hemu is killed.
1565 26 January Battle of Talikota results in the rout of Vijayanagara empire.
1568 Paradesi Synagogue, the first Jewish synagogue in India constructed by the Paradesi Jews.
1572 Akbar annexes Gujarat, also shifts the Mughal capital to Fatehpur Sikri where a new township and citadel containing buildings of a unique all-India character—inspired by the architecture of Bengal, Gujarat, Malwa, Kashmir as well as the Timurid world—is born.
1574 1 September Guru Ram Das becomes fourth Guru of Sikhs.
Akbar annexes Bengal.
1581 1 September Guru Arjan Dev becomes fifth Guru of Sikhs.
1582 Maharana Pratap defeats Mughal Forces of Akbar in Battle of Dewair in present-day Rajasthan [33]
1586 6 OctoberAkbar annexes Kashmir.
1589 Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) build in Amritsar by Guru Arjan
1600 31 December East India Company is formed in England. Gets exclusive trading rights with India.

17th century

1602 Dutch came to India at Pulicut (back to 1825).
1605 27 October Akbar dies, and is succeeded by his son Jahangir.
1606 25 May Guru Hargobind is selected to becomes the sixth guru of Sikhs by Guru Arjan
30 May Guru Arjan is tortured and killed under orders of Mughal Emperor Jahangir for refusing to convert to Islam.
1612 30 November British India (to 1947)
24 August East India Company enters into a trade agreement with the Mughal Emperor Jahangir
1616 Susenghphaa, ruler of the Ahom kingdom defeats Mughal forces in a land and naval battle at Bharali, Assam. [34]
1621 Sikhs army led by Guru Hargobind defeat Mughals in the Battle of Rohilla
1628 Jahangir announces "Chain of Justice" outside his palace that anyone can ring the bell and get a personal hearing with the emperor. Jahangir dies, and is succeeded by his son Shah Jahan.
1630 19 FebruaryBirth of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.
1634 14 AprilSikhs army led by Guru Hargobind defeat Mughals in the Battle of Amritsar (1634)
1634 15 OctoberSikhs army of 2000 led by Guru Hargobind defeat a Mughal army of 36000 in the Battle of Lahira and kill the Mughal generals Qumar Beg and Lala Beg.
1635 25 AprilSikhs army of 1800 led by Guru Hargobind defeat a Mughal army of 52000 in the Battle of Kartarpur
1644 8 March Guru Har Rai becomes seventh guru of Sikhs
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj takes oath of Independence at Raireshwar.
1640 Rani Karnavati of the Garhwal Kingdom repels and defeats invasion attempt by Mughal army of Shah Jahan. [35]
1658 Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, and Red Fort. Imperial treasuries drained by architectural and military overexpenditures. Shah Jahan put under house arrest, and is succeeded by his son Aurangzeb.
1659 19 February Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj's ill-equipped and small Maratha army defeat numerically much larger Adilshahi troops at the Battle of Pratapgarh marking the first victory of the Maratha Empire. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj personally kills Adilshahi commander Afzal Khan (general).
27 DecemberMarathas under Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj defeat the Adilshahi troops in the Battle of Kolhapur
166013 JulyMaratha army of 600 defeats a much larger army of the Bijapur Sultanate of 10,000 in the Battle of Pavan Khind, near the city of Kolhapur.
16613 FebruaryMarathas under Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj defeat Mughal Empire forces in the Battle of Umberkhind.
6 October Guru Har Krishan becomes eight guru of Sikhs.
1664 6–10 JanuaryMarathas under Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj defeat Mughal Empire forces in the Battle of Surat.
1665 13 FebruaryChhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj conducts a raid on the Portuguese colony in Basrur and gains a large booty which enables him to strengthen the base of his new kingdom by building a strong navy and forts.
20 March Guru Tegh Bahadur becomes ninth Guru of Sikhs.
166511 June Treaty of Purandar (1665) (or पुरंदर चा तह) was signed on 11 June 1665, between Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and the Rajput ruler Jai Singh I.
1669 28 November Jats defeats the Mughal Empire in the Battle of Tilpat takes control of Mathura
1670 4 FebruaryMarathas under Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj capture the fort of Sinhagad (then known as Kondhana) from the Mughals in the Battle of Sinhagad.
1671 Ahom kingdom defeats the Mughal Empire in the Battle of Saraighat, takes back control of Guwahati
Chhatrasal revolts against the Mughal Empire with an army of only 5 horsemen and 25 swordsmen. In ten years he conquers a large tract of land between Chitrakoot, Chhatarpur and Panna in the east and Gwalior in the west, and from Kalpi in the north to Sagar, Garhakota, Shahgarh and Damoh in the south.
1672 FebruaryMaratha forces under Prataprao Gujar defeat a Mughal army twice its size in the Battle of Salher
1672 Marathas defeat Mughal forces and capture Kolistan in present day Palghar district of Maharashtra and the southern regions of Gujarat, in Maratha occupation of Kolistan (1672)
6 JuneForces led by Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj defeat Aurangzeb's troops, and establishes Maratha Empire. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj is crowned Chhatrapati.
1675 6 MayMarathas defeat the Bijapur Sultanate and capture the Fortress of Ponda after the Siege of Ponda
24 November Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of Sikhs is tortured and executed in Delhi by the order of Aurangzeb for his support for the Kashmiri Hindus to practice their religion and for refusing to convert to Islam.

Guru Gobind Singh becomes tenth Guru of Sikhs.

1680 3 April Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj dies of fever at Raigad.
20 July Sambhaji becomes 2nd Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire
Kingdom of Venad defeats the Mughal Empire in the Battle of Manacaud
1681 Aurangzeb invades the Deccan
31 January – 2 FebruaryMaratha ruler Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj attacks and sacks the Mughal city Burhanpur
1682 August Ahom kingdom defeats the Mughal Empire in the Battle of Itakhuli, takes back control of Kamrup region
1684 Marathas under Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj repel a Mughal attempt to invade Konkan. Mughals are forced into a slow retreat and suffer great losses.
1687 16 DecemberMarathas under Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj defeat the Mughal Army in the Battle of Wai. However, Maratha General Hambirrao Mohite is killed.
1688 The Sikandara was plundered by Rajaram Jat. Even the skeleton of Akbar, was taken out and the bones were consumed to flames.
1689 11 MarchAfter being ambushed and captured by the Mughals, Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj is tortured and killed for refusing to convert to Islam.

Rajaram I becomes the third Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire.

1690 Maratha Empire defeats the Mughal Empire in the Battle of Athani
1691 Joint forces of Bhim Chand (Kahlur) of Bilaspur and Guru Gobind Singh defeat Mughal army in the Battle of Nadaun.
1692 DecemberMaratha General Santaji Ghorpade defeats Mughal General Alimardan Khan and captures him.

Mughal army under Zulfikhar Ali Khan defeated by Santaji and Dhanaji Jadhav and Zulfiquar Khan is forced to sue King Rajaram for peace

1693 21 NovemberMaratha General Santaji Ghorpade defeats Mughal General Himmat Khan.
1695 20 NovemberMaratha General Santaji Ghorpade defeats and kills Mughal General Kasim Khan.
1696 Sikhs under Guru Gobind Singh defeat Mughal forces in the Battle of Guler (1696)
20 November Danish India (to 1869)
1699 3 OctoberGuru Gobind Singh, the 10th Guru of Sikhs creates Khalsa, the saint-soldier at Anandpur Sahib, Punjab.

18th century

1700 Sikhs army of 1000 under Guru Gobind Singh defeats Mughal army numbering 10,000 in the Battle of Anandpur (1700)
3 March Rajaram I dies. The infant Shivaji II becomes the Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire, with his mother Tarabai as the regent. She continues the Maratha battles against the Mughal Empire, leading the Maratha army herself.
1702 Sikhs army under Guru Gobind Singh defeats Mughal army in the Battle of Nirmohgarh (1702)
1707 13 FebruaryBirth of Suraj Mal son of Badan Singh
3 MarchDeath of Aurangzeb the Mughal monarch. Marks the end of Mughal Territorial Expansion over India.
1708 7 October Guru Gobind Singh is assassinated by Mughals and the Guru Granth Sahib becomes the eternal Guru of the Sikhs.
1710 12 May Sikh army under Banda Singh Bahadur defeats Mughal Empire in the Battle of Chappar Chiri and establishes Sikh rule from Lahore to Delhi.
1717 Meitei king Pamheipa (Gharib Nawaz (Manipur)) introduces Hinduism as the state religion and changes the name of the kingdom to the Sanskrit Manipur.
1721 March – October Attingal Outbreak takes place
13–14 November Madras cyclone occurs
1720 Bajirao I appointed by Shahu Maharaj as Peshwa (prime minister) who would later expand the Maratha empire to cover most of present-day India.
1724 Meitei king Gharib Nawaz of the Ningthouja dynasty invades Burma.
1728 28 February Bajirao I defeats the combined forces of the Mughal Empire and the Nizam of Hyderabad in the Battle of Palkhed
1729 MarchMaratha Empire under Bajirao defeats Mughal Empire, in response for an appeal for help from Chhatrasal, ruler of Bundelkhand in the Battle of Bundelkhand
1731 Maratha Empire under Bajirao defeats Mughal Empire and Maratha rebel factions in the Battle of Dabhoi
1737 16 MarchMarathas under Bajirao I defeat the Mughal Empire in the Battle of Delhi (1737)
24 DecemberMarathas defeat a combined army of the Mughal Empire, Nizam of Hyderabad, Nawab of Awadh and Nawabs of Bhopal in the Battle of Bhopal
1739 17 February – 16 MayMarathas under Bajirao I defeat the Portuguese in the Battle of Vasai, Portuguese army and administration pulled out of Baçaim (Vasai).
March Nader Shah invades India from Iran. Nader Shah captures and sacks Delhi.
1740 May Raghoji I Bhonsle of the Maratha Empire defeats and kills Dost Ali Khan the Mughal Nawab of Arcot in the Battle of Damalcherry. [36]
1741 26 MarchMaratha army defeats the Nawab of Carnatic and captures Trichinopoly after the Siege of Trichinopoly (1741)
10 AugustKingdom of Travancore under Marthanda Varma defeats the Dutch Empire in the Battle of Colachel.
1753 10 MayJats under Suraj Mal defeat the Mughal Empire in the Capture of Delhi (1753)
15 August Treaty of Mavelikkara signed between the Kingdom of Travancore and the Dutch East India Company, effectively ending the political and commercial dominance of the Dutch on the Kerala coast and beginning of the end of Dutch influence in India.
1754 20 January – 18 May Bharatpur State defeat the Marathas in Battle of Kumher.
1756 Black Hole of Calcutta infamous incident where soldiers of East India Company were held hostage in tortuous conditions, later served as a precedent for the Battle of Plassey
1757 16 JanuaryMaratha Empire defeats Durrani Empire, in the Battle of Narela.
23 JuneBritish East India Company defeats the Nawab of Bengal in the Battle of Plassey, marking the End of Islamic period of 565 Years over India (1192-1757) & beginning of British conquests in India.
11 AugustMaratha Empire defeats Rohilla Afghans in the Battle of Delhi (1757), captures Delhi.
1757 12 FebruaryJats under Suraj Mal defeat Durrani Empire, in the Battle of Bharatpur.
1758 Third Carnatic War
28 April Maratha Empire led by Raghunathrao and Mahadaji Shinde defeats Durrani Empire in the Battle of Attock (1758), captures Attock.
8 MayMaratha Empire led by Raghunathrao, Malhar Rao Holkar and Tukoji Rao Holkar defeats Durrani Empire in the Battle of Peshawar (1758), captures Peshawar.
1759 French India (to 1954)
Maratha Empire supported by Sikh Sukerchakia Misl defeats Durrani Empire in the Battle of Lahore (1759)
1760 3 January Marathas comprehensively defeat the Nizam in the Battle of Udgir.

Maratha Empire reaches its zenith.

1760 Battle at Wandewash, British troops beat French
1761 JanuaryThe Marathas are routed in the Third Battle of Panipat on 14 January 1761, by the Afghans led by Ahmad Shah Durrani, also known as Ahmad Shah Abdali. The battle is considered one of the largest battles fought in the 18th century.
12 June Capture of Agra Fort by the Kingdom of Bharatpur led by king Suraj Mal, defeating the armies of the Mughal Empire and Rohilla Afghans
AugustThe Sukerchakia Misl of Dal Khalsa (Sikh Empire) defeats the Durrani Empire in the Battle of Sialkot (1761)
SeptemberThe Sikh Confederacy defeats the Durrani Empire in the Battle of Gujranwala (1761)
1762 5 February Vadda Ghalughara, the massacre of 30,000 Sikhs, mostly non-combatants, by the army of Ahmad Shah Durrani
May Sikh Misls under Jassa Singh Ahluwalia defeat the Durrani Empire in the Battle of Harnaulgarh
1763 10 AugustMaratha Empire led by Madhavrao I defeats the Nizam of Hyderabad in the Battle of Rakshasbhuvan and gains territory.
25 December Suraj Mal dies
1764 26 February Sikh Misls under Jassa Singh Ahluwalia defeat the Durrani Empire in the Battle of Sirhind (1764) and capture Sirhind
22 October Battle of Buxar (British victory against allied Mughal, Bengal and Oudh forces)
1765 FebruaryKingdom of Bharatpur led by king Jawahar Singh defeats the Mughal Empire in the Battle of Delhi (1764)
1767 First Anglo-Mysore War begins, in which Hyder Ali of Mysore defeats the armies of the British East India Company.
1770 Great Bengal famine of 1770, estimated to have caused the deaths of about 10 million people. [37] Warren Hastings's 1772 report estimated that a third of the population in the affected region starved to death. The famine is attributed to failed monsoon and exploitative policies of the East India Company. [38]
1771 Marathas led by Mahadaji Shinde defeat Rohilla Afghans and re-capture Delhi and parts of North India, thus reasserting their supremacy in north India. As revenge for the losses in the Battle of Panipat, the Maratha army devastated Rohilkhand by looting and plundering and also took the members of royal family as captives.
1772 22 May Ram Mohan Roy Born (to 1833)
1773 Narayanrao Peshwa is murdered by his uncle Raghunathrao's wife in front of Raghunathrao.
Regulating Act of 1773
Warren Hastings appointed as first Governor-General of Bengal
1774 Chief Justice of the Maratha Empire, Ram Shastri passes death sentence against the ruling Peshwa Raghunathrao for murdering his nephew.
1775 First Anglo-Maratha War
JuneAlliance of Shekhawat chieftains and Kingdom of Jaipur defeat the Mughal Empire supported by Baloch chieftains in the Battle of Mandan
1779 Maratha sardar Mahadji Shinde routs the East India Company army at the Battle of Wadgaon. War ends with the restoration of status quo as per Treaty of Salbai.
1780 Second Anglo-Mysore War begins.
1781 Maratha Empire defeats forces of the British East India Company in the Battle of Bhorghat.
1784 Second Anglo-Mysore War ends with the Treaty of Mangalore.
Captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam, suffer extreme hardships, torture, death, forcibly converted to Sunni Islam. Of the 60,000–80,000 Christians taken captive, only 15,000–20,000 survive.
1786 District collectors in Bengal were made responsible for settling the revenue and collecting it.
1787 Maratha Empire defeats Tipu Sultan, the king of Mysore in the Maratha–Mysore War, resulting in the Treaty of Gajendragad. Tipu Sultan is forced to pay 4.8 million rupees as a war cost to the Marathas, an annual tribute of 1.2 million rupees and return all the territory captured by his father Hyder Ali
1789 Third Anglo-Mysore War begins.
Tipu Sultan invades Malabar (present day Kerala), destroys a number of temples including the temples of Bhagamandala, Payyavoor, Ammakoottam Mahadevi temple and Thrikkadamba Sri.mahavishnu temple. Thousands are killed, women raped and populace forced to convert to Islam,
1790 The Marathas under Holkar and General de Boigne defeat the Rajputs of Jaipur and Mughals at the Battle of Patan, where 3000+ Rajput cavalry is killed and the entire Mughal unit vanquished. The defeat crushes Rajput hope of independence from external influence
May Kingdom of Travancore defeats the Kingdom of Mysore in the Battle of Nedumkotta
1792 Third Anglo-Mysore War ends.
1793 Birth of Rani Rashmoni, one of the pioneers of the Bengali Renaissance.
1795 11 MarchMaratha Empire defeats the Nizam of Hyderabad in the Battle of Kharda, Nizam ceded territory.
13 AugustDeath of Ahilyabai Holkar
1796 Ching-Thang Khomba moves Manipur's capital to Kangla
1798 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War begins.
1799 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War ends with the death of Tipu Sultan, the victory of the East India Company, and the restoration of their ally, the Wodeyar dynasty of Mysore.
Polygar War
1800 13 MarchDeath of Nana Fadnavis

19th century

1801 12 April Maharaja Ranjit Singh establishes Khalsa rule of Punjab from Lahore. Khalsa army liberates Kashmiri Pandits and invades Afghanistan via the Khyber Pass.
1802 The Kingdom of Kottayam defeats the British East India Company in the Battle of Panamarathukotta
1803 The Second Anglo-Maratha War begins.
1805 17 DecemberThe Second Anglo-Maratha War ends.
1806 10 July Vellore mutiny
1807 Hari Singh Nalwa, commander of the Sikh Khalsa Army of the Sikh Empire defeats the Durrani Empire in the Battle of Kasur, the first in a series of battles.
1809 25 AprilThe East India Company signs the first Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh.
1811 28 OctoberThe death of Yashwantrao Holkar
1813 13 July Dewan Mokham Chand and Hari Singh Nalwa, commanders of the Sikh Khalsa Army of the Sikh Empire defeat the Durrani Empire in the Battle of Attock and capture Attock
1814 15 January"Atmiya Sabha" is established by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
1817 3 June, 20 JanuaryThe Third Anglo-Maratha War begins.

Establishment of Hindu College (Presidency College, now Presidency University, Kolkata)

1818 March – 2 JuneSikh Empire defeats the Durrani Empire and captures Multan after the Siege of Multan (1818).
31 DecemberThe Third Anglo-Maratha War ends with the defeat of Bajirao II and the end of the Maratha Empire, leaving the East India Company with control of almost the whole of India.
1819 3 JulySikh Empire defeats the Durrani Empire in the Battle of Shopian and captures Srinagar and Kashmir. Islamic rule ends in Jammu and Kashmir.
1820 31 December Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar is born (to 1891).
1823 5 March Anglo-Burmese Wars (to 1826)
14 MarchSikh Empire defeats the Emirate of Afghanistan and the Nawab of Amb to annex Peshawar Valley, in the Battle of Nowshera
1824 12 February Dayananda Saraswati is born (to 1883)
1825 December 1825 – January 1826Battle between British East India Company and Bharatpur State
1826 4 January British rule in Burma (to 1947)
1827 11 April Jyotirao Phule is born (to 1890)
1828 19 November Rani of Jhansi Laxmi bai was born (to 1858)
1829 Kol uprising
1831 6 MaySikh Empire defeats the Mujahideen forces of Syed Ahmad Barelvi in the Battle of Balakot
1834 6 MaySikh Empire defeats the forces of Afghan Durrani Empire in the Battle of Peshawar (1834). Peshawar becomes part of the Sikh Empire.
1836 18 February Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa is born (to 1886)
1837 18 February Hari Singh Nalwa, commander of the Sikh Khalsa Army defeats the Durrani Empire in the Battle of Jamrud and extends the frontier of Sikh Empire to beyond the Indus River right up to the mouth of the Khyber Pass.
1839 First Anglo-Afghan War
1845 13 January First Anglo-Sikh Wars (to 1849)
4 November Vasudev Balwant Phadke is born (to 1883)
1848 22 NovemberThe Sikh Empire under Sher Singh Attariwalla defeats the British East India Company under Sir Hugh Gough in the Battle of Ramnagar
1849 13 JanuaryThe Sikh Empire under Sher Singh Attariwalla defeats the British East India Company under Sir Hugh Gough in the Battle of Chillianwala
1853 1 AprilThe Post Service started.
1853 16 AprilThe first railway is established between Bombay and Thane.
1855 31 May Rani Rashmoni builds the Dakshineswar Kali Temple.
30 June Santhal rebellion
1856 25 July Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856
23 July Bal Gangadhar Tilak is born (to 1920)
20 August Narayana Guru is born (to 1928)
1857 10 MayBritish victory in Indian Rebellion of 1857.

Last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was deposed by British East India Company and India transferred to British Crown. Marks the End of Mughal Dynasty rule over India.

18 July, 24 JanuaryIndia's first three universities, the University of Mumbai, the University of Madras and the University of Calcutta, are established.
1858 18 June 1858 Rani of Jhansi, Rani Lakshmibai died
1 November British Raj (to 1947) Marks the Beginning Of Direct British Rule Over India For 89 Years(1858-1947).
7 November Bipin Chandra Pal is born (to 1932)
1859 18 AprilDeath of Tatya Tope
1861 7 May Rabindranath Tagore is born.
1862 The high courts of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay are established. [39]
1863 12 January Swami Vivekanand is born (to 1902)
1865 28 January Lala Lajpat Rai is born (to 1928)
1867 31 March"Prarthana Samaj" established earlier known as "Atmiya Sabha", "Tahzeeb-ul-Akhlaq" was started
1869 2 October Mahatma Gandhi is born (to 30 January 1948)

Thakkar Bapa is born (to 1951)

187324 SeptemberJyotirao Phule establishes the Satyashodhak Samaj society.
1875 10 April"Arya Samaj" is established.
Aligarh Muslim University
Deccan Riots
187625 December Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born (1876–1948)
1877 1 JanuaryThe first Delhi Durbar
1883 30 OctoberMaharishi Dayanand Saraswati dies
1885 28 DecemberThe Indian National Congress is established [40]
1889 14 November Jawaharlal Nehru is born (to 1964).
1889 3 December Khudiram Bose is born (to 1908).
1891 14 April B. R. Ambedkar is born (to 1956).
1891 31 March Anglo-Manipur War.
1895 11 May jiddu krishnamurti is born (to 17 February 1986).
1897 23 January Subhas Chandra Bose is born (to 1945); the first fingerprint bureau of India is established in Calcutta.
11 June Ram Prasad Bismil is born
22 June Chapekar brothers assassinate W.C.Rand.

Modern India

20th century

1900 3 March Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi is born (to 1966).
1902 Anushilan Samiti, revolutionary association formed.
1903 11 December British expedition to Tibet
1 January Delhi Durbar Second Time.
1904 5 November University Act
1905 Bharat Sevak Samaj founded by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
16 October Partition of Bengal (1905)
1906 Jugantar formed.
30 December Muslim League formed in Dacca.
1907 Surat Split
1908 Alipore bomb case
1909 Morley-Minto Reforms
1911 Cancellation of Partition of Bengal
Delhi Durbar Third Time
1911 12 DecemberThe British government moves the capital from Calcutta to Delhi. [41]
1912 Delhi conspiracy case
1913 Gadar Party formed.
Rabindranath Tagore won Nobel Prize in Literature
1914 Hindu–German Conspiracy
1915 Ghadar conspiracy
Provisional Government of India formed in Kabul.
Mahatma Gandhi returns to India.
1916 Lucknow Pact
1917 Champaran Satyagraha
Justice Party (India) is founded
1918 Kheda Satyagraha and Ahmedabad Mill Strike
1919 13 April Jallianwala Bagh massacre
Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms
18 March Rowlatt Act is passed


1920 Non-cooperation movement Khilafat Movement
1922 5 February Chauri Chaura incident
1924 The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association is formed.
1925 9 August Kakori conspiracy
1925 27 September Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) is founded.
1927 20 March Mahad Satyagraha
November Simon Commission
1928 Bardoli Satyagraha
1929 Central Assembly bombed by Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt.
Purna Swaraj resolution.
1930 Salt Satyagraha, the civil disobedience movement, begins with the Dandi march.
The first Round Table Conferences (India)
1931 March Gandhi–Irwin Pact
23 March Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev martyred
September–DecemberThe second Round Table Conferences (India)
1932 24 September Poona Pact
16 August Communal Award
November–DecemberThe third Round Table Conferences (India)
1935 August Government of India Act 1935
1937 1937 Indian provincial elections
1939 The All India Forward Bloc established by Subhas Chandra Bose
1940 23 March Lahore Resolution
The All-India Jamhur Muslim League established by Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi to support a united India
8 August August offer 1940
1942 late March Cripps' mission
August1. Quit India Movement
2. The Indian National Army is established by Subhas Chandra Bose.
1943 Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind, the Provisional Government of Free India is formed by Netaji.
1944 Subhas Chandra Bose calls Mahatma Gandhi the Father of the Nation.
1945 18 August Subhas Chandra Bose death in plane crash at Taiwan.
Wavell Plan, Simla Conference
1946 February Royal Indian Navy mutiny
March Cabinet Mission
16 August Direct Action Day/Great Calcutta Killings
October–November Noakhali riots
1947 July Indian Independence Act 1947 by British Raj
14 August Partition of India and Pakistan becomes an independent state [40]
15 AugustIndian independence from the British Raj.
Hundreds of thousands die in widespread communal bloodshed after partition, continuing to 1948.
1948 30 January Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated by Nathuram Godse.
War with Pakistan over disputed territory of Kashmir.
Telangana and other princely states are integrated into Indian union.
1950 26 January India became a republic.
1951 Reconstruction of the Somnath temple under the orders of the Home Minister of India Vallabhbhai Patel. [42]
1951 Congress Party wins first general elections under leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru (to 1952).
1955 Nationalisation of the Indian insurance sector. Establishment of LIC.
1956 14 October B. R. Ambedkar converted to Buddhism along with 600,000 followers.
6 December B. R. Ambedkar died. States Reorganization Act in force from 1 November.
1962 War over disputed territory of Kashmir [40] with China.
India seizes Diu, Daman and Goa from Portuguese India.
1964 27 MayDeath of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.
1965 6–23 September Second war with Pakistan over Kashmir.
1966 11 JanuaryPrime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri's mysterious death in Tashkent.
24 JanuaryNehru's daughter Indira Gandhi becomes prime minister.
196919 JulyNationalisation of 14 major private Banks.
15 August Indian Space Research Organisation formed under Department of Space.
1971 3–16 December Third war with Pakistan, culminating in the creation of Bangladesh
Twenty-year treaty of friendship signed with Soviet Union.
1974 18 May India Smiling Buddha first nuclear device in underground test.
1975 15 May Sikkim becomes part of Indian Union after a referendum in the Sikkim Assembly.
25 June Indira Gandhi declares a state of emergency after being found guilty of electoral malpractice. Nearly 1,000 political opponents imprisoned and programme of compulsory birth control introduced. (to 1977)
1977 Indira Gandhi's Congress Party loses general elections. Janata Party comes to power. The Communist Party of India comes into power in West Bengal.
1979 The Janata Party splits. Chaudhary Charan Singh becomes Prime Minister.
1980 Indira Gandhi returns to power heading the Congress party splinter group, Congress (Indira).
1983 N. T. Rama Rao NTR's nine-month-old Telugu Desam assumes power in AP becoming a challenger post Loknayak Jayprakash Narayan against Indira Gandhi.
1983 India won World Cup for the first time, in one day international Cricket led by Kapil Dev.
1984 Troops storm Golden Temple, the Sikhs' most holy shrine, after Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale seeks refuge inside. There are a movement to flush out Sikh separatism and calls for secularism, called Operation Blue Star. "Anti-Sikh Riots 1984".
Indira Gandhi is assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards; her son, Rajiv, takes over.
Many Sikhs were killed due to the assassination of Indira Gandhi. see 1984 anti-Sikh riots.
1987 India deploys troops for peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka's ethnic conflict.
1988 SEBI was established by The Government of India on 12 April 1988 and given statutory powers in 1992 with SEBI Act 1992 being passed by the Indian Parliament.
1989 Falling public support leads to a Congress defeat in general election.
1989 The National Front (India), headed by V. P. Singh and led by Janata Dal, is formed and storms into power with outside support from BJP and CPI.
1990 Muslim separatist groups begin campaign of violence against Hindus in Kashmir resulting in Exodus of Kashmiri Hindus.
1991 Rajiv Gandhi is assassinated by a suicide bomber sympathetic to Sri Lanka's Tamil Tigers.
An economic reform programme or Economic liberalisation in India is begun by Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao.
1992 Babri Mosque in Ayodhya is demolished, triggering widespread Hindu-Muslim violence.
Over 200 people die in Cuttack in Odisha, after drinking illegally brewed liquor in the 1992 Odisha liquor deaths incident.
1995 JulyWest Bengal Chief Minister Jyoti Basu made the first call from Kolkata to inaugurate the cellular services in India.
1996 Congress suffers its worst electoral defeat ever as BJP emerges as the largest single party.
1996 AugustThe Amarnath Yatra tragedy in which at least 194 pilgrims are reported to have frozen to death in northern Kashmir after being stranded by violent rain and snow storms.
1998 BJP forms coalition government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
India and Pakistan carry out nuclear tests, leading to widespread international condemnation.
1999 February Vajpayee makes a historic bus trip to Pakistan to meet Premier Nawaz Sharif and to sign bilateral Lahore peace declaration.
MayIndian Army launches operations to evict Pakistani forces occupying Indian positions on the icy heights in Kargil district, known as the Kargil War.
OctoberThe Cyclone devastates eastern state of Odisha, leaving at least 10,000 dead.
2000 MarchUS President Bill Clinton makes a groundbreaking visit to improve ties.
MayIndia marks the birth of its billionth citizen.
NovemberThe states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Uttarakhand were created on 15 November 2000.

21st century

2001 26 JanuaryThe 7.7 Mw Gujarat earthquake shakes Western India with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme), leaving 13,805–20,023 dead and about 166,800 injured.
July Vajpayee meets Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf in the first summit between the two neighbours in more than two years. The meeting ends without a breakthrough or even a joint statement because of differences over Kashmir.
JulyVajpayee's BJP party declines his offer to resign over a number of political scandals and the apparent failure of his talks with Pakistani President Musharraf.
SeptemberUS lifts sanctions which it imposed against India and Pakistan after they staged nuclear tests in 1998. The move is seen as a reward for their support for the US-led anti-terror campaign.
OctoberIndia and Pakistan fire at each other's military posts in the heaviest firing along the dividing line of control in Kashmir for almost a year. [43]
OctoberPakistani forces shelled the village of Arnia about three km (two miles) from the border in the early hours of Monday 6 June, killing five and wounding at least two dozen civilians. [43]
DecemberSuicide squad attacks parliament in New Delhi, killing several police. The five gunmen die in the assault.
DecemberIndia imposes sanctions against Pakistan, to force it to take action against two Kashmir militant groups blamed for the suicide attack on parliament. Pakistan retaliates with similar sanctions, and bans the groups in January.
DecemberIndia, Pakistan mass troops on common border amid mounting fears of a looming war.
2002 War of words between Indian and Pakistani leaders intensifies. Actual war seems imminent.
JanuaryIndia successfully test-fires a nuclear-capable ballistic missile – the Agni – off its eastern coast.
FebruaryInter-religious bloodshed breaks out after 59 Hindu pilgrims returning from Ayodhya are killed in a train fire in Godhra, Gujarat. More than 1,000 people, die in subsequent riots. (Police and officials blamed the fire on a Muslim mob; a 2005 government investigation said it was an accident, though later court and SIT report held Muslim mob responsible.)
MayPakistan test-fires three medium-range surface-to-surface Ghauri missiles, which are capable of carrying nuclear warheads.
JuneUK, US urge their citizens to leave India and Pakistan, while maintaining diplomatic offensive to avert war.
JulyRetired scientist and architect of India's missile programme A. P. J. Abdul Kalam is elected president.
2003 AugustAt least 50 people are killed in two simultaneous bomb blasts in Bombay.
NovemberIndia matches Pakistan's declaration of a Kashmir ceasefire.
DecemberIndia, Pakistan agree to resume direct air links and to allow overflights.
2004 JanuaryGroundbreaking meeting is held between government and moderate Kashmir separatists.
MaySurprise victory for Congress Party in general elections. Manmohan Singh is sworn in as prime minister.
SeptemberIndia, along with Brazil, Germany and Japan, launches an application for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.
NovemberIndia begins to withdraw some of its troops from Kashmir.
DecemberThousands are killed when tsunami, caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake off the Indonesian coast, devastate coastal communities in the south and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
2005 JulyMore than 1,000 people are killed in floods and landslides caused by monsoon rains in Mumbai (Bombay) and Maharashtra region.
8 OctoberThe 7.6 Mw Kashmir earthquake strikes with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe), leaving 86,000–87,351 people dead, 69,000–75,266 injured, and 2.8 million homeless.
2006 FebruaryIndia's largest-ever rural jobs scheme is launched, aimed at lifting around 60 million families out of poverty.
MarchUS and India sign a nuclear agreement during a visit by US President George W. Bush. The US gives India access to civilian nuclear technology while India agrees to greater scrutiny for its nuclear programme.
2007 FebruaryIndia and Pakistan sign an agreement aimed at reducing the risk of accidental nuclear war.
18 February68 passengers, most of them Pakistanis, are killed by bomb blasts and a blaze on a train travelling from New Delhi to the Pakistani city of Lahore.
MarchMaoist rebels in Chhattisgarh state kill more than 50 policemen in a dawn attack.
AprilIndia's first commercial space rocket is launched, carrying an Indian satellite.
MayGovernment announces its strongest economic growth figures for 20 years – 9.4% in the year to March.
MayAt least nine people are killed in a bomb explosion at the main mosque in Hyderabad. Several others are killed in subsequent rioting.
JulyIndia says the number of its people with HIV or AIDS is about half of earlier official tallies. Health ministry figures put the total at between 2 million and 3.1 million cases, compared with previous estimates of more than 5 million.
25 July Pratibha Patil becomes first woman to be elected president of India
2008 JulySeries of explosions kills 49 in Ahmedabad, in Gujarat state. The little-known terrorist group Indian Mujahideen claims responsibility.
OctoberFollowing approval by the US Congress, President George W. Bush signs into law a nuclear deal with India, which ends a three-decade ban on US nuclear trade with Delhi.
OctoberIndia successfully launches its first mission to the moon, the uncrewed lunar probe Chandrayaan-1.
NovemberThe 2008 Mumbai attacks (often called the 26/11 attacks) kill 174 people, including 9 of the 10 terrorists from Lashkar-e-Taiba, an Islamic terrorist organisation based in Pakistan. India decides not to attack Pakistan in retaliation.
DecemberIndia announces "pause" in peace process with Pakistan. Indian cricket team cancels planned tour of Pakistan.
2009 FebruaryIndia and Russia sign deals worth $700 million, according to which Moscow will supply Uranium to Delhi.
MayResounding general election victory gives governing Congress-led alliance of PM Manmohan Singh an enhanced position in parliament, only 11 seats short of an absolute majority.
JulyDelhi court decriminalizes gay sex
2010 13 February 16 people are killed in a bomb explosion at German Bakery in the city of Pune, Maharashtra.
2011 2 April India wins cricket world cup after 28 years under the captaincy of Mahendra Singh Dhoni.
13 May After 34 years of Left Front Government, Trinamool Congress and Congress alliance come to power in West Bengal.
2012 25 July Pranab Mukherjee, the former Finance Minister is elected as the 13th president of India.
2013 12 February Indian helicopter bribery scandal comes to light.
21 February Terror attacks in Hyderabad in Dilsukhnagar area.
5 November Mars Orbiter Mission, is successfully launched into Mars orbit by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). [44] [45] [46]
2014 16 May Narendra Modi elected as prime minister of India, Congress was routed in the general elections.
2 June Telangana, The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014.
2016 2–5 JanuaryTerror Attacks on Pathankot Air Base. [47]
27 JuneIndia becomes a member of Missile Technology Control Regime.
27 SeptemberIndia launches its first space laboratory Astrosat in its biggest project since its Mars orbiter mission in 2014.
23 SeptemberIndia signs a billion-dollar defence deal with France to buy 36 Rafale fighter jets.
8 NovemberIn a surprise announcement, the government withdraws high denomination notes from circulation causing chaotic scenes at banks across the country as customers try to exchange old notes.
2017 30 JuneThe Goods and Services Tax (GST) launched, the biggest tax reform in history of India.
2019 14 FebruaryA convoy of vehicles carrying Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) personnel on the Jammu–Srinagar National Highway was attacked by a vehicle-borne suicide bomber in the Pulwama district, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
26 FebruaryThe 2019 Balakot airstrike was conducted by India, when Indian warplanes crossed the de facto border in the disputed region of Kashmir, and dropped bombs in the vicinity of the town of Balakot in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan.
27 FebruaryThe 2019 Balakot strike from Indian side was given a reply named "Swift Retort". After a dog fight between Pakistani and Indian Fighter Pilots. Indian Wing Commander Abhinandan Varthaman was captured by the Pakistani side. However acting to the pressure of various global leaders and bound by the Vienna Convention. Pakistan was Forced to release the Indian Pilot with all due respect.
22 MayNarendra Modi gets re-elected as the Prime Minister of India.
5 AugustThe state of Jammu and Kashmir divided into two separate union territories known as Jammu Kashmir and Ladakh by scrapping of Article 370 of the Constitution of India.
11 DecemberThe Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 was passed by the Parliament of India on 11 December 2019. It amended the Citizenship Act of 1955 by providing a path to Indian citizenship for members of Hindu, Sikh, Buddhiist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian religious minorities, who had fled persecution from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan before December 2014.
2020 30 JanuaryThe first COVID-19 case of the country was reported in Kerala's Thrissur district.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mehrgarh</span> Neolithic archaeological site in Balochistan, Pakistan

Mehrgarh is a Neolithic archaeological site situated on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan in Pakistan. It is located near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus River and between the modern-day Pakistani cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi. The site was discovered in 1974 by the French Archaeological Mission led by the French archaeologists Jean-François Jarrige and his wife, Catherine Jarrige. Mehrgarh was excavated continuously between 1974 and 1986, and again from 1997 to 2000. Archaeological material has been found in six mounds, and about 32,000 artifacts have been collected from the site. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh—located in the northeast corner of the 495-acre (2.00 km2) site—was a small farming village dated between 7000 BCE and 5500 BCE.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Indus Valley Civilisation</span> Bronze Age civilisation in South Asia

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), also known as the Indus Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and in its mature form 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. Together with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilisations of the Near East and South Asia, and of the three, the most widespread, its sites spanning an area from much of Pakistan, to northeast Afghanistan, and northwestern India. The civilisation flourished both in the alluvial plain of the Indus River, which flows through the length of Pakistan, and along a system of perennial monsoon-fed rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the Ghaggar-Hakra, a seasonal river in northwest India and eastern Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cave painting</span> Paintings, often prehistoric, on cave walls and ceilings

In archaeology, cave paintings are a type of parietal art, found on the wall or ceilings of caves. The term usually implies prehistoric origin, and the oldest known are more than 40,000 years old and found in the caves in the district of Maros. The oldest are often constructed from hand stencils and simple geometric shapes. More recently, in 2021, cave art of a pig found in Sulawesi, Indonesia, and dated to over 45,500 years ago, has been reported.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Acheulean</span> Archaeological culture associated with Homo erectus

Acheulean, from the French acheuléen after the type site of Saint-Acheul, is an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by the distinctive oval and pear-shaped "hand axes" associated with Homo erectus and derived species such as Homo heidelbergensis.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Punjab</span>

The History of Punjab refers to the past human history of Punjab region which is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent, comprising western Punjab province in Pakistan and eastern Punjab state in India. It is believed that the earliest evidence of human habitation in Punjab traces to the Soan valley of the Pothohar, between the Indus and the Jhelum rivers, where Soanian culture developed between 774,000 BC and 11,700 BC. This period goes back to the first interglacial period in the second Ice Age, from which remnants of stone and flint tools have been found.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abbevillian</span> Early stone age tool culture

Abbevillian is a term for the oldest lithic industry found in Europe, dated to between roughly 600,000 and 400,000 years ago.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bhimbetka rock shelters</span> 30,000+ years old archaeological World Heritage site in Madhya Pradesh, India

The Bhimbetka rock shelters are an archaeological site in central India that spans the Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods, as well as the historic period. It exhibits the earliest traces of human life in India and evidence of the Stone Age starting at the site in Acheulian times. It is located in the Raisen District in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, about 45 kilometres (28 mi) south-east of Bhopal. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site that consists of seven hills and over 750 rock shelters distributed over 10 km (6.2 mi). At least some of the shelters were inhabited more than 100,000 years ago.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lower Paleolithic</span> Earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic

The Lower Paleolithic is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. It spans the time from around 3.3 million years ago when the first evidence for stone tool production and use by hominins appears in the current archaeological record, until around 300,000 years ago, spanning the Oldowan and Acheulean lithics industries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Levallois technique</span> Distinctive type of stone knapping technique used by ancient humans

The Levallois technique is a name given by archaeologists to a distinctive type of stone knapping developed around 250,000 to 300,000 years ago during the Middle Palaeolithic period. It is part of the Mousterian stone tool industry, and was used by the Neanderthals in Europe and by modern humans in other regions such as the Levant.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sivalik Hills</span> Mountain range in India and Nepal

The Sivalik Hills, also known as the Shivalik Hills and Churia Hills, are a mountain range of the outer Himalayas that stretches over about 2,400 km (1,500 mi) from the Indus River eastwards close to the Brahmaputra River, spanning the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. It is 10–50 km (6.2–31.1 mi) wide with an average elevation of 1,500–2,000 m (4,900–6,600 ft). Between the Teesta and Raidāk Rivers in Assam is a gap of about 90 km (56 mi). The literal translation of "Sivalik" is 'tresses of Shiva'. Sivalik region is home to the Soanian archaeological culture. The hills are well known for their Neogene and Pleistocene aged vertebrate fossils.

Gudrun Corvinus (1932–2006) was a German geologist, paleontologist and archaeologist. Her contributions through her field work, academic monologues and archeological excavation discoveries are vast and have contributed to continued scientific discoveries. Corvinus’ work gained professional recognition prior to her murder that took place in her home in Pune, India, on 7 January 2006.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Asian Stone Age</span> Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in South Asia

The South Asian Stone Age covers the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in the Indian subcontinent. Evidence for the most ancient Homo sapiens in South Asia has been found in the cave sites of Cudappah of India, Batadombalena and Belilena in Sri Lanka. In Mehrgarh, in what is today western Pakistan, the Neolithic began c. 7000 BCE and lasted until 3300 BCE and the first beginnings of the Bronze Age. In South India, the Mesolithic lasted until 3000 BCE, and the Neolithic until 1400 BCE, followed by a Megalithic transitional period mostly skipping the Bronze Age. The Iron Age in India began roughly simultaneously in North and South India, around c. 1200 to 1000 BCE.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of Pakistani history</span>

This is a timeline of Pakistani history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in the region of modern-day's Pakistan. To read about the background of these events, see History of Pakistan and History of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

The Soanian culture is a prehistoric technological culture from the Siwalik Hills in the Indian subcontinent. It is named after the Soan Valley in Pakistan. Soanian sites are found along the Siwalik region in present-day India, Nepal and Pakistan. The Soanian culture has been approximated to have taken place during the Middle Pleistocene period or the mid-Holocene epoch (Northgrippian). Debates still goes on today regarding the exact period occupied by the culture due to artefacts often being found in non-datable surface context. This culture was first discovered and named by the anthropology and archaeology team led by Helmut De Terra and Thomas Thomson Paterson. Soanian artifacts were manufactured on quartzite pebbles, cobbles, and occasionally on boulders, all derived from various fluvial sources on the Siwalik landscape. Soanian assemblages generally comprise varieties of choppers, discoids, scrapers, cores, and numerous flake type tools, all occurring in varying typo-technological frequencies at different sites.

This timeline of prehistory covers the time from the appearance of Homo sapiens 315,000 years ago in Africa to the invention of writing, over 5,000 years ago, with the earliest records going back to 3,200 BC. Prehistory covers the time from the Paleolithic to the beginning of ancient history.

The history of Indian cuisine consists of cuisine of the Indian subcontinent, which is rich and diverse. The diverse climate in the region, ranging from deep tropical to alpine, has also helped considerably broaden the set of ingredients readily available to the many schools of cookery in India. In many cases, food has become a marker of religious and social identity, with varying taboos and preferences which has also driven these groups to innovate extensively with the food sources that are deemed acceptable.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cave paintings in India</span> Cave paintings in India

The history of cave paintings in India or rock art range from drawings and paintings from prehistoric times, beginning in the caves of Central India, typified by those at the Bhimbetka rock shelters from around 10,000 BP, to elaborate frescoes at sites such as the rock-cut artificial caves at Ajanta and Ellora, extending as late as 6th–10th century CE.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Archaeological sites in Pakistan</span>

Pakistan is home to many archaeological sites dating from Lower Paleolithic period to Mughal empire. The earliest known archaeological findings belong to the Soanian culture from the Soan Valley, near modern-day Islamabad. Soan Valley culture is considered as the best known Palaeolithic culture of Central Asia. Mehrgarh in Balochistan is one of the most important Neolithic sites dating from 7000 BCE to 2000 BCE. The Mehrgarh culture was amongst the first culture in the world to establish agriculture and livestock and live in villages. Mehrgarh civilization lasted for 5000 years till 2000 BCE after which people migrated to other areas, possibly Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro are the best known sites from the Indus Valley civilization.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Archaeology in India</span>

Archaeology in India is mainly done under the supervision of Archaeological Survey of India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Indus–Mesopotamia relations</span>

Indus–Mesopotamia relations are thought to have developed during the second half of 3rd millennium BCE, until they came to a halt with the extinction of the Indus valley civilization after around 1900 BCE. Mesopotamia had already been an intermediary in the trade of lapis lazuli between the Indian subcontinent and Egypt since at least about 3200 BCE, in the context of Egypt-Mesopotamia relations.


  1. "Palaeolithic and Pleistocene of Pakistan". Department of Archaeology, University of Sheffield. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2007.
  2. Murray, Tim (1999). Time and archaeology. London; New York: Routledge. p. 84. ISBN   978-0-415-11762-3.
  3. Rendell, H. R.; Dennell, R. W.; Halim, M. (1989). Pleistocene and Palaeolithic Investigations in the Soan Valley, Northern Pakistan. British Archaeological Reports International Series. Cambridge University Press. p. 364. ISBN   978-0-86054-691-7. OCLC   29222688.
  4. Parth R. Chauhan. Distribution of Acheulian sites in the Siwalik region Archived 4 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine . An Overview of the Siwalik Acheulian & Reconsidering Its Chronological Relationship with the Soanian – A Theoretical Perspective.
  5. Lycett, Stephen J (2007), "Is the Soanian techno-complex a Mode 1 or Mode 3 phenomenon? A morphometric assessment", Journal of Archaeological Science, 34 (9): 1434–1440, doi:10.1016/j.jas.2006.11.001
  6. Distribution of Acheulian sites in the Siwalik region Archived 4 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  7. Javid, Ali and Javeed, Tabassum. World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India. 2008, page 19
  8. 1 2 "Bhimbetka, Auditorium Cave, Madhya Pradesh: Acheulian Petroglyph Site, c. >100,000 – 500,000 BP". Archived from the original on 5 March 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  9. 1 2 Sen, Sailendra Nath (1 January 1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. pp. 23–. ISBN   978-81-224-1198-0. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  10. Reddy (1 December 2006). Indian Hist (Opt). Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 1–. ISBN   978-0-07-063577-7. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  11. Tribal Studies (2007). Mibang, Tamo; Behera, M. C. Mittal Publications. India.
  12. Pappu, Shanni; et al. (2011). "Early Pleistocene Presence of Acheulian Hominins in South India". Science Magazine. 331 (6024): 1596–1599. Bibcode:2011Sci...331.1596P. doi:10.1126/science.1200183. PMID   21436450. S2CID   206531024. Archived from the original on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  13. "Excavations at the Palaeolithic Site of Attirampakkam, South India". Antiquity journal. September 2003. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
  14. Klaus K. Klostermaier (1989), A survey of Hinduism, SUNY Press, ISBN   978-0-88706-807-2, archived from the original on 5 May 2016, retrieved 15 November 2015, ... prehistoric cave paintings at Bhimbetka (ca. 30000 BCE) ...
  15. Coppa, A.; Bondioli, L; Cucina, A; Frayer, D. W.; Jarrige, C.; Jarrige, J. F.; Quivron, G; Rossi, M.; Vidale, M; Macchiarelli, R. (6 April 2006). "Palaeontology: Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry". Nature. 440 (7085): 755–756. Bibcode:2006Natur.440..755C. doi:10.1038/440755a. PMID   16598247. S2CID   6787162.
  16. Possehl, G. L. (October 1990). "Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanisation". Annual Review of Anthropology. 19 (1): 261–282. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.19.100190.001401 . Retrieved 6 May 2007.
  17. Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark; Heuston, Kimberley (May 2005). The Ancient South Asian World. Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-517422-9. OCLC   56413341. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  18. Wright 2009, pp. 115–125.
  19. Hasenpflug, Rainer, The Inscriptions of the Indus civilisation Norderstedt, Germany, 2006.
  20. Beck, Roger B. (1999). World History: Patterns of Interaction . Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell. ISBN   978-0-395-87274-1.
  21. "Kanchi district, gold mine of megalithic sites". IBN Live. Tamil Nadu, India. 14 March 2012. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013.
    • Sato, Tsugitaka (2014). Sugar in the Social Life of Medieval Islam. BRILL. p. 01. ISBN   9789004277526.
  22. Pickover, Clifford (2008). Archimedes to Hawking: Laws of Science and the Great Minds Behind Them. Oxford University Press. p. 105. ISBN   978-0-19-979268-9.
  23. Durga Prasad Dikshit 1980, p. 166.
  24. Kumar, Amit (2012). "Maritime History of India: An Overview". Maritime Affairs: Journal of the National Maritime Foundation of India. 8 (1): 93–115. doi:10.1080/09733159.2012.690562. S2CID   108648910. In 776 AD, Arabs tried to invade Sind again but were defeated by the Saindhava naval fleet. A Saindhava inscription provides information about these naval actions.
  25. Sailendra Nath Sen (1 January 1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. pp. 343–344. ISBN   978-81-224-1198-0.
  26. "Chola dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  27. Muhammad of Ghor#Invasion of India
  28. 1 2 S.K.Sharma (2005). Discovery of North East India Volume 1. Mittal Publications. p. 339. ISBN   81-8324-035-6.
  29. 1 2 Bapari, Parimal (September 2010). "Chapter 1: Early Historical background and foundation of the Koch Dynasty" (PDF). King Naranarayan and his times (PDF) (PhD). University of North Bengal.
  30. 1 2 "History of Odisha (From Earliest Times to 1434 A.D.)" (PDF). DDCE/History (M.A)/SLM/Paper from Utkal University: 109–110. 10 August 2017.
  31. Chandra, Satish (1997). Medieval India: From Sultanate to the Mughals. New Delhi, India: Har-Anand Publications. pp. 101–102. ISBN   978-8124105221.
  32. James Tod (1920). Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, v. 1 of 3. Oxford University Press. p. 588.
  33. History of North East India (PDF). Rajiv Gandhi University. p. 32.
  34. Karnavati Garhwal Himalayas: A Study in Historical Perspective, by Ajay S. Rawat. Published by Indus Publishing, 2002. ISBN   81-7387-136-1. Page 43-44.
  35. Jeremy Black (2012). War in the Eighteenth-Century World. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 60. ISBN   9780230370005.
  36. Amartya Sen (1981). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation . Oxford University Press. p.  39. ISBN   978-0-19-828463-5.
  37. Fredrik Albritton Jonsson (18 June 2013). Enlightenment's Frontier: The Scottish Highlands and the Origins of Environmentalism. Yale University Press. pp. 167–170. ISBN   978-0-300-16374-2.
  38. Chandra, Bipan. 'Administrative Organisation and Social and Cultural Policy.' Modern India. NCERT. 1971.
  39. 1 2 3 "BBC News – India profile – Timeline". BBC News. 3 March 2011. Archived from the original on 22 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  40. "India's capital is moved from Calcutta to New Delhi on 12 December 1911". 12 December 2012. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  41. Venugopalam 2003, pp. 92–95.
  42. 1 2 "India-Pakistan fighting kills 9 civilians, 3 militants". Reuters. 6 October 2014. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
  43. Walton, Zach (15 August 2012). "India Announces Mars Mission One Week After Curiosity Landing". Web Pro News. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  44. Staff (15 August 2012). "Manmohan Singh formally announces India's Mars mission". The Hindu . Archived from the original on 31 August 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  45. Bal, Hartosh Singh (30 August 2012). "BRICS in Space". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 2 September 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  46. "Pathankot terror attack: Terrorists hid overnight in airbase shed". The Indian Express. 13 January 2016. Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2016.