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Kottayam (Cotiote) is a former independent feudal city-state, in the present-day Indian state of Kerala, in the Indian subcontinent.  Kottayam (Cotiote) is famed for Pazhassi Raja, one of the principal leaders of the Wayanad Insurrection (Kotiote Palassi rebellion or Cotiote War). Pazhassi Raja was a member of the western branch of the Kottayam royal clan.  When Hyder Ali of the Kingdom of Mysore Mysore invasion of raided parts of Malabar in 1773, the Raja of Kottayam found political asylum in Travancore. In 1790, the British recognized Pazhassi Raja as the head of Kottayam instead of the original Raja who had taken refuge at Travancore. 
The origin of the Kottayam royal family is lost in obscurity. By tradition Harischandara Perumal who built a fort at Puralimala and resided there is regarded as the founder of the Kottayam family. The rajas of Kottayam were therefore called Puralisas and were also known as Purannattu rajas, who ruled over the land of Purainad. Descendants of the Puraikizhar family and are referred to in the Tirunelveli copper plate of Bhaskara Ravi Varman. At times, the part of Kolathunad, the Kottayam principality gradually acquired independent control over the territories lying in the Tellichery taluk, shared the area with the Iruvazhinad Nambiars and also extended its jurisdiction up to the borders of Coorg. The family came to have three branches: Eastern, Southern and Western. The first two had their seat at Kottayam and the last at Pazhassi. 
The Kingdom of Kottayam covered what is today Talassery taluk, Iritty taluk (1000 km2) of Kannur District and Wayanad District (2000 km2). The headquarters of this kingdom were located in Kottayam, a small town not far from Tellicherry. The royal dynasty of the princely state of Kottayam was called Purannatt Swarupam. The Padinjare Kovilakam or Western Branch of this royal dynasty was located at Pazhassi and is famous for its heroic royal rebel, Pazhassi Raja.
The institution of Kathakali gained in progress and richness during the time of the Raja of Kottayam, between 1665 AD and 1725 AD. The then-raja of Kottayam was a brilliant actor-dancer who structured several compositions to complete the transition of Kathakali from its earlier form, Ramanattam, developed by Kottarakkara Thampuran. The Kottayam family produced two distinguished scholars, Kerala Varma Thampuran, the author of Valmiki Ramayanam Kilippattu and Vidwan Thampuran, the great patron of Kathakali and composer of Attakathas.  Many dedicated artists like Chathu Panicker also endeavoured to lay the foundations for what is known as Kathakali now. Their efforts were concentrated on the rituals, classical details, and scriptural perfection. Even now the basic details of Kathakali have not changed considerably from this format. Bakavadham, Kirmeeravadham, Kalyana Saugandhikam, and Nivathakayacha Kalakeyavadham are the four perfect Kottayam works. After this, the most important changes in Kathakali were brought about through the efforts of a single person, namely Kaplingad Narayanan Nambudiri. After basic instruction in various faculties of the art in Vettathu Kalari of North Malabar, he shifted to Travancore and there in its capital and many other centres he found many willing to co-operate with him in bringing about these reforms.
The Kingdom of Travancore (/ˈtrævənkɔːr/), also known as the Kingdom of Thiruvithamkoor, was an Indian kingdom from c. 1729 until 1949. It was ruled by the Travancore Royal Family from Padmanabhapuram, and later Thiruvananthapuram. At its zenith, the kingdom covered most of the south of modern-day Kerala, and the southernmost part of modern-day Tamil Nadu with the Thachudaya Kaimal's enclave of Irinjalakuda Koodalmanikyam temple in the neighbouring Kingdom of Cochin. However Tangasseri area of Kollam city and Anchuthengu near Attingal in Thiruvananthapuram district, were British colonies and were part of the Malabar District until 30 June 1927, and Tirunelveli district from 1 July 1927 onwards. Travancore merged with the erstwhile princely state of Cochin to form Travancore-Cochin in 1950. The five Tamil-majority Taluks of Vilavancode, Kalkulam, Thovalai, Agastheeswaram, and Sengottai were transferred from Travancore-Cochin to Madras State in 1956. The Malayalam-speaking regions of Travancore-Cochin merged with the Malabar District and the Kasaragod taluk of the South Canara district in Madras State to form the modern Malayalam-state of Kerala on 1 November 1956, according to the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 passed by the Government of India.
Wayanad is a district in the north-east of Indian state Kerala with administrative headquarters at the municipality of Kalpetta. It is the only plateau in Kerala. The Wayanad Plateau forms a continuation of the Mysore Plateau, the southern portion of Deccan Plateau. It is set high in the Western Ghats with altitudes ranging from 700 to 2100 meters. Vellari Mala, a 2,240 m (7,349 ft) high peak situated on the trijunction of Wayanad, Malappuram, and Kozhikode districts, is the highest point in Wayanad district. The district was formed on 1 November 1980 as the 12th district in Kerala, by carving out areas from Kozhikode and Kannur districts. An area of 885.92 km2 of the district is forested. Wayanad has three municipal towns—Kalpetta, Mananthavady and Sulthan Bathery. There are many indigenous tribes in this area. The Kabini River, a tributary of Kaveri River, originates at Wayanad. Wayanad district, along with the Chaliyar valley in neighbouring Nilambur in Malappuram district, is known for natural gold fields, which are also seen in other parts of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Chaliyar river, which is the fourth longest river of Kerala, originates on the Wayanad plateau. The historically important Edakkal Caves are located in Wayanad district.
The Kingdom of Cochin, named after its capital in the city of Kochi (Cochin), was a kingdom in the central part of present-day Kerala state. It commenced at the early part of the 12th century and continued to rule until 1949, when monarchy was abolished by the dominion of India.
Pazhassi Raja was known as Kerala Varma and was also known as Cotiote Rajah and Pychy Rajah. He was a warrior Hindu prince and de facto head of the kingdom of Kottayam, otherwise known as Cotiote, in Malabar, India, between 1774 and 1805. His struggles with the British East India Company is known as the Cotiote War. He earned the epithet "Kerala Simham" on account of his martial exploits.
Kolattunādu was one of the four most powerful kingdoms on the Malabar Coast during the arrival of the Portuguese Armadas in India, along with Zamorin, the Kingdom of Cochin and Quilon. Kolattunādu had its capital at Ezhimala and was ruled by the Kolattiri royal family and roughly comprised the North Malabar region of Kerala state in India. Traditionally, Kolattunādu is described as the land lying between the Chandragiri river in the north and the Korappuzha river in the south. The Kolathunadu (Kannur) Kingdom at the peak of its power, reportedly extended from the Netravati River (Mangalore) in the north to Korapuzha (Kozhikode) in the south with the Arabian Sea on the west and Kodagu hills on the eastern boundary, also including the isolated islands of Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea.
Malabar District, also known as Malayalam District, was an administrative district on the southwestern Malabar Coast of Bombay Presidency (1792-1800) and Madras Presidency (1800-1947) in British India, and independent India's Madras State (1947-1956). It was the most populous and the third-largest district in the erstwhile Madras State. The British district included the present-day districts of Kannur, Kozhikode, Wayanad, Malappuram, Palakkad, Chavakad Taluk and parts of Kodungallur Taluk of Thrissur district, and Fort Kochi area of Ernakulam district in the northern and central parts of present Kerala state, the Lakshadweep Islands, and a major portion of the Nilgiris district in Tamil Nadu. The detached settlements of Tangasseri and Anchuthengu, which were British colonies within the kingdom of Travancore in southern Kerala, also formed part of Malabar District until 1927. Malayalam was the administrative as well as the most spoken lingua franca of Malabar District during British Rule. Jeseri, a distinct dialect of Malayalam, was spoken in the Laccadive Islands. Malabar District merged with the erstwhile state of Travancore-Cochin (1950-1956) to form Kerala according to the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. On the same day, the present Kasaragod district of South Canara District was also attached to Malabar, and the Laccadive & Minicoy Islands of Malabar were reorganised to form a new Union Territory. Malabar was trifurcated to form the districts of Kannur, Kozhikode, and Palakkad, on 1 January 1957.
The term Kerala was first epigraphically recorded as Keralaputra (Cheras) in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka of Magadha. It was mentioned as one of four independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka's time, the others being the Cholas, Pandyas and Satyaputras. The Cheras transformed Kerala into an international trade centre by establishing trade relations across the Arabian Sea with all major Mediterranean and Red Sea ports as well those of Eastern Africa and the Far East. The dominion of Cheras was located in one of the key routes of the ancient Indian Ocean trade. The early Cheras collapsed after repeated attacks from the neighboring Cholas and Rashtrakutas.
Kottayam-Malabar is a census town near Kuthuparamba in Kannur district of Kerala state in India. It is different from the city of Kottayam in Kottayam district of the same state.
The Kingdom of Thekkumkur was an independent kingdom in the southern part of Kerala in India from 1103 CE until 1750 CE. It was ruled by the Thekkumkur Royal Family. Thekkumkur lies between the Meenachil River and the Pamba River, from the Western Ghats to the Vembanad Kayal. Thekkumkur emerges as a result of administrative changes in the princely states at the end of the Chera Kulasekhara dynasty of Mahodayapuram. The literal meaning of the title is the southern regent and the attribute southern distinguished them from another kingdom known as Vadakkumkur which bordered it in the northern side. The royal household, Thekkumkur Kovilakam, were at Vennimala and Manikandapuram near Puthuppally, later it shifted to Neerazhi Palace at Puzhavathu of Changanassery and Thalilkotta at Thaliyanthanapuram (Kottayam).
Devala is a town in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu. It is situated at about 17 km from Gudalur on the Gudalur–Pandalur road. It is close to the Kerala-Tamil Nadu border, with Nilambur on the Kerala side.
Parappanangadi, IPA: [pɐɾɐpːɐn̺ɐŋːɐːɖi], is a major town and a municipality in Tirurangadi taluk of Malappuram district, Kerala, India. It is a coastal town located close to the Arabian sea. Parappanangadi railway station is one of the oldest railway stations in Kerala. It was a part of the first rail route (Tirur–Chaliyam) in Kerala. Parappanangadi is located 9 km (5.6 mi) north of Tanur on Tirur-Kadalundi Tipu Sultan Road. The town lies on the bank of Kadalundi River. Parappanangadi town is located north of the estuary of Poorappuzha River, which is a tributary of Kadalundi River, and south of the estuary of Kadalundi River, which lies in Vallikkunnu. Parappanangadi was one of the major ports in the southwestern coast of India during the medieval period. It was ruled by the kingdom of Parappanad, who were vassals to the Zamorin of Calicut, and had the jurisdiction up to Beypore port to the north. In the early medieval period, under the chiefs of Kozhikode and Parappanangadi, Parappanangadi developed as one of the important maritime trade centre on the Malabar Coast. Later it became a part of Eranad Taluk in Malabar District under British Raj.
The Travancore royal family was the ruling house of the Kingdom of Travancore. They gave up their ruling rights in 1949 when Travancore merged with India and their political pension privileges were abolished in 1971. The family is descended from the Ay/Venad family and the Chera dynasty.
North Malabar refers to the geographic area of southwest India covering the state of Kerala's present day Kasaragod, Kannur, and Wayanad districts, and the taluks of Vatakara, Koyilandy, and Thamarassery in the Kozhikode District of Kerala and the entire Mahé Sub-Division of the Union Territory of Puducherry. Traditionally North Malabar is defined as the northern portion of erstwhile Malabar District which lies between Chandragiri River and Korapuzha River. The region between Netravathi River and Chandragiri River, which included the portions between Mangalore and Kasaragod, are also often included in the term North Malabar, as the Kumbla dynasty in the southernmost region of Tulu Nadu, had a mixed lineage of Malayali Nairs and Tuluva Brahmins.
The Siege of Tellicherry was a military embargo that happened in Thalassery. The Commander in Chief of the Mysore Calicut Province, Sirdar Ali, took siege of the British Military Barrack of Thalassery for 18 months. They British and the local administrators were blockaded within Thalassery by land as well as by sea. It was during the Second Anglo-Mysore War. The siege continued until reinforcements from Bombay under the command of Major Abington attacked the Mysore army and defeated them. Major Abington then moved south, capturing Calicut. The Siege of Tellicherry led to the fall of strongholds of the First Mysore conquest, led by Hyder Ali. Even though laterTipu Sultan came from Mysore to reinstate the conquered area to previous status.
The British got Malabar from Tippu Sultan in 1792. But Malabar was a province that was plagued by refraction, unrest and insurgency as early as 1766—when Hyder Ali occupied whole of Malabar. Two decades of Mysore effort to subjugate this province ended up in chaos and confusion in Malabar with a part of her population either dead or migrated and once prosperous economy destroyed.
Ravi Varma Raja (1745–1793) was a Samantan Nair warrior prince of the Royal House of Zamorins from Calicut who fought a two-decade long revolt against the Mysore Sultanate under Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan between 1766–1768 and 1774–1791, and later the British East India Company in 1793.
Parappanad was a former feudal city-state in Malabar, India. The headquarters of Parappanad Royal family was at the town Parappanangadi in present-day Malappuram district. In 1425, the country divided into Northern Parappanad and Southern Parappanad. Southern Parappanad included parts of Tirurangadi Taluk and the town Parappanangadi. Northern Parappanad included Panniyankara, Beypore, and Cheruvannur of Kozhikkode Taluk. Parappanad royal family is a cousin dynasty of the Travancore royal family.
Kannur, formerly known in English as Cannanore, Arabic as Kannanur, and Portuguese as Cananor, is a city and a Municipal Corporation in North Malabar region, state of Kerala, India. It is the largest city in North Malabar, which is the northernmost region of Kerala. It is sometimes identified Kolathunadu, which was ruled by the Kolathiris. In the 12th and 13th centuries there was trade with Persia and Arabia.
Wayanad district, which is home to Edakkal Caves, has human settlement from prehistoric era. Wayanad is the sole Plateau in Kerala. The tribal dialects of Wayanad like the Ravula language and the Paniya language are closely related to Malayalam.
Neerazhi Palace was the royal palace of the Thekkumkur kingdom. Palace is located at Puzhavathu in Changanassery. The palace was used by the Thekkumkur dynasty until 1750 and later by the Parappanad dynasty who settled in Changanassery from North Malabar. It was here that the last king of Thekkumkur, Aditya Varman Manikandan escaped to Nattassery of Kottayam in the Travancore invasion of 1790. The Neerazhi palace was earlier known as Neerazhikettu.
Coordinates: 11°49′41″N75°33′00″E / 11.828°N 75.55°E