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Kurumbranad (Kurumbuzhai Nadu or Kurumbiathiri Swaroopam) was a kingdom, located in present-day Kerala state, South India, on the Malabar Coast. [1] Once a powerful kingdom, it had important commercial centres such as Mapayil, Puthuppanam and Vatakara. The area was bordered by the sea on the west side and Karnataka in the east.

On the north side was Kolathu Nadu and in the south lay Polanad (former name of Calicut). [2] Their central power was concentrated in present-day Balussery where they built their capital around their largest fort, the Balussery-Kota flanked by a unique temple dedicated to their family deity, Vettakkorumakan. [3] The famed Malabari warrior and legendary local hero, Thacholi Othenan had ancestors in the Kurumbranad Royal Family.

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Vatakara Municipality in Kerala, India

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Kolathunadu Kingdoms on the Malabar Coast in India

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Balussery Town in Kerala, India

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Malabar District Administrative district of British India

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Vadakkan Pattukal are a collection of Malayalam ballads from the medieval period. The songs present stories of heroes such as Aromal Chekavar and Thacholi Othenan, and heroines like Unniyarcha. The stories centre round the fortunes of two families, Puthooram family and Thacholi Manikkoth family. Though two families belong to two different communities Thiyyar and Nair respectively, they share in common the martial traditional. The chief among the Thiyyar chieftains of puthooram was Aromal chekavar, who had | killed by Chanthu in his first duel (Ankam). His sister Attumanamel unniyarcha, is equally adept in the use of arms. The exploits of the Nair chieftain Thacholi Othenan belonging to the Thacholi family form the theme of several ballads. Thacholi Chandu, Palattu Komappan, Putumada Kelu, Karumparambil Kannan are some of the other warriors who figure in the ballads. They exemplify the heights of folk-poetry and are also sometimes associated with deities. Almost all these ballads show strong connections with Kalaripayattu. The oldest compositions do not date earlier than 16th century but their idiom and vocabulary seems older. However, like any other oral cultural forms that are sung by communities even today, these songs show great flexibility and a repetitive pattern in their lexicon that is typical of the simplicity of folksongs in general.

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<i>Kadathanadan Ambadi</i> 1990 Indian film

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Gudalur taluk is a taluk of Nilgiris district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The headquarters of the taluk is the town of Gudalur.

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Pandalur taluk is a taluk of Nilgiris district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The headquarters of the taluk is the town of Pandalur.

Thacholi Chandu was a warrior and a legendary hero who is believed to have lived during 17 th century in North Malabar region of Kerala, India.He belonged to the Thacholi family of Nair community. Chandu was married to Thayattu Madathu Mattu Kutti. He is praised about in Vadakkan Pattukal. He is the nephew of legendary Thacholi Othenan.


Vettakkoru Makan is a Hindu deity worshipped in parts of Northern Kerala. This deity is alternately referred as Kiratha-Sunu in Sanskrit. Vettakkorumakan is believed to be the son of Lord Shiva by his consort Parvathi, born when he assumed the form of a Kirata (hunter) to deliver a weapon known as Pashupathasthra to Arjuna. He is mostly and exclusively worshipped in Malabar region of Kerala. The most famous temple of this deity is the Balussery-Kotta Vettakkorumakan temple about 25 km from Calicut. This was once the fort of the Rajas of Kurumbranad. Other prominent temples are at Ramanthali, Nileshwar, Kottakkal, Nilambur, Karaparamba and various places in Kannur district and Kasargod district. He is the family deity of the Rajas of Chirakkal, Nileshwar, Kottakkal, Nilambur Kovilakam, Kalathil Kartha's, Aluva, Amarambalam Kovilakam and Randu Illam Vargam Nambiars. Those families among the nobility of Malabar who have Vettakkorumakan as their family deity are connected in one way or other incidentally to either Balussery Fort or Kurumbranad.Later he moved to Kottanachery temple in Vellur, Payyanur in North Malabar. A special type of firecracker called "Kathina" was his favourite.

Othenente Makan is a 1970 Indian Malayalam-language action drama film directed and produced by Kunchacko. It is a sequel to the 1964 film Thacholo Othenan, followed by Kadathanadan Ambadi (1990). The film stars Prem Nazir, Ragini, Sathyan, Sheela and Kaviyoor Ponnamma. The film had musical score by G. Devarajan.

<i>Thacholi Ambu</i> 1978 Indian film

Thacholi Ambu is a 1978 Indian Malayalam-language historical drama film directed and produced by Navodaya Appachan under Navodaya Studio. It was the first anamorphic CinemaScope film in Malayalam. Starring Prem Nazir in the title role, Sivaji Ganesan, Ravikumar and Jayan. Made on a cost of ₹30 lakh, the film grossed more than 90 lacs at the box office.

Kadhirur Gurukkal, also known as Mathiloor Gurukkal, was a martial artist of medieval India. He came from Kadirur, near to Thalasserry in the North Malabar region of present-day Kerala. He operated the Mathiloor Kalari, where Thacholi Othenan trained in Kalaripayattu.

Kadathanat Madhavi Amma

Kadathanat Madhavi Amma was an Indian poet, novelist and short story writer of Malayalam literature. Known for poetry anthologies such as Kalyopaharam and Kanikkonna, she was also the author of two works based on Vadakkan Pattukal viz. Thacholi Othenan and Payyamvelli Chandu. The Kerala Sahitya Akademi awarded her their annual award for overall contributions in 1996.


  1. Logan, William (1879). Malabar Manual (3rd AES reprint, 2000 ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN   978-8120604469.
  2. Tuebingen University, Malayalam Manuscript series (1 January 1996). Talaśśēri rēkhakaḷ: Collection of Malabari manuscripts from 1796-1800. Tuebingen University Library.
  3. T.K., Geetha. "CHAPTER I1 A GENERAL INTRODUCTION ON THE TRIBALS OF WAYANAD" (PDF). History of Malabar: 58–99. Retrieved 19 September 2020.