# Kingdom of Tanur

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Kingdom of Tanur
Tanur Swaroopam
Prakashabhu  (Sanskrit)
Kingdom of Light  (English)
Before 12th century CE–1793
Capital

Common languages Malayalam
GovernmentKingdom
History
Established
Before 12th century CE
Death of last Raja
24 May 1793
Today part of Malappuram, Kerala, India

Kingdom of Tanur (Vettathunadu, Vettom, Tanur Swaroopam, Prakashabhu, Kingdom of Light) was one of the numerous feudal principalities on Malabar Coast during the Middle Ages. It was ruled by a Hindu dynasty, claiming Kshatriya status, known as Tanur dynasty. The kingdom comprised parts of the coastal Taluks of Tirurangadi, Tirur, and Ponnani taluks in present-day Malappuram district and included places such as Tanur, Tirur (Trikkandiyur) and Chaliyam. The coastal villages of Kadalundi and Chaliyam in the southernmost area of Kozhikode district was also under Tanur Swaroopam. [2] [3]

## Contents

The king of Vettattnad was a long time feudatory of the Zamorin of Calicut. [4] With the arrival of the Portuguese in Malabar, the rulers of Vettathunad began to play the Portuguese and Calicut against each other. They were one of the first vassals of Calicut to stand up against the Zamorin with the Portuguese assistance. [2] Francis Xavier had visited Tanur in 1546 and visited the Keraladeshpuram Temple at Tanur. [5] Subsequently, a Vettom king fell in offers of the Portuguese and converted to Christianity in 1549. This king allowed the construction of the strategic fortress at Chaliyam. [2]

Since, part of the Chovvaram (Sukapuram) village in the old 64 villages of Nambudiris, the queen of Cochin adopted some Vettom princes in 17th century, which lead to tensions in the Malabar Coast. [2]

The royal family became extinct on the death of the last king, on 24 May 1793. [6] Subsequently, the kingdom passed to English East India Company and the temple of the royal family was transferred to the Zamorin of Calicut in 1842. [7]

The Vettathunad rulers were famous patrons of arts and learning. A Vettathunad ruler is said to have introduced innovations in Kathakali which have come to known as the Vettathu Sambradayam. The famous poets Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan, who is also known as The Father of Modern Malayalam, and Vallathol Narayana Menon, who is also the founder of Kerala Kalamandalam , were born in Vettathunad. [2] The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries. In attempting to solve astronomical problems, the Kerala school independently created a number of important mathematics concepts, including series expansion for trigonometric functions. [8] [9]

## Etymology and dominions

The name "Tanur Swaroopam (Tanni-ur Swaroopam)" is derived from three Malayalam language words. "Tanni" refers to the tree bastard myrobalan, "Ur" refers to the "Village" and "Swaroopam" to "Kingdom". [10] The kingdom was called in literary works Prakasa Bhu (The Kingdom of Light) and its ruler Prakasa Bhu Palan. [2] The king was called "raja" or "thampuran" or "naduvazhi". [2]

In the time of the arrival of British, according to William Logan, the kingdom ("nadu") was divided into 21 "amsoms" as shown below [11] (A main bazaar in each amsom is given in bracket).

Anantavur (Cherulal), Chennara, Clari (Kuttippala), Iringavur, Kalpakanchēri (Kadungathukundu), Kanmanam (Thuvvakkad), Mangalam, Mēlmuri, Niramaruthūr, Ozhūr, Pachattiri, Pallippuram, Pariyāpuram, Ponmundam (Vailathoor), Purathur, Rayiramangalam, Thalakkad (Betteth Puthiya Angadi), Thanalur, Trikkandiyoor (Tirur), Triprangode, and Vettom. [11]

## Political history

### Ancient era

The ancient port of Tyndis which was located on the northern side of Muziris, as mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea , was somewhere around Tanur. [12] Its exact location is a matter of dispute. [12] The suggested locations are Ponnani, Tanur, Beypore-Chaliyam-Kadalundi-Vallikkunnu, and Koyilandy. [12] Note that Ponnani was the southern end of the kingdom of Tanur, while Beypore-Chaliyam-Kadalundi-Vallikkunnu region was at the northern end of Vettathunadu. Tyndis was a major center of trade, next only to Muziris, between the Cheras and the Roman Empire. [13] Pliny the Elder (1st century CE) states that the port of Tyndis was located at the northwestern border of Keprobotos (Chera dynasty). [14] The North Malabar region, which lies north of the port at Tyndis , was ruled by the kingdom of Ezhimala during Sangam period. [15] According to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea , a region known as Limyrike began at Naura and Tyndis . However the Ptolemy mentions only Tyndis as the Limyrike's starting point. The region probably ended at Kanyakumari; it thus roughly corresponds to the present-day Malabar Coast. The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces. [16] Pliny the Elder mentioned that Limyrike was prone by pirates. [17] The Cosmas Indicopleustes mentioned that the Limyrike was a source of peppers. [18] [19]

### Before the advent of the Portuguese

The history of Vettathunad before the arrival of the Portuguese Armadas is largely obscure. [2] The origin of the dynasty is often dates back to the Chera times in legendary traditions. [2] The Chera Kingdom was disintegrated in the early 12th century. [2] Most of their Nair governors and vassals proclaimed independence during this period of extreme instability. [2]

The second in line successors of Zamorin, the Eralpads, controlled the banks of river Nila as a governor after the occupation of the territory once belonged to Vettattnad and other principalities. [2] In the following Thirunavaya Wars between the Cochin-Valluvanad alliance and Calicut, the rulers of Vettattnad supported the Zamorin. [2] As the Thirunavaya was captured after the war, Zamorin proclaimed himself as Protector and took over sole right of conducting the famous Mamankam festival. [2] During the Mamankam festivals all his feudatories including the Vettam king were used to send flags to Thirunavaya as a symbol of regard to the Zamorin. [2]

• In the Mamankam festivals the king of Vettam had the right to stand on the right of Zamorin of Calicut whereas the Shah Bandar Koya of Calicut stood in his left side. [21]
• After the puberty ceremony (the thirandu-kalyanam) of the Zamorin princess (Thampurati), the Zamorin himself selects a suitable husband for his "anathiraval". They were generally chosen, for political and strategic reasons from the dynasties of Vettom, Berypore, Kurumburanad and Kodungallur [22]
• As a part of the coronation ceremonies (the Ari-yittu-vazhcha) of a new Zamorin, after the death of his uncle, he enters the pulakuli pond hand in hand with the raja Punnattur. Till, 1793, Vettom king has also taken part in this ceremony, Punnattur king taking his hold of his left hand and Vettatt of the right. [22]
• The lord of Kalpakanchery (Kalpakancheri was in Vettathunad) was used present at the coronation of a new Zamorin. [22]

### In the Portuguese era

The rulers of Tanur were the allies of the Portuguese in 16th and 17th centuries. The famous Portuguese Armada led by Vasco da Gama landed in Malabar in 1498. Soon, the Zamorin of Calicut expelled the Portuguese from his capital and territories. The Portuguese quickly found local allies among some of the city-states on the Malabar coast which had long grated under Zamorin's dominance. Cochin, Cannanore and Quilon opened their ports and invited the Portuguese sailors. Vettathuraja, who was in a partial subjection to the Calicut at the time, also saw an opportunity to break away. [10] Moreover, he, like the kings of Beypore and Chalium (Parappanad) secretly opposed the policy of the Zamorin over the Kingdom of Cochin. [22] However, the Tanur forces under the king fought for the Zamorin of Calicut in the Battle of Cochin (1504) [11]

#### The Defection of Tanur

After the Raid on Cranganore, in October 1504, Lopo Soares de Albergaria of the Sixth Indian Armada of the Portuguese received reports of an urgent message from the Vettathuraja. The Vettathuraja had come to loggerheads with his overlord, the Zamorin of Calicut, and offered to place him under Portuguese suzerainty instead, in return for military assistance. [2] He reports that a Calicut column, led by the Zamorin himself, had been assembled in a hurry to try to save Cranganore from the Portuguese, but that he managed to block its passage at Tanur. Lopo Soares immediately dispatches Pêro Rafael with a caravel and a sizeable Portuguese armed force to assist Tanur. [2] The Zamorin's column is defeated and dispersed soon after its arrival.

The Raid on Cranganore and the Defection of Tanur were serious setbacks to the Zamorin, pushing the frontline north and effectively placing the Vembanad lagoon out of the Zamorin's reach. Any hopes the Zamorin had of quickly resuming his attempts to capture Cochin via the backwaters are effectively dashed. [22] No less importantly, the battles at Cranganore and Tanur, which involved significant numbers of Malabari captains and troops, clearly demonstrated that the Zamorin was no longer feared in the region. The Battle of Cochin had broken his authority. Cranganore and Vettathunad showed that Malabaris were no longer afraid of defying his authority and taking up arms against him. A new chapter was being opened on the Malabar Coast. [22]

On 31 December 1504, setting out from Cochin, the Sixth India Armada of the Portuguese under the command of Lopo Soares de Albergaria first headed north, intending to dock briefly at the port of Ponnani, to pay his respects to his new ally, the king of Vettom. [22] While negotiating entry at the port, Lopo Soares received a message, and it led him to the Battle of Pandarane (Koyilandi). However in the same year king of Vettom invited the Portuguese to his kingdom, and small Portuguese force actually came to Vettom. [22] But the king as not bold enough for an open defiance, and he sent his new allies back with numerous presents and a promise of secret support against the Zamorin. [22]

Barbosa (1516) describes: [10]

“Further on … are two places of Moors (Mappilas) 5 leagues from one another. One is called Paravanor, and the other Tanor, and inland from these towns is a lord (Vettathuraja) to whom they belong; and he (Vettathuraja) has many Nairs, and sometimes he rebels against the King of Calicut (Samoothiri). In these towns there is much shipping and trade, for these Moors is great merchants”

Correa (1521) was very interested in the Kingdom, as he says: [10]

”…and the lord of Tanor (Vettathuraja), who carried on a great sea-trade with many ships, which trafficked all about the coast of India with passes from our (Portuguese) Governors, for he only dealt in wares of the country; and thus he was the greatest possible friend of the Portuguese, and those who went to his dwelling were entertained with the greatest honour, as if they had been his brothers. In fact for this purpose he kept houses fitted up, and both cots and bed-steads furnished in our fashion, with tables and chairs and casks of wine, with which he regaled our people, giving them entertainments and banquets, insomuch that it seemed as if he were going to become a Christian…”

However, the allegiance of the Muslim merchants in the region still resided with the Zamorin of Calicut. [3] It was a brave Tānūr merchant who sailed his 8 ships and 40 boats before the eyes of the Portuguese viceroy Duarte de Menezes from Calicut to the Red Sea in 1523. [3] At that time, the Portuguese were very weak in the region to react. The Portuguese viceroy Vasco da Gama died in December 1524. [3] Soon after, some 100 ships, with the support of Zamorin, attacked the Jewish and Christian settlements in Kodungallūr. [3] This attacking Moplah party included men from Tānūr and Chāliyam. [3]

In 1528, when a Portuguese ship was wrecked off his coast, the king of Vettom gave shelter to crew and refused to surrender them to the Zamorin. [22] But, Tohfut-ul-Mujahideen says that the ship was a French:

"And in the year (A.H.) 935, a ship belonging to the Franks was wrecked off Tanoor. Now the Ray of that place affording aid to the crew, the Zamorin sent a messenger to him demanding of him the surrender of the Franks who composed it, together with such parts of the cargo of the ship as had been saved, but that chieftain having refused compliance with this demand, a treaty of peace was entered into with the Franks by him; and from this time the subjects of the Ray of Tanoor traded under the protection of the passes of the Franks." [3]

Then, Nuno da Cunha [22] 's envoys entered into a successful intrigue with king of Vettam (the same king to be converted Christianity later) to make a fort near Ponnāni River (Bharathappuzha), in the opposite bank (north) of Ponnāni town. However the Portuguese were not successful as the ships bringing building materials were destroyed when trying to cross the dangerous river mouth and a storm. [22]

In 1529 being joined by six brigantines and a galley, with 100 chosen men, commanded by Christopher de Melo, the united squadron of Lope Vaz de Sampayo took a very large ship laden with pepper in the river Chale, though defended by numerous artillery and 800 men. [23] [3]

#### Battles at Chaliyam Fort

Siege and battles at Chaliyam Fort
Part of Portuguese battles in the Indian Ocean
Date 1538-40, 1571 Chaliyam, India Victory of Zamorin of Calicut, destruction of Chaliya,m fort
Belligerents
Portuguese Empire
Tanur, Malappuram
Chaliyam
Zamorin of Calicut
Mappilas from Ponnani, Punur, Tanur and Parappanangadi
Athed (?) Zamorin of Calicut
Pattu Kunnhāli (Kunnhāli Marakkār III)

The strategic Chaliyam -also known as Challe- was a Portuguese garrison between 1531–1571. [24] Chāliyam was a strategic site, for it was only 10 km south of Calicut and was situated in a river that falls into the sea about three leagues from Calicut, which is navigable by boats all the way to the foot of the Ghat mountains. [25]

In 1531, the same 'to be converted' Vettam king enabled [26] the construction of an important Portuguese fort in Chāliyam island as a part of a peace treaty between the Zamorin and the Portuguese viceroy (the governor-general) Nuno da Cunha. [25] Being perplexed by the great losses the Samoothiri was continually sustaining through the Portuguese superiority at sea, so he made overtures towards an accommodation and under Nuno da Cunha the Portuguese were retaining their lost supremacy. [25] Chalium was controlled by the Parappanad raja (aka king of Chalium) called Urinama. [25] Like the Vettathuraja he also helped the Portuguese. Parappanaduraja and Vettathuraja were anxious to throw off their subjection to the Samoothiri and to enter into alliance with the Portuguese, in hopes of becoming rich by participating in their trade.

Immediately upon procuring the consent of the Zamorin to construct the fort, Nuno da Cunha set out from Goa with 150 sail of vessels, in which were 3000 Portuguese troops and 1000 native Lascarines. So much diligence was used in carrying on the work, even the gentlemen participating in the labour, that in twenty-six days it was in a defensible situation, being surrounded by a rampart nine feet thick and of sufficient height, strengthened by towers and bastions or bulwarks at proper places. [25] It's said that the Portuguese destroyed a nearby mosque and used its stones to build the fort! The rectangular shaped fort was built to decline the Arab sea trade in the region. In 1532 with the help of the king of Vettam a chapel was built at Chaliyam, together with a house for the commander, barracks for the soldiers, and store-houses for trade. Diego de Pereira, who had negotiated the treaty with the Zamorin, was left in command of this new fortress, with a garrison of 250 men; and Manuel de Sousa had orders to secure its safety by sea, with a squadron of twenty-two vessels. [25]

The Samoothiri soon repented of having allowed this fort to be built in his dominions, and used ineffectual endeavours to induce the Parappanatturaja, Caramanlii (King of Beypore?) (Some records say that Vettathuraja was also with them [25] ) to break with the Portuguese, even going to war against them. [3]

#### Samoothiri's first attempt (1538–40)

But within seven years, in 1538, the Zamorin attacked Vettattnād and Chāliyam (Parappanad). The king of Parappanād made an unconditional peace with Zamorin. [3] The king of Vettam, after a protracted fight, was compelled to surrender some of his lands near Ponnāni and Chāliyam island. [3] But Portuguese fort could not be destroyed. The Zamorin now had his absolute control over the area around the fort. [3] Only by 1540, the Zamorin entered into an agreement with the Portuguese and stopped the war. But the skirmishes continued in the seas by Moplah navigators based at Ponnāni. [3]

#### Conversion of Vettathuraja

From 1545, the Vettathuraja banked on the Portuguese to help him solidify his position vis-à-vis the Samoothiri. [3] In his experience in dealing with the Portuguese, he presumed that converting to Christianity was the way to express his political alliance and client relationship. Vettathuraja announced to the Portuguese religious specialists that his conversion had to remain secret in order not to lose his honour or his Caste. In fact, it was his close political (and religious ties) to the Portuguese that may have brought him certain disadvantages on the complicated checkerboard of power relations on the Malabar Coast. [3] Jesuit records claim that the Vettathuraja thus played his own double game with the Portuguese and with the other rival little (and bigger) kings in the region. The Vettathuraja demanded to preserve after conversion certain external signs of his caste, such as the Poonul, as well as other Hindu customs. The unanimous opinion of the ecclesiastics in Goa was that such dissimulation went against the decisions of the Church Fathers. The theologians in Goa were puzzled and undecided about the question as to whether or not to permit Vettathuraja to continue wearing, the external signs of a Brahman. [3]

An urgent ad hoc Consultation headed by the Governor, Jorge Cabral, debated this issue and drafted some of the first typically accommodationist propositions. It was the Bishop, Juan de Albuquerque, who furnished Biblical examples on behalf of such accommodating practices. [27] [28]

Tanur ( Tanore or Banor) town was one of the oldest Portuguese settlements in Kerala. In 1546, Saint Francis Xavier visited Tanur. [2] [5]

In 1549 the King of Vettam fell in the offers of the Portuguese and officially converted to Christianity. [2] The conversion took place in Goa in a festive mood led by Jesuit padre named António Gomes. António Gomes was a Catholic missionary arrived from Goa in October 1548. The offer was to make him the king of Kērala by defeating the Zamorin. The poor king believed them. At the time, the choice to convert Vettathuraja whose tiny realm was jammed between Samoothiri to the north, mostly hostile to Portuguese, and the fortress of Chaliyam guarded by Portuguese Captain Diego de Pereira and a handful of soldiers appeared both practical and providential. Jesuit records says that Vettathuraja himself begged to be converted and asked for a Christian priest to reside in Tanur. [3] After the conversion, he was called Dom João. Vettathuraja was not permitted in Goa. After various spectacular or secret negotiations, confinements and escapes, Vettathuraja did finally visit Goa in October 1549. He received a sumptuous and ostentatious reception. He was paraded in procession through Goa, accompanied by various musical instruments such as trombetas, kettledrums and shawms, artillery discharges, from church bells, Vettathuraja was dressed up by the Portuguese as they felt fitting for the king. [2]

That is, as a Portuguese fidalgo, “in honourable and rich clothes, with a very rich sword fastened [around the waist], with a rich dagger, one golden chain, black velvet slippers, a black velvet hat with a printed design". [6]

But, a few days after, the king returned to Hinduism saying he did not have any gain. Once he regained his kingdom loaded with Portuguese gifts, Vettathuraja doffed his Portuguese clothes and in the long run disappointed the Governor, Jorge Cabral and the Jesuits. It was the politics of pepper that undid his friendship with the Portuguese. On 21 February 1550, Cabral wrote to the king of Portugal Dom João III doubting that Vettathuraja converted sincerely, “Jesuits who had so much confidence in conversion of Vettathuraja confess that they were deceived, but by caution, I have to dissemble with him". In addition, he cautioned that “the conversion to Christianity might produce "discord" between the Samoothiri and Kochi and endanger the regular procurement of pepper in Kerala". [6] [3]

In fact, the Fourth Pepper War broke out sometime before June (1550) over a disputed territory—the island of Varutela—between the King of Kochi and the king of Vadakkumkur. A series of bloody encounters ensued and the Samoothiri allied with the Vettathuraja on the side of the king of Vadakkumkur were opposed to the King of Kochi and the Portuguese. [2] After negotiations, rendered even more complicated by the appointment of the new Portuguese Viceroy, Dom Affonso de Noronha, the conflict remained unsettled and the amuck runners of the deceased King of Vadakkumkur wreaked havoc in the town of Kochi. Consequently, the cargo of pepper was not sent to Lisbon until the late February 1551. [6] [3]

Roughly from April until September 1549, Gomes partly resided in Tanur, and partly travelled southwards along the Malabar Coast. He had been officially sent by the bishop, Juan de Albuquerque, to instruct the Vettathuraja reputed to have been secretly converted to Christianity the previous year (1548). [6] [3]

By 1549, the situation had somewhat changed, the Vettathuraja was secretly converted by the vicar in Chaliyam, João Soares, and the Franciscan Frey Vicente de Lagos, who gave the neophyte a metal crucifix to hang onto his thread, "hidden on his chest". [6] [3]

And while all went just fine for António Gomes who was allowed to build the church in the town, to baptise the Vettathuraja’s wife as Dona Maria, and to perform Christian marriage rites for the kingly couple—all this was done in secret, "ocultamente".

When Lopo Soares arrived at Cochin (1553) after his victory over the Samoothiri the Vettathuraja sent a complain to him against the Samoothiri by ambassadors, begging for peace and help against the Samoothiri, having fallen out with him for reasons that touched the service of the King of Portugal. [10]

In 1569 and 1570 there were again wars with the Portuguese and Zamorin's forces at Chāliyam fort. In these wars the notorious Moplah dacoit Kutti Pōker lost his life in his fight against the Portuguese at Chāliyam fort. [6] [3]

#### Samoothiri's second attempt (1571)

In 1571, the Zamorin got a fresh chance against the Portuguese. He began a siege to capture the Chāliyam fort with help of the Moplahs from the surroundings on Sufur 14 or 15 of that year. [11] The Moplah admiral Pattu Kunnhāli (Kunnhāli Marakkār III) led the navy of the Zamorin in the siege. Moplahs from Ponnani, Punur, Tanur, Parappanangadi were in the fleet. The Portuguese lost the war. Many of their soldiers died inside the fortress. The seizing force had dug many trenches around the fortress. The Zamorin spent great amount of money in the siege. At the end of the two months of siege, Zamorin himself came to Chalium from Ponnani and began to command. The Portuguese were starving inside the garrison. The food materials sent from Cochin and Cannanore were blocked long before it reached. [11]

After two months of siege, on the midnight of 15 September 1571, the Portuguese led by Athed surrendered to the alliance. [11] They agreed empty the fortress on the condition that no one will be harmed. The Vettam king had to escort the Portuguese in their return journey to Tanur. Then they were sent to Cochin. It was too late for the backup from Goa.

The Zamorin destroyed the fort and the chapel leaving not one stone upon another which was his greatest problem ever since its construction in 1531. [3] He sent most of the debris to Calicut and he gave that portion of land to build a new mosque. [3] And Zamorin gave Kottaparamba and surrounding areas, as earlier decided, to the king of Parappanād (aka king of Chalium), his ally in the siege. [11]

Antonio Fernandes de Chalium (Chale) held an important command under Portuguese generals, and was raised to the dignity of a Knight of the military Order of Christ. He was a convert from Chalium (Chale). Killed in action in 1571, Antonio Fernandes received a state funeral at Goa. [29]

The Portuguese sailors burned Chāliyam town in 1572 as revenge. [11]

### Post-Portuguese history

By 17th century, the Portuguese authority on the Malabar coast significantly reduced with emergence of the Dutch. Soon the small principalities in the region became puppets in the hands of the two Colonial powers and fought each other. [6] [2] In 1658 the crown of Cochin became vacant and five princes from Tānūr dynasty and Aroor dynasty were adopted to the palace by the regent of Cochin, Queen Gangādhara Lakshmi (1656–1658), and were given the right to succeed. This regent Queen was under the influence of the Portuguese and later the eldest member of the adoptees from Tanur, Rama Varma (1658–1662), was crowned. This incidence of adoption is mentioned in some of the local folk tales. But Henric Vanrid has stated that the number of adoptions as four. Two of the five adopted were from Tanur, but there is no hint of how many people were adopted from Aroor and what happened to them later. But, nine of them survived to be kings. [6]

But, an elder branch (mūtta tāvazhi) of the Cochin dynasty itself ignored that adoptions and appealed to the Zamorin of Calicut for help. The leader of the elder branch was the dispossessed prince Vīra Kērala Varma. The Zamorin decided to help the elder branch and Āditya Varma, king of Vadakkumkūr, king of Edappally and chief of Pāliyam rallied around the Zamorin in support of the elder branch's dispossessed prince. [2] The king of Purakkad supported the ruling Tānūr princes. On the advice of the chief of Pāliyam, the dispossessed prince set sail to Colombo in Ceylon and asked help from the Dutch governor, Joan Maetsuycker, against the Portuguese-supported ruling princes. Later he sought exile in Colombo. The Dutch now found a huge chance of getting a major say in the politics of Malabar. [2] In 1661, the Dutch led the allies of the dispossessed prince, with the armies of Zamorin of Calicut, against the Portuguese and the ruling Cochin king (Tānūr adoptee). The city of Cochin was attacked and the battle resulted in a disastrous failure of the Portuguese and Cochin rulers. Three of the Tānūr princes including Rama Varma killed in the war, Rani Gangadharalakshmi was sent to prison and the ruling king escaped to Eranākulam where he was given refuge by the king of Purakkad. After the death of Rama Varma and the other adopted prince Goda Varma (1662–1663), only survivor from Tanur, was crowned. On 7 January 1663, the Dutch attacked Cochin Port again and the prince surrendered to the Dutch. Vīra Kērala Varma (1663–1687) later crowned as the king of Cochin by the Dutch. [2]

With the eclipse of the Portuguese influence in Malabar, Kingdom of Tanur reduced into the status of one of the numerous petty states in the region. [2] In the 18th century, Kingdom of Mysore expanded their territory to the Malabar Coast and Tanur royal family lost many of its members during the invasion of Mysore. By the treaty of Seringapatam Mysore ceded Malabar to the English East India Company. On 14 August 1792, a minister of Tanur took over the kingdom for his king from the East India Company. [2] By the death of the Vettom king on 24 May 1793 the Tanur dynasty came to an end. [6] That was the time when the Joint Commissioners were doing the revenue settlements of the kingdom as the beginning of the British occupation in Malabār. Since there is no heir to the throne, the British took over the rule again and soon absorbed Tanur to the newly formed Malabar District. [6] The temple of the Tanur royal family was transferred to the Zamorin of Calicut in 1842. [6]

## Ponnani Canal

Ponnani Canal was constructed for the transportation of goods from Ponnani to Tirur Railway Station. Here is a description about the Ponnani Canal by Basel Mission employees at Codacal. [30]

...nowadays a steamship travels between Ponani and Tirur through the Canal, where the most convenient railway station for Ponnani is to be found. The ticket costs only 4 annas, although the distance is 10 km...

## Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics

The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries. In attempting to solve astronomical problems, the Kerala school independently created a number of important mathematics concepts, including series expansion for trigonometric functions. [8] Their work, completed two centuries before the invention of calculus in Europe, provided what is now considered the first example of a power series (apart from geometric series). [31] However, they did not formulate a systematic theory of differentiation and integration, nor is there any direct evidence of their results being transmitted outside Kerala. [32] [33] [34] [35]

The Kerala school has made a number of contributions to the fields of infinite series and calculus. These include the following (infinite) geometric series:

${\displaystyle {\frac {1}{1-x}}=1+x+x^{2}+x^{3}+\cdots {\text{ for }}|x|<1}$ [36]

The Kerala school made intuitive use of mathematical induction, though the inductive hypothesis was not yet formulated or employed in proofs. [8] They used this to discover a semi-rigorous proof of the result:

${\displaystyle 1^{p}+2^{p}+\cdots +n^{p}\approx {\frac {n^{p+1}}{p+1}}}$

for large n.

They applied ideas from (what was to become) differential and integral calculus to obtain (Taylor–Maclaurin) infinite series for ${\displaystyle \sin x}$, ${\displaystyle \cos x}$, and ${\displaystyle \arctan x}$. [37] The Tantrasangraha-vakhya gives the series in verse, which when translated to mathematical notation, can be written as: [8]

${\displaystyle r\arctan \left({\frac {y}{x}}\right)={\frac {1}{1}}\cdot {\frac {ry}{x}}-{\frac {1}{3}}\cdot {\frac {ry^{3}}{x^{3}}}+{\frac {1}{5}}\cdot {\frac {ry^{5}}{x^{5}}}-\cdots ,{\text{ where }}{\frac {y}{x}}\leq 1.}$
${\displaystyle r\sin {\frac {x}{r}}=x-x\cdot {\frac {x^{2}}{(2^{2}+2)r^{2}}}+x\cdot {\frac {x^{2}}{(2^{2}+2)r^{2}}}\cdot {\frac {x^{2}}{(4^{2}+4)r^{2}}}-\cdot }$
${\displaystyle r\left(1-\cos {\frac {x}{r}}\right)=r{\frac {x^{2}}{(2^{2}-2)r^{2}}}-r{\frac {x^{2}}{(2^{2}-2)r^{2}}}\cdot {\frac {x^{2}}{(4^{2}-4)r^{2}}}+\cdots }$

where, for ${\displaystyle r=1,}$ the series reduce to the standard power series for these trigonometric functions, for example:

${\displaystyle \sin x=x-{\frac {x^{3}}{3!}}+{\frac {x^{5}}{5!}}-{\frac {x^{7}}{7!}}+\cdots }$ and
${\displaystyle \cos x=1-{\frac {x^{2}}{2!}}+{\frac {x^{4}}{4!}}-{\frac {x^{6}}{6!}}+\cdots }$

(The Kerala school did not use the "factorial" symbolism.)

The Kerala school made use of the rectification (computation of length) of the arc of a circle to give a proof of these results. (The later method of Leibniz, using quadrature (i.e. computation of area under the arc of the circle), was not yet developed.) [8] They also made use of the series expansion of ${\displaystyle \arctan x}$ to obtain an infinite series expression (later known as Gregory series) for ${\displaystyle \pi }$: [8]

${\displaystyle {\frac {\pi }{4}}=1-{\frac {1}{3}}+{\frac {1}{5}}-{\frac {1}{7}}+\cdots }$

Their rational approximation of the error for the finite sum of their series are of particular interest. For example, the error, ${\displaystyle f_{i}(n+1)}$, (for n odd, and i = 1, 2, 3) for the series:

${\displaystyle {\frac {\pi }{4}}\approx 1-{\frac {1}{3}}+{\frac {1}{5}}-\cdots (-1)^{(n-1)/2}{\frac {1}{n}}+(-1)^{(n+1)/2}f_{i}(n+1)}$
where ${\displaystyle f_{1}(n)={\frac {1}{2n}},\ f_{2}(n)={\frac {n/2}{n^{2}+1}},\ f_{3}(n)={\frac {(n/2)^{2}+1}{(n^{2}+5)n/2}}.}$

They manipulated the terms, using the partial fraction expansion of :${\displaystyle {\frac {1}{n^{3}-n}}}$ to obtain a more rapidly converging series for ${\displaystyle \pi }$: [8]

${\displaystyle {\frac {\pi }{4}}={\frac {3}{4}}+{\frac {1}{3^{3}-3}}-{\frac {1}{5^{3}-5}}+{\frac {1}{7^{3}-7}}-\cdots }$

They used the improved series to derive a rational expression, [8] ${\displaystyle 104348/33215}$ for ${\displaystyle \pi }$ correct up to nine decimal places, i.e. ${\displaystyle 3.141592653}$. They made use of an intuitive notion of a limit to compute these results. [8] The Kerala school mathematicians also gave a semi-rigorous method of differentiation of some trigonometric functions, [38] though the notion of a function, or of exponential or logarithmic functions, was not yet formulated.

The so-called "Veṭṭathu Tradition" or Veṭṭathu Sampradayam of the Kerala dance drama Kathakali is attributed to a Raja of Veṭṭathunāṭu (1630–1640). The Raja introduced several important developments into the presentation of Kathakali; [39]

• Introduction of two professional background singers [39]
• Introduction of chengilas (cymbals) to beat the tala (rhythm) [39]
• Introduction of chenda, a powerful drum played with sticks. Chendas were originally played in the outdoor temple ceremonies to accompany shadow puppets. [39]
• Two singers, the Ponnikkaran and the Sinkidikkaran, were introduced to add the Thiranukuu. Thiranukuu is a method of introducing the evil characters of the play to the audience from behind a large satin curtain, held up at the front of the stage. [39]

## Legacy

• T. Raman Nambeesan (1888–1983) wrote a historical novel called Keralesvaran (1926) about a ruler of Tanur.
• Chandrika Vithi written by Muriyanattu Nampyar mentions a Vettathu raja called Viraraya of Prakasa Kingdom'.

## Related Research Articles

Kozhikode, also known in English as Calicut, is a city along the Malabar Coast in the state of Kerala in India. It has a corporation limit population of 609,224 and a metropolitan population of more than 2 million, making it the second largest metropolitan area in Kerala and the 19th largest in India. Kozhikode is classified as a Tier 2 city by the Government of India.

Malappuram, is one of the 14 districts in the Indian state of Kerala, with a coastline of 70 km (43 mi). It is the most populous district of Kerala, which is home to around 13% of the total population of the state. The district was formed on 16 June 1969, spanning an area of about 3,554 km2 (1,372 sq mi). It is the third-largest district of Kerala by area, as well as the largest district in the state, bounded by Western Ghats and Arabian Sea to either side. The district is divided into seven Taluks: Eranad, Kondotty, Nilambur, Perinthalmanna, Ponnani, Tirur, and Tirurangadi.

Kodungallur is a historically significant town situated on the banks of river Periyar on the Malabar Coast in Thrissur district of Kerala, India. It is 29 kilometres (18 mi) north of Kochi (Cochin) by National Highway 66 and 38 km (24 mi) from Thrissur. Kodungallur, being a port city at the northern end of the Kerala lagoons, was a strategic entry point for the naval fleets to the extensive Kerala backwaters.

Kingdom of Cochin, named after its capital city of Kochi, was a kingdom on the Malabar Coast in Kerala, that ruled from the early 12th century to 1949.

Ponnani is a municipality in Ponnani Taluk, Malappuram District, in the state of Kerala, India. It serves as the administrative center of the Taluk and Block Panchayat of the same name. It is situated at the estuary of Bharatappuzha, on its southern bank, and is bounded by the Arabian Sea on the west and a series of brackish lagoons in the south.

The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics or the Kerala school was a school of mathematics and astronomy founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Tirur, Malappuram, Kerala, India which included among its members: Parameshvara, Neelakanta Somayaji, Jyeshtadeva, Achyuta Pisharati, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri and Achyuta Panikkar. The school flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries and the original discoveries of the school seems to have ended with Narayana Bhattathiri (1559–1632). In attempting to solve astronomical problems, the Kerala school independently discovered a number of important mathematical concepts. Their most important results—series expansion for trigonometric functions—were described in Sanskrit verse in a book by Neelakanta called Tantrasangraha, and again in a commentary on this work, called Tantrasangraha-vakhya, of unknown authorship. The theorems were stated without proof, but proofs for the series for sine, cosine, and inverse tangent were provided a century later in the work Yuktibhasa, written in Malayalam, by Jyesthadeva, and also in a commentary on Tantrasangraha.

The term Kerala was first epigraphically recorded as Keralaputra (Cheras) in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription by emperor Ashoka of Magadha. It was mentioned as one of four independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka's time, the others being the Cholas, Pandyas and Satyaputras. The Cheras transformed Kerala into an international trade centre by establishing trade relations across the Arabian Sea with all major Mediterranean and Red Sea ports as well those of Eastern Africa and the Far East. The dominion of Cheras was located in one of the key routes of the ancient Indian Ocean trade. The early Cheras collapsed after repeated attacks from the neighboring Cholas and Rashtrakutas.

Tanur is a coastal town, a municipality, and a block located in Tirur Taluk, Malappuram district, Kerala, India. It is located on the Malabar Coast, 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) north of Tirur and 9 kilometres south of Parappanangadi. It is the 17th-most populated municipality in the state, the fourth-most populated municipality in the district, and the second-most densely populated municipality in Malappuram district, having about 3,568 residents per square kilometre as of the year 2011. Tanur town is located south of the estuary of Poorappuzha River, which is a tributary of Kadalundi River. Tanur was one of the major ports in the southwestern coast of India during the medieval period. It was ruled by the Kingdom of Tanur, also known as Vettathunadu, who were vassals to the Zamorin of Calicut. In the early medieval period, under the chiefs of Kozhikode and Tanur, Tanur developed as one of the important maritime trade centre on the Malabar Coast. Later it became a part of Vettathunadu Taluk in Malabar District under British Raj, which was merged with the Ponnani taluk in 1860-1861. Tanur railway station is a part of the oldest Railway line of Kerala laid in 1861 from Tirur to Chaliyam. Presently, the status of Tanur is reduced to a major fishing centre in Kerala.

Kochi is a metro city located in the Ernakulam District in the Indian state of Kerala. Kochi, which is the largest city in Kerala is located about 200 km from Trivandrum, the capital of Kerala.

The Samoothiri was the hereditary Nair monarch and ruler of the Kingdom of Kozhikode (Calicut) on the South Malabar region of India. Calicut was one of the important trading ports on the south-western coast of India. At the peak of their reign, the Zamorins ruled over a region from Kollam (Quilon) to Panthalayini Kollam (Koyilandy).

Valanchery is a major town and one of the 12 municipalities in Malappuram district, Kerala, India. It is one of the four municipalities in Tirur Taluk, besides Tirur, Kottakkal, and Tanur. It is situated about 40 kilometres (25 mi) southeast to Karipur International Airport and 25 kilometres (16 mi) southwards to the district headquarters, and forms a part of Malappuram metropolitan area. It is also one of the major commercial towns under the Malappuram urban agglomeration. Valanchery, which was a part of the erstwhile princely state of the Valluvanad in the early medieval period, had been under the direct control of the Zamorin of Calicut following the Tirunavaya war of 14th century CE. During British Raj, Valanchery was included in the Ponnani Taluk of erstwhile Malabar District. Vattapara accident zone is an accident zone near Valanchery. Valanchery is situated on National Highway 66.

Kadalundi is a village in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India. It is a coastal village close to the Arabian Sea. Kadalundi is famous for its bird sanctuary, which is home to various migratory birds during certain seasons and has been recently declared as a bio-reserve. The Kadalundi-Vallikkunnu community reserve is the first community reserve in Kerala. The Kadalundi River and the Chaliyar river, two of the longest rivers of Kerala, merges with the Arabian Sea at Kadalundi. The first railway line in Kerala was laid in 1861 from Tirur to Chaliyam through Tanur, Parappanangadi, Vallikkunnu, and Kadalundi.

The Sixth India Armada was assembled in 1504 on the order of King Manuel I of Portugal and placed under the command of Lopo Soares de Albergaria.

Ponnani Taluk comes under Tirur revenue division in Malappuram district of Kerala, India. Its headquarters is the city of Ponnani. Ponnani Taluk contains Ponnani Municipality and nine gram panchayats. Most of the administrative offices are located in the Mini-Civil Station at Ponnani.

The Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, was the kingdom of the Zamorin of Calicut, in the present-day Indian state of Kerala. Present-day Kozhikode is the second largest city in Kerala, as well as the headquarters of Kozhikode district.

Malappuram is one of the 14 districts in the South Indian state of Kerala. The district has a unique and eventful history starting from pre-historic times. During the early medieval period, the district was the home to two of the four major kingdoms that ruled Kerala. Perumpadappu was the original hometown of the Kingdom of Cochin, which is also known as Perumbadappu Swaroopam, and Nediyiruppu was the original hometown of the Zamorin of Calicut, which is also known as Nediyiruppu Swaroopam. Besides, the original headquarters of the Palakkad Rajas were also at Athavanad in the district.

South Malabar refers to a geographical area of the southwestern coast of India covering some parts of the present-day Kerala. South Malabar covers the regions included in present-day Kozhikode Taluk of Kozhikode district, whole area of Malappuram district, Chavakkad Taluk of Thrissur district, and Palakkad district excluding parts of Chittur Taluk. The Fort Kochi region of Kochi city also historically belongs to South Malabar. The term South Malabar refers to the region of the erstwhile Malabar District which lies south to the river Korapuzha and bears high cultural similarity with both the Cochin as well as the North Malabar region.

Mangalam is a coastal village in Tirur Taluk, Malappuram district, Kerala, India. The village is located 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) south-west to the town of Tirur, 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) away from Ponnani, and 17 kilometres (11 mi) south to Tanur. Kootayi, known for its picturesque beach, is an important town in the jurisdiction of Mangalam Grama Panchayat.

## References

1. M. K. Devassy (1965), 1961 Census Handbook- Kozhikode District (PDF), Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala and The Union Territory of Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands, p. 77
2. Kerala History, A. Shreedhara Menon, 2007 Edition, D C Books, Kottayam
3. S. Muhammad Hussain Nainar (1942). Tuhfat-al-Mujahidin: An Historical Work in The Arabic Language. University of Madras.
4. Manorama Yearbook 1995, 1996
5. Logan, William: Malabār, the manual of Malabār, p.659
6. Madras Legislative Assembly Debates. Official Report by Madras (India : State). Legislature. Legislative Assembly, p.373
7. Roy, Ranjan (1990). "Discovery of the Series Formula for π by Leibniz, Gregory, and Nilakantha". Mathematics Magazine. 63 (5): 291–306. doi:10.2307/2690896. JSTOR   2690896.
8. Pingree, David (1992), "Hellenophilia versus the History of Science", Isis, 83 (4): 554–63, Bibcode:1992Isis...83..554P, doi:10.1086/356288, JSTOR   234257, S2CID   68570164, One example I can give you relates to the Indian Mādhava's demonstration, in about 1400 A.D., of the infinite power series of trigonometrical functions using geometrical and algebraic arguments. When this was first described in English by Charles Whish, in the 1830s, it was heralded as the Indians' discovery of the calculus. This claim and Mādhava's achievements were ignored by Western historians, presumably at first because they could not admit that an Indian discovered the calculus, but later because no one read anymore the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, in which Whish's article was published. The matter resurfaced in the 1950s, and now we have the Sanskrit texts properly edited, and we understand the clever way that Mādhava derived the series without the calculus, but many historians still find it impossible to conceive of the problem and its solution in terms of anything other than the calculus and proclaim that the calculus is what Mādhava found. In this case, the elegance and brilliance of Mādhava's mathematics are being distorted as they are buried under the current mathematical solution to a problem to which he discovered an alternate and powerful solution.
9. Logan, William: Malabār, the manual of Malabār
10. Menon, A. Sreedhara (2007). A Survey of Kerala History. DC Books. ISBN   9788126415786.
11. Coastal Histories: Society and Ecology in Pre-modern India, Yogesh Sharma, Primus Books 2010
12. Gurukkal, R., & Whittaker, D. (2001). In search of Muziris. Journal of Roman Archaeology,14, 334–350.
13. A. Shreedhara Menon, A Survey of Kerala History
14. According to Pliny the Elder, goods from India were sold in the Empire at 100 times their original purchase price. See
15. Bostock, John (1855). "26 (Voyages to India)". Pliny the Elder, The Natural History. London: Taylor and Francis.
16. Indicopleustes, Cosmas (1897). Christian Topography. 11. United Kingdom: The Tertullian Project. pp. 358–373.
17. Das, Santosh Kumar (2006). The Economic History of Ancient India. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd. p. 301.
18. Malayala Manorama daily from Malayala Manorama group, India
19. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
20. Panikkassery, Velayudhan. MM Publications (2007), Kottayam India
21. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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23. ( Stillwell 2004 , p. 173)
24. ( Bressoud 2002 , p. 12) Quote: "There is no evidence that the Indian work on series was known beyond India, or even outside Kerala, until the nineteenth century. Gold and Pingree assert [4] that by the time these series were rediscovered in Europe, they had, for all practical purposes, been lost to India. The expansions of the sine, cosine, and arc tangent had been passed down through several generations of disciples, but they remained sterile observations for which no one could find much use."
25. Plofker 2001 , p. 293 Quote: "It is not unusual to encounter in discussions of Indian mathematics such assertions as that "the concept of differentiation was understood [in India] from the time of Manjula (... in the 10th century)" [Joseph 1991, 300], or that "we may consider Madhava to have been the founder of mathematical analysis" (Joseph 1991, 293), or that Bhaskara II may claim to be "the precursor of Newton and Leibniz in the discovery of the principle of the differential calculus" (Bag 1979, 294). ... The points of resemblance, particularly between early European calculus and the Keralese work on power series, have even inspired suggestions of a possible transmission of mathematical ideas from the Malabar coast in or after the 15th century to the Latin scholarly world (e.g., in (Bag 1979, 285)). ... It should be borne in mind, however, that such an emphasis on the similarity of Sanskrit (or Malayalam) and Latin mathematics risks diminishing our ability fully to see and comprehend the former. To speak of the Indian "discovery of the principle of the differential calculus" somewhat obscures the fact that Indian techniques for expressing changes in the Sine by means of the Cosine or vice versa, as in the examples we have seen, remained within that specific trigonometric context. The differential "principle" was not generalized to arbitrary functions—in fact, the explicit notion of an arbitrary function, not to mention that of its derivative or an algorithm for taking the derivative, is irrelevant here"
26. Pingree 1992 , p. 562 Quote: "One example I can give you relates to the Indian Mādhava's demonstration, in about 1400 A.D., of the infinite power series of trigonometrical functions using geometrical and algebraic arguments. When this was first described in English by Charles Whish, in the 1830s, it was heralded as the Indians' discovery of the calculus. This claim and Mādhava's achievements were ignored by Western historians, presumably at first because they could not admit that an Indian discovered the calculus, but later because no one read anymore the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, in which Whish's article was published. The matter resurfaced in the 1950s, and now we have the Sanskrit texts properly edited, and we understand the clever way that Mādhava derived the series without the calculus; but many historians still find it impossible to conceive of the problem and its solution in terms of anything other than the calculus and proclaim that the calculus is what Mādhava found. In this case the elegance and brilliance of Mādhava's mathematics are being distorted as they are buried under the current mathematical solution to a problem to which he discovered an alternate and powerful solution."
27. Katz 1995 , pp. 173–174 Quote: "How close did Islamic and Indian scholars come to inventing the calculus? Islamic scholars nearly developed a general formula for finding integrals of polynomials by A.D. 1000—and evidently could find such a formula for any polynomial in which they were interested. But, it appears, they were not interested in any polynomial of degree higher than four, at least in any of the material that has come down to us. Indian scholars, on the other hand, were by 1600 able to use ibn al-Haytham's sum formula for arbitrary integral powers in calculating power series for the functions in which they were interested. By the same time, they also knew how to calculate the differentials of these functions. So some of the basic ideas of calculus were known in Egypt and India many centuries before Newton. It does not appear, however, that either Islamic or Indian mathematicians saw the necessity of connecting some of the disparate ideas that we include under the name calculus. They were apparently only interested in specific cases in which these ideas were needed.
There is no danger, therefore, that we will have to rewrite the history texts to remove the statement that Newton and Leibniz invented the calculus. They were certainly the ones who were able to combine many differing ideas under the two unifying themes of the derivative and the integral, show the connection between them, and turn the calculus into the great problem-solving tool we have today."
28. Singh, A. N. (1936). "On the Use of Series in Hindu Mathematics". Osiris. 1: 606–628. doi:10.1086/368443. S2CID   144760421.
29. Bressoud, David. 2002. "Was Calculus Invented in India?" The College Mathematics Journal (Mathematical Association of America). 33(1):2–13.
30. Katz, V. J. 1995. "Ideas of Calculus in Islam and India." Mathematics Magazine (Mathematical Association of America), 68(3):163–174.
31. Culture of Kerala