Demographics of Kerala

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Demographics of Kerala
Kerala Population Pyramid in 5-year age groups (2011 census).png
Population pyramid taken from the 2011 census
Population34.8 million
Density859 per sq.km
Growth rate3.31% yearly (2021 estimate)
Life expectancy
  male75 years
  female80.15 years
Fertility rate1.82 births per woman
Infant mortality rate7 per 1000 live births
Net migration rate-0.08 per 1000 (2019 estimate)
Age structure
0–14 years19%
15–64 years70%
65 and over12%
Sex ratio
Total0.97 males/female
At birth1.04 males/female

Kerala is a state in south-western India. Most of Kerala's 34.8 million people (in 2011) are ethnically Malayalis (Malayalam speakers). Most of the Malayalam and English speaking Keralites derive their ancestry from Dravidian communities that settled in Kerala. Additional ancestries derive from millennia of trade links across the Arabian Sea, whereby people of Arab, Jewish, Syrian and other ethnicities settled in Kerala. Many of these immigrants intermarried with native Malayalam speakers resulting in formation of many Muslims and Christians in Kerala. [1] [2] Some Muslims and Christians thus take lineage from Middle Eastern settlers mixed with local population.

Contents

Malayalam is Kerala's official language and is spoken by at least 97% of the people of Kerala; the next most common languages are English and Tamil which is spoken mainly by migrant workers from the neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu. Tulu and Kannada is spoken in northern parts of Kasaragod district, bordering Karnataka. In addition, Kerala is home to 321,000 indigenous tribal Adivasis (1.10% of the populace). [3] Some 63% of tribals reside in the eastern districts of Wayanad (where 35.82% are tribals), Palakkad (1.02%), and Idukki (15.66%). [4] These groups, including the Paniyars, Mooppans, Irulars, Kurumbars, and Mudugars, [5] speak their own native languages. [6] [7] [8] Cholanaikkan tribe in the Silent Valley National Park were contacted only in the 1970s and they are the most isolated tribe in the state. [9]

Population

Population density of Kerala
Kerala density map1.PNG
Kerala's districts, shaded by population density (inhabitants per km2)
Source: [10]

Kerala is home to 2.76% of India's population, and at 859 persons per km2; [11] its land is three times as densely settled as the rest of India. Kerala's western coastal regions are the most densely settled with population of 2,022 persons per km2, 2.5 times the overall population density of the state, 859 persons per km2, leaving the eastern hills and mountains comparatively sparsely populated. [12] However, Kerala's population growth rate is far lower than the national average, although Kerala's population more than doubled between 1951 and 1991 – adding 15.6 million people to reach a total of 29.1 million residents in 1991 – the population stood at 31.8 million by 2001 and 33.3 million in 2011. [11] Kerala's people are most densely settled in the coastal region, leaving the eastern hills and mountains comparatively sparsely populated.[ citation needed ] Kerala is the second-most urbanised major state in the country with 47.7% urban population according to the 2011 Census of India. [13]

Hinduism is followed by the majority of Keralites (54.7%). The major religions followed in Kerala are Hinduism (54.7% — Hinduism in Kerala), Islam (26.6%) and Christianity (18.4%). [14]

Kerala also had a tiny Jewish population until recently, said to date from 587 BC when they fled the occupation of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. [15] The 2001 Indian census recorded only 51 Jews in Kerala. The synagogue in Kochi is the oldest in the Commonwealth of Nations.

The state has many famous temples, mosques, and churches. The oldest church in India is found in Kerala, believed to be established by St. Thomas, the disciple of Jesus Christ and the Cheramaan Juma Mosque is considered to be the oldest mosque in the Indian subcontinent which was built by an Islamic missionary Malik Dinar.

Historical population
YearPopulationDecadal growth
201133,406,0614.91
200131,841,3749.43
199129,098,51814.32
198125,453,68019.24
197121,347,37526.29
196116,903,71524.76
195113,549,11822.82
194111,031,54116.04
19319,507,05021.85
19217,802,1279.16
19117,147,67311.75
19016,392,620

Population graph of Kerala from 1910 to 2011

Source: [16]

Features

Distribution of Population in Malappuram, the most populous district of Kerala (2011). The distribution is similar to this pattern in every part of the state. The western Arabian Sea coastline is densely populated while the eastern hilly region adjacent to the Western Ghats is sparsely populated compared to its western coastal counterpart. Distribution of Population in Malappuram District.svg
Distribution of Population in Malappuram, the most populous district of Kerala (2011). The distribution is similar to this pattern in every part of the state. The western Arabian Sea coastline is densely populated while the eastern hilly region adjacent to the Western Ghats is sparsely populated compared to its western coastal counterpart.

Social development

Kerala ranks highest in India with respect to social development indices such as elimination of poverty, primary education and healthcare. This resulted from significant efforts begun in 1911 by the erstwhile Princely states of Cochin and Travancore to boost healthcare and education among the people and aided by the Christian missionaries. This central focus – deemed unusual in India – was then maintained after Kerala's post-independence inauguration as a state. [19] Thus, Kerala has the highest literacy rate in India of 93.91% (2011); [20] and life expectancy is now the highest in India. The suicide rates in Kerala are the highest in India. [21] As per the 2011 census, Kerala and Puducherry are the only domiciles in India with a female-to-male ratio higher than 0.99. The ratio for Kerala is 1.084 – 1084 females per 1000 males – while the national figure is 0.940. [22] It is also one of the states in India to have sub-replacement fertility. [23]

UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO) designated Kerala as the world's first "baby-friendly state" via its "Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative". The state is also known for Ayurveda, a traditional system of medicine – this traditional expertise is currently drawing increasing numbers of medical tourists. However, drawbacks to this situation includes the population's steady ageing – indeed, 11.2% of Keralites are age 60 or over. [19]

Kerala's unusual socioeconomic and demographic situation was summarised by author and environmentalist Bill McKibben: [24]

Expatriation and Emigration

As of 2011, a total of 2,280,000 Keralites reside outside India. Largest populations are found in UAE (883,313) and USA (680,076). [25]

The major concentrations of expat Keralites are in the following nations: (figures as of 2011) [26]

Diversity

There are more than 2,500,000 migrants living in Kerala, [27] mostly from Assam and West Bengal, constituting more than 8% of the population. There are also migrants from Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, and the North East. [28] [27] [29]

Studies indicate that by the time of 2026 state elections, migrants will become a crucial voting block in many of the constituencies in Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Kochi, Kozhikode, Thrissur and Kannur districts. [30]

Lists

Urban centres

According to 2011 Census of India, Kerala has six 1.5 million-plus urban agglomerations: Kochi, Kozhikode, Thrissur, Malappuram, Thiruvananthapuram, and Kannur, all of which has a population of at least 1.5 million. [31] [32] [33] Over a third of Keralites live in these large cities (a higher percentage than any other state), and over half the population lives in urban centres. [34]

 
Largest cities or towns in Kerala
2011 Census of India [35]
As per the population within their respective Municipal Corporation/Municipality limits
Rank District Pop.
Trivandrum Pattam skykline.jpg
Thiruvananthapuram
HiLITE City - Mixed Use Development Project in Calicut.jpg
Kozhikode
1 Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram district 968,990 Cityscape view from Kakkanad.jpg
Kochi
RP Mall, Kollam.jpg
Kollam
2 Kozhikode Kozhikode district 609,224
3 Kochi Ernakulam district 602,046
4 Kollam Kollam district 388,288
5 Thrissur Thrissur district 315,957
6 Kannur Kannur district 232,486
7 Alappuzha Alappuzha district 180,856
8 Kottayam Kottayam district 138,283
9 Palakkad Palakkad district 131,019
10 Manjeri Malappuram district 97,102

The above table lists Kerala cities in terms of their respective corporation statistics.

According to the 2011 Census, 7 of the top 50 most populous metropolitan areas in India belong to Kerala. They are Kochi, Kozhikode, Thrissur, Malappuram, Thiruvananthapuram, Kannur and Kollam ranking 17, 19, 21, 25, 26, 27 and 48 respectively. [33] [31]

The surprising aspect in these corporation numbers are that Kochi Corporation, despite being inside the state's largest urban agglomeration, is only the 2nd most populous and 4th largest in terms of area in the state. This anomaly is because the corporation limits have not been updated since its formation in 1967, and thus expansion of these outdated limits has become a big demand in Kochi. [36]

However, since cities are ranked in terms of their Urban Agglomeration statistics and not in terms of Local self governing bodies statistics (as seen in the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MOHUA) official rankings [37] ), Kochi secures the number 1 spot in the state in terms of largest cities as one can observe below.

Most populous urban agglomerations

The following is a list of most populous urban agglomerations in the Kerala state of India. Population statistics indicated are as of 2011 census. [38] [39] [40] [41]

(Note that this is a list of metropolitan (UA) population and does not indicate the corporation populations. Cities in India are officially ranked in terms of these numbers)

RankUAPopulation (2011)Population (2001)District
1 Kochi 2,117,9901,355,972 Ernakulam
2 Kozhikode 2,030,519715,681 Kozhikode
3 Thrissur 1,854,783103,122 Thrissur
4 Malappuram 1,698,645170,409 Malappuram
5 Thiruvananthapuram 1,679,7541,089,635 Thiruvananthapuram
6 Kannur 1,642,892498,207 Kannur
7 Kollam 1,110,005380,091 Kollam
8 Cherthala 455,408141,558 Alappuzha
9 Kayamkulam 427,09168,585 Alappuzha
10 Kottayam 357,533172,878 Kottayam
11 Palakkad 293,566283,369 Palakkad
12 Alappuzha 241,072282,675 Alappuzha
13 Ottappalam 238,23849,242 Palakkad
14 Kanhangad 229,706129,367 Kasaragod
15 Kasaragod 192,76175,968 Kasaragod
16 Changanassery 127,97151,967 Kottayam
17 Chalakkudy 114,90148,380 Thrissur
18 Kothamangalam 114,57437,173 Ernakulam

Ethnic groups

The vast majority of residents of Kerala are Malayalis, but there are many smaller ethnic groups including Tuluvas, Tamils, Kannadigas and Konkanis. In addition, as of early 2013 there are close to 2.5 million (7.5% of state population) migrant workers from other states of India in Kerala. [42]

Language

Languages of Kerala (2011) [43]

   Malayalam (97.02%)
   Tamil (1.49%)
  Others (1.5%)

Kerala is the most unilingual state of India in which about 97% of the total population speak Malayalam as their Native language. [43] However, this may be conflated due to the way languages are organised in the census system in India. In addition, there is a significant Tamil population in Idukki district, which accounts for 17.48% of its total population. [44] Tulu and Kannada are spoken in the northern portions of Kasaragod district, each of which account for 8.77% and 4.23% of total population in the district respectively. [44] [45]

Religion

Hindus constitute 54.7% of the population of Kerala, followed by Islam with 26.6% population and Christianity at third with 18.4% population as per 2011 census.

Religious Demographics of Kerala (1901–2011) [46] [47] [48]
Census
Year
Hindus Decadal Growth rate (%) Muslims Decadal Growth rate (%) Christians Decadal Growth rate (%)Total
Population
Decadal Growth rate (%)
19014,378,30568.5%N/A1,119,47317.5%N/A891,76713.9%N/A6,389,545100.0%N/A
19114,762,39366.8%+8.771,263,60217.7%+12.871,101,28915.5%+23.507,127,284100.0%+11.55
19215,052,03964.9%+6.081,360,18017.5%+7.641,376,35417.7%+24.987,788,573100.0%+9.28
19316,021,98263.4%+19.201,624,11217.1%+19.401,856,02419.5%+34.859,502,118100.0%+22.00
19416,699,60061.8%+11.251,883,78617.4%+11.602,263,88820.9%+21.9810,847,274100.0%+14.16
19518,344,35161.6%+24.552,374,59817.5%+26.052,825,72020.9%+24.8213,544,669100.0%+24.87
196110,282,56860.9%+23.233,027,63917.9%+27.503,587,36521.2%+26.9516,897,572100.0%+24.75
197112,683,27759.4%+23.354,162,71819.5%+37.494,494,08921.1%+25.2821,340,084100.0%+26.29
198114,801,34758.2%+16.705,409,68721.3%+30.005,233,86520.6%+16.4625,444,899100.0%+19.24
199116,668,58757.3%+12.626,788,35423.3%+25.495,621,51019.3%+7.4129,078,451100.0%+14.28
200117,920,10556.3%+7.517,863,84224.7%+15.846,057,42719.0%+7.7531,841,374100.0%+9.50
201118,282,49254.9%+2.028,873,47226.6%+12.846,141,26918.4%+1.3833,406,061100.0%+4.91
Indicates Least growth rateIndicates Most growth rateSource: Census of India (1901–2011)
Detailed breakdown of religious demographics
Religion2001 [49] %2011 [50] %
Hinduism17,883,44956.1618,282,49254.73
Islam7,863,84224.708,873,47226.56
Christianity6,057,42719.026,141,26918.38
Buddhism2,027>0.014,7520.01
Jainism4,5280.014,4890.01
Sikhism2,762>0.013,8140.01
Other2,256>0.017,6180.02
Not stated88,1550.26
Total31,841,374~10033,406,061~100

Religious demographics of Travancore (1816–1941)

Religious Demographics of Travancore (1816–1941)
Census year Hindus Christians Muslims Total population
1816 – 1820752,37182.99%112,15812.37%42,0584.64%906,587
18811,755,61073.12%498,54220.76%146,9096.12%2,401,158
18911,871,86473.18%526,91120.60%158,8236.21%2,557,736
19012,063,79869.91%697,38723.62%190,5666.46%2,952,157
19112,298,39067.03%903,86826.36%226,6176.61%3,428,975
19212,562,30163.96%1,172,93429.27%270,4786.75%4,006,062
19313,137,79561.57%1,604,47531.46%353,2746.93%5,095,973
19413,671,48060.49%1,963,80832.35%434,1507.15%6,070,018

Sources: [51] [52] [53] [54]

Religious Demographics of Malabar District (1871–1951)

Religious Demographics of Malabar District (1871&1951)
Religion 1871 1951
1Hinduism72.43%63.25%
2Islam25.72%33.49%
3Christianity1.43%3.24%

Sources: [55] [56]

Communities

Caste/communities of Kerala (2011)

   Mappila Muslims (26.6%)
   Ezhavas/Thiyyas (22.2%)
   Nairs (14.6%)
   Nasrani Mappilas (12.5%)
   Scheduled Castes (9.8%)
   Dheevaras (2.8%)
   Latin Catholics (2.5%)
   Brahmins (1.7%)
   Scheduled Tribes (1.1%)
   Other Christians (3.0%)
   Other Hindu Castes (2.9%)
   Others (0.3%)

Castes of Kerala

The Scheduled Caste (SC) population of Kerala State is 3,123,941 which is 9.8% of overall population. Scheduled Tribes in Kerala, with a population of 364,000, constitute 1.14% of the population. [57]

Denominations groups among Christians: [58]

Catholic church (Syrian and Latin rites) is the largest denomination among Kerala Christians. Malankara orthodox church, Jacobite Syrian orthodox church and Marthomite Syrian church denominations claim Syrian roots. Major Protestant groups include Church of South India (CSI), various Pentecostal churches. Chaldean Syrian, Seventh Day Adventists, Salvation Army are some other denominations. [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64]

Tribal communities

Kerala has approximately 35 distinct scheduled tribes that constitute 1.3% of the population. Though entirely unique, their languages are often not highlighted as distinct in the census. The Paniyan, who are the numerically dominant tribe, live in north east of the state and practice settled cultivation. The Kattunaikan, Kurichian and Kuruman belong to the same region. Palleyan, Palliyan and Palliyar inhabit the Idukki region not far from the Anamalai and Palani hills of Tamil Nadu where you find the same population. The Kadar, Irular, Kurumbas, Maha malasar and Malasar inhabit the Palghat region close to their counterparts in Niligiri and Anamalai hills of Tamil Nadu. The same is the case of the Kudiya and Koraga living in the northern most tip of the state next to Kodagu and Dakshina Kannada region of Karnataka. [65]

Age structure

Population pyramid for Kerala as of 2011 Kerala Population Pyramid in 5-year age groups (2011 census).png
Population pyramid for Kerala as of 2011

(2011 census)

0–6 years: 9.95%
7–14 years: 23.9%
15–59 years: 54.3%
60 years and over:12.8%
Population by age (2011)
Age (Years):Male populationFemale population
0–412475341205558
5–913031901251922
10–1414389171383853
15–1913282991282253
20–2412988261366983
25–2912039781400114
30–3411282171327284
35–3911618191417854
40–4411174241295074
45–4911055981242932
50–54931191996954
55–59861527880881
60–64685136729535
65–69459232542902
70–74326562406810
75–79208317293050
80+204348337501
Median age
Year:196119711981199120012011
Age:19.2819.3921.8124.3628.8732

Urbanisation

Urbanisation Rate in Kerala
YearRural

population

(%)

Urban

Population

(%)

196184.915.11
197183.7616.24
198181.2618.74
199173.6126.39
200174.0425.96
201152.2647.74

Birth rate

YearBirthsDeathsNatural
change
Birth
rate
Death
rate
N. change
rate
1997607,727166,428441,29919.25.313.9
1998591,508185,788405,72018.45.812.6
1999596,948186,828410,12018.35.712.6
2000593,724178,795414,92918.05.412.6
2001579,063182,059397,00418.15.712.4
2002581,925184,597397,32818.05.712.3
2003558,369194,264364,10517.26.011.2
2004563,153199,017364,13617.16.111.0
2005559,082204,157354,92517.36.311.0
2006556,326219,094337,23216.66.610.0
2007545,154238,691306,46316.27.19.1
2008535,738221,769313,96915.76.59.2
2009544,348238,691305,65716.27.19.1
2010546,964238,864308,10015.86.98.9
2011560,268245,002315,26616.77.39.4
2012550,411239,982310,42916.47.19.3
2013536,352260,915276,15715.97.78.2
2014534,458248,242286,21615.87.38.5
2015516,013252,576263,43715.17.47.7
2016496,292256,130240,16214.57.57.0
2017503,588263,342240,24614.67.67.0
2018488,174258,530229,64414.17.56.6
2019480,113270,567209,54613.87.86.0
Birth data by religion
Percentage Distribution of Live Birth by Religion of the Family [66]
Religion2020 [67]  %2019 [68]  %2018 [69]  %2017 [70] %2016 [71]  %2015 [72]  %2014 [73]  %2013 [74]  %2012 [75]  %2011 [76]  %2010 [77]  %2009 [78]  %2008 [79]  %2007 [80]  %2006 [81]  %2005 [82]  %
Muslim196,13843.89%212,93344.35%213,80543.80%216,52543.00%211,18242.55%213,86541.45%218,43740.87%214,25739.96%175,89231.96%214,09938.21%209,27638.26%204,71137.61%194,58336.32%183,79633.71%196,49335.32%191,67534.28%
Hindu185,41141.49%197,06141.04%203,15841.61%210,07141.71%207,83141.88%221,22042.87%231,03143.23%236,42044.08%214,59138.99%248,61044.37%246,29745.03%247,70745.51%241,30545.04%250,09445.88%258,11946.40%262,97647.04%
Christian62,26513.93%68,59614.29%69,84414.31%76,20515.35%79,56515.42%83,61615.65%84,66015.78%102,54618.63%94,66416.90%88,93616.26%90,45116.62%94,17517.58%98,22018.02%96,46917.34%98,35317.59%
Others2,9670.66%1,4080.29%1,2140.25%1,4970.30%8520.18%9330.18%1,1780.22%8690.16%57,21510.39%2,6710.48%6510.12%7040.13%5,1510.96%6,1081.12%1,5450.28%1,0980.19%
Not Stated1100.02%1150.02%1530.03%2220.04%4300.08%1960.03%1460.02%1670.03%2240.04%1,8060.33%7750.14%5240.10%6,9361.27%3,7000.66%4,9800.89%
Total446,891100%480,113100%488,174100%496,292100%516,013100%534,458100%536,352100%550,411100%560,268100%546,964100%544,348100%535,738100%545,154100%556,326100%559,082100%

17.1 births/1,000 population (1994–2001 est.) [83]

Birth Rate was 17.1 in 1994–2001 (20.3 in 1984–1990 & 25.0 in 1974–1980). Pathanamthitta (14.5 in 1994–2001, 17.2 in 1984–1990 & NA in 1974–1980) had the lowest TBR and Malappuram(22.4, 29.5 & 33.6) had the highest TBR.

According to the 2011 Census, Thiruvalla taluk has the lowest birth rate and Tirurangadi taluk has the highest birth rate. [84]

Lowest Birth Rate (2011):

  1. Thiruvalla – 10.63 per 1,000
  2. Mallappally – 10.69 per 1,000
  3. Kozhenchery – 10.86 per 1,000
  4. Chengannur – 10.93 per 1,000
  5. Adoor – 11.09 per 1,000

Highest Birth Rate (2011):

  1. Tirurangadi – 19.99 per 1,000
  2. Ernad – 19.68 per 1,000
  3. Perinthalmanna – 19.43 per 1,000
  4. Tirur – 19.16 per 1,000
  5. Nilambur – 18.34 per 1,000

Vital stats for the year 2011: [85]

CommunityPopBirthsBirth RateDeathsDeath RateNGR%
Total33,406,061560,26816.77245,0027.330.94%
Hindu18,282,492248,61013.60148,0978.100.55%
Muslim8,873,472214,09924.1345,3055.111.90%
Christian6,141,26994,66415.4150,3658.200.72%


Net migration rate

(-)3.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1991 est.)

Of the emigrants from Kerala, 42.2% were Muslims, 36.6% were Hindus and 21.2% were Christians in 1992–93. The most preferred destination was Saudi Arabia (37.8%), followed by UAE (25.9%), Other Gulf countries (13.0%), Oman (11.8%), Other Countries (7.5%) and USA(3.8%). [89]

Sex ratio

According to the 2011 census, women outnumber men in all the districts of Kerala with the highest proportion in Kannur and Pathanamthitta districts.

DistrictsPopulationMales%Females%
Kasargod 1,307,375628,61348.1%678,76251.9%
Kannur 2,523,0031,181,44646.8%1,341,55753.2%
Wayanad 817,420401,68449.1%415,73650.9%
Kozhikode 3,086,2931,470,94247.7%1,615,35152.3%
Malappuram 4,112,9201,960,32847.7%2,152,59252.3%
Palakkad 2,809,9341,359,47848.4%1,450,45651.6%
Thrissur 3,121,2001,480,76347.4%1,640,43752.6%
Ernakulam 3,282,3881,619,55749.3%1,662,83150.7%
Idukki 1,108,974552,80849.8%556,16650.2%
Kottayam 1,974,551968,28949%1,006,26251%
Alappuzha 2,127,7891,013,14247.6%1,114,64752.4%
Pathanamthitta 1,197,412561,71646.8%635,69653.2%
Kollam 2,635,3751,246,96847.3%1,388,40752.7%
Thiruvananthapuram 3,301,4271,581,67847.9%1,719,74952.1%

Vital statistics

YearInfant

Mortality

Rate

(per 1000 birth)

Crude

Birth Rate

(per 100)

Crude

Death Rate

(per 1000)

Natural

Growth

Rate

(per 1000)

Maternal

Mortality Rate

(Maternal death/

100000 live birth)

Total

Fertility

Rate

(Birth/

6.411.51.7
20011117.36.610.71.8
20021016.96.410.51.8
20031116.76.310.41.8
20041215.26.19.1951.7
20051415.06.48.61.7
20061514.96.78.21.7
20071314.76.87.9811.7
20081214.66.68.01.7
20091214.76.87.91.7
20101314.87.07.8661.7
20111215.27.08.2611.7
20121214.96.98.01.7
20131214.76.97.81.6
20141214.86.68.2461.6
20151214.86.68.2421.6
20161014.37.66.71.7
20171014.26.87.41.7
2018713.96.97.031 (est)1.8

Life expectancy at birth

Life expectancy at birth is 78 years. [90]

In 1991, Kerala had the lowest TFR (Children born per women) in the whole of India. Hindus had a TFR of 1.66, Christians had 1.78 and Muslims had 2.97. In 2000, the TFR was 1.73 with Muslims having 2.28, Nairs having a TFR of 1.47 and Syrian Christians having TFR of 1.55. TFR for Scheduled Castes was 1.52 in 1997–98 and 1.37 in 1992–93. The lowest Fertility rate recorded anywhere in India is TFR of 1.17 for Vettuvan caste in Kerala. [91]

As per the 2011 Census, the fertility rate per community is as Hindu: 1.544 children per woman, Muslim: 2.351 and Christian: 1.716. For SC, the fertility is 1.485 and for ST, it is 1.629. [92]

For Hindus, the TFR is highest in Wayanad (1.710) and lowest in Thiruvananthapuram (1.435). For the Muslims, it is Kannur (2.779) and Pathanamthitta (1.707), while for the Christians the respective districts are Kasaragod (1.929) and Kollam (1.539). [92]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Demographics of India</span>

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thiruvananthapuram</span> Metropolis in Kerala, India

Thiruvananthapuram, also known by its former name Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala. It is the most populous city in Kerala with a population of 957,730 as of 2011. The encompassing urban agglomeration population is around 1.68 million. Located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland, Thiruvananthapuram is a major information technology hub in Kerala and contributes 55% of the state's software exports as of 2016. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the "Evergreen city of India", the city is characterised by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ernakulam district</span> District in Kerala, India

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kollam</span> Metropolis in Kerala, India

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The Malayali people are a Dravidian ethnolinguistic group originating from the present-day state of Kerala in India, occupying its southwestern Malabar coast. They are predominantly native speakers of the Malayalam language, one of the six Classical languages in India. The state of Kerala was created in 1956 through the States Reorganisation Act. Prior to that, since the 1800s existed the Kingdom of Cochin, the Kingdom of Travancore, Malabar District, and South Canara of the British India. The Malabar District was annexed by the British through the Third Mysore War (1790–92) from Tipu Sultan. Before that, the Malabar District was under various kingdoms including the Zamorins of Calicut, Kingdom of Tanur, Arakkal kingdom, Kolathunadu, Valluvanad, and Palakkad Rajas.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thiruvananthapuram district</span> District of Kerala in India

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kanyakumari district</span> District of Tamil Nadu in India

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kozhikode district</span> District of Kerala state, India

Kozhikode district, or Calicut district, is one of the 14 districts in the Indian state of Kerala, along its Southwestern Malabar Coast. The city of Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, is the district headquarters. The district is 67.15% urbanised.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Economy of Kerala</span> Economy of Indian State Kerala

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thrissur district</span> District in Kerala, India

Thrissur, is one of the 14 districts in the Indian state of Kerala. It is situated in the central part the state. Spanning an area of about 3,032 km2 (1,171 sq mi), Thrissur district is home to over 9% of Kerala's population.

Pariyaram is a Grama Panchayat consisting of two villages viz. Pariyaram census town and Kuttiyeri village. Pariyaram is a small town on National Highway between Taliparamba and Payyanur in Kerala state of India. Mini villages of Thiruvattoor, Koran Peedika, Mukkunnu & Chithappile Poyil are parts of Pariyaram.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kerala</span> State in southern India

Kerala is a state on the Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following the passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions of the erstwhile regions of Cochin, Malabar, South Canara, and Thiruvithamkoor. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), Kerala is the 21st largest Indian state by area. It is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33 million inhabitants as per the 2011 census, Kerala is the 13th-largest Indian state by population. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kasaragod district</span> District in Kerala, India

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hinduism in Kerala</span> Overview of Hinduism n Kerala

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Religion in Kerala</span> Overview of religion in the Indian state of Kerala

Kerala has a reputation of being, communally, one of the most religiously diverse states in India. According to 2011 Census of India figures, 54.73% of Kerala's population are Hindus, 26.56% are Muslims, 18.38% are Christians, and the remaining 0.33% follow other religions or have no religion. Hindus represent the biggest religious group in all districts except Malappuram, where they are outnumbered by Muslims. Various tribal people in Kerala have retained the religious beliefs of their ancestors. In comparison with the rest of India, Kerala experiences relatively little sectarianism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Peerumedu taluk</span> Tehsil in Kerala, India

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