Kerala Legislative Assembly

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Kerala Legislative Assembly
14th Legislative Assembly of Kerala
Emblem of Kerala state Vector.svg
Term limits
5 years
Deputy Speaker
Leader of the House
(Chief Minister)
Leader of the Opposition
Kerala Assembly 2016 Seat Status.svg
Political groups
Government (91)

Opposition (45)

NDA (2)

First past the post
Last election
16 May 2016
Meeting place
Niyamasabha Mandiram, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala

The Kerala Legislative Assembly, popularly known as the Niyamasabha (literally Hall of laws), is the State Assembly of Kerala, one of the 29 States in India. The Assembly is formed by 140 elected representatives and one nominated member from the Anglo-Indian community. Each elected member represents one of the 140 constituencies within the borders of Kerala and is referred to as Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA).

Kerala State in southern India

Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area. It is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.

India Country in South Asia

India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

The term Anglo-Indian can refer to at least two groups of people: those with mixed Indian and British ancestry, and people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent. The latter sense is now mainly historical, but confusions can arise. The Oxford English Dictionary, for example, gives three possibilities: "Of mixed British and Indian parentage, of Indian descent but born or living in Britain or of British descent or birth but living or having lived long in India". People fitting the middle definition are more usually known as British Asian or British Indian. This article focuses primarily on the modern definition, a distinct minority community of mixed Eurasian ancestry, whose native language is English.



The evolution of Kerala Legislative Assembly begins with the formation of a Legislative Council in the princely state of Travancore in 1888. This was the first Native Legislature in the Indian subcontinent, outside British India. The Legislative Council of Travancore had undergone many changes by years. In the meantime, people's participation in the Assembly was widely sought. All those efforts led to the formation of one more representative body, namely the Sri Moolam Popular Assembly of Travancore. This Assembly of the representatives of the landholders and merchants, aimed at giving the people an opportunity of bringing to the notice of Government their requirements, wishes or grievances on the one hand, and on the other, to make the policy and measures of Government better known to the people so that all possible grounds of misconception may be removed. That was on 1 October 1904. Though the popular assembly contained representatives of tax-payers, it finally became a people's representatives body. Political awareness and people agitations were aggressive and the authorities were forced to include peoples representatives into the popular assembly. On 1 May 1905, a regulation was issued to grant to the people the privilege of electing members to the Assembly. Of the 100 members, 77 were to be elected and 23 nominated, for a tenure of 1 year. The right to vote was given to persons who paid on their account an annual land revenue of not less than Rs. 50 or whose net income was not less than Rs. 2000 and to graduates of a recognised University, with not less than 10 years standing and having their residence in the taluk. The membership of the popular assembly increased year by year and finally in 1921 elected representatives gained the majority. By that time the house had 50 members of which 28 were elected and the rest nominated.

Travancore historic state in India

The Kingdom of Travancore (Thiruvithamkoor) was an Indian kingdom from 1500 until 1949. It was ruled by the Travancore Royal Family from Padmanabhapuram, and later Thiruvananthapuram. At its zenith, the kingdom covered most of modern-day central and southern Kerala with the Thachudaya Kaimal's enclave of Irinjalakuda Koodalmanikkam temple in the neighbouring Kingdom of Cochin, as well as the district of Kanyakumari, now in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The official flag of the state was red with a dextrally-coiled silver conch shell at its center. In the early 19th century, the kingdom became a princely state of the British Empire. The Travancore Government took many progressive steps on the socio-economic front and during the reign of Maharajah Sri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, Travancore became the second most prosperous princely state in British India, with reputed achievements in education, political administration, public work and social reforms.

The princely state of Cochin also formed a Legislative Council (1925), with 30 elected and 15 nominated representatives. Malabar District of Madras Province under the British rule, had representatives in Madras Legislative Assembly from the 1920s.

Malabar District

Malabar District was an administrative district of Madras Presidency in British India and independent India's Madras State. The British district included the present-day districts of Kannur, Kozhikode, Wayanad, Malappuram, Palakkad, and Chavakad Taluk of Thrissur District in the northern and central parts of Kerala state. The district lay between the Arabian Sea on the west, South Canara District on the north, the Western Ghats to the east, and the princely state of Cochin to the south. The district covered an area of 15,009 square kilometres (5,795 sq mi), and extended 233 km (145 mi) along the coast and 40–120 kilometers inland. The name Mala-bar means the "hillside slopes". Kozhikode was the capital of Malabar.

British Empire States and dominions ruled by the United Kingdom

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was often used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories.

After India's independence responsible governments were formed in Travancore and Cochin. In 1949 the merger of Travancore and Cochin as Travancore-Cochin, formed the first Legislative Assembly, the Travancore-Cochin Legislative Assembly composed of 178 members of the Legislative bodies of Travancore and Cochin. The Malabar region had representatives in the Madras Legislative Assembly.

Travancore-Cochin state of India from 1949 until 1956

Travancore-Cochin or Thiru-Kochi was a short-lived state of India (1949–1956). It was originally called United State of Travancore and Cochin and was created on 1 July 1949 by the merger of two former Princely States, the kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin with Trivandrum as the capital. It was renamed State of Travancore-Cochin in January 1950.

Malabar region Region in Kerala, India

Malabar region refers to the historic and geographic area of southwest India, covering the state of Kerala along with Kanyakumari district, Tulu Nadu and Kodagu district. It lies between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea.

Assembly after the formation of Kerala State

The Kerala Legislative Assembly in Thiruvananthapuram Kerala Legislative Assembly, Thiruvananthapuram.jpg
The Kerala Legislative Assembly in Thiruvananthapuram

In 1956, the State of Kerala was formed on linguistic basis, merging Travancore, Cochin and Malabar regions. The first assembly election in Kerala state was held in February-March 1957. The first Kerala Legislative Assembly was formed on 5 April 1957. The Assembly had 127 members including a nominated member.

Subsequently, after formation of Malappuram and Kasargod districts, the number of seats went up to 140. The current delimitation committee of 2010 reaffirmed the total number of seats at 140.

Current assembly

The current Legislative Assembly is the 14th Assembly since the formation of Kerala. The Speaker of the Assembly is P. Sreeramakrishnan. The leader of the Assembly is Pinarayi Vijayan from CPI(M) and the Leader of the Opposition is Ramesh Chennithala from the INC. At the same time, the deputy leader of opposition is M. K. Muneer of IUML.

P. Sreeramakrishnan Indian politician

P. Sreeramakrishnan is an Indian politician. He is the current Speaker of the Kerala Legislative Assembly, elected on 3 June 2016. He has been a member of Kerala Legislative Assembly, representing the Ponnani constituency since June 2011.

Pinarayi Vijayan Indian politician

Pinarayi Vijayan is an Indian politician who is the current Chief Minister of Kerala, serving since 25 May 2016. A member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), he was the longest-serving secretary of the Kerala State Committee of the CPI(M) from 1998 to 2015. He also served in the government of Kerala as Minister of Electric Power and Co-operatives from 1996 to 1998. Vijayan won a seat in the May 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election as the CPI(M) candidate for Dharmadom constituency and was selected as the leader of the Left Democratic Front (LDF) and became the 12th Chief Minister of Kerala.

Ramesh Chennithala Indian politician

Ramesh Chennithala is an Indian politician, affiliated to the Indian National Congress, and the Leader of the Opposition in the Kerala Legislative Assembly since 2016. He has served as the state Home Minister in the Government of Kerala. He holds the record of being the youngest Minister in the State of Kerala at the age of 29.

Niyamasabha Complex

The State Assembly is known as Niyama Sabha and is housed in New Legislature Complex. This 5 storied complex is one of the largest complexes in India. The Central Hall is described as most elegant and majestic hall with ornamental Teakwood-Rosewood panelling. The older Assembly was located within State Secretariat complex which was reconverted into Legislature museum, after commissioning new complex in 1998 May 22 (K. R. Narayanan)

Political parties or coalitions

1 Left Democratic Front 91
2 United Democratic Front 44
3 National Democratic Alliance 2
4 Vacant 3


The entrance to Kerala Legislature with statute of Mahatma Gandhi Niyamasabha Grand Staircase.jpg
The entrance to Kerala Legislature with statute of Mahatma Gandhi
The Illuminated Niyamasabha Complex at night Niyamasabha at night.jpg
The Illuminated Niyamasabha Complex at night
Kerala State Legislative Assembly or the Niyamasabha at night Niyamasabha Mandiram.JPG
Kerala State Legislative Assembly or the Niyamasabha at night
Sl. No:ConstituencyWinnerParty
1 Manjeshwar Vacant
2 Kasaragod N. A. Nellikkunnu IUML
3 Udma K. Kunhiraman CPI(M)
4 Kanhangad E. Chandrasekharan CPI
5 Trikarpur M. Rajagopalan CPI(M)
6 Payyanur C. Krishnan CPI(M)
7 Kalliasseri T. V. Rajesh CPI(M)
8 Taliparamba James Mathew CPI(M)
9 Irikkur K. C. Joseph INC
10 Azhikode Vacant (Disqualified)
11 Kannur Kadannappalli Ramachandran Cong(S)
12 Dharmadom Pinarayi Vijayan CPI(M)
13 Thalassery A. N. Shamseer CPI(M)
14 Kuthuparamba K. K. Shailaja CPI(M)
15 Mattannur E. P. Jayarajan CPI(M)
16 Peravoor Sunny Joseph INC
17 Mananthavady O. R. Kelu CPI(M)
18 Sulthanbathery I. C. Balakrishnan INC
19 Kalpetta C. K. Saseendran CPI(M)
20 Vatakara C. K. Nanu JD(S)
21 Kuttiady Parakkal Abdulla IUML
22 Nadapuram E. K. Vijayan CPI
23 Koyilandy K. Dasan CPI(M)
24 Perambra T. P. Ramakrishnan CPI(M)
25 Balusseri Purushan Kadalundy CPI(M)
26 Elathur A. K. Saseendran NCP
27 Kozhikode North A. Pradeepkumar CPI(M)
28 Kozhikode South M. K. Muneer IUML
29 Beypore V. K. C. Mammed Koya CPI(M)
30 Kunnamangalam P. T. A. Rahim LDF Independent
31 Koduvally Karat Razak LDF Independent
32 Thiruvambady George M. Thomas CPI(M)
33 Kondotty T. V. Ibrahim IUML
34 Ernad P. K. Basheer IUML
35 Nilambur P. V. Anvar LDF Independent
36 Wandoor A. P. Anil Kumar INC
37 Manjeri M. Ummer IUML
38 Perinthalmanna Manjalamkuzhi Ali IUML
39 Mankada T. A. Ahmed Kabir IUML
40 Malappuram P. Ubaidulla IUML
41 Vengara K. N. A. Khader IUML
42 Vallikunnu P. Abdul Hameed IUML
43 Tirurangadi P. K. Abdu Rabb IUML
44 Tanur V. Abdurahiman LDF Independent
45 Tirur C. Mammutty IUML
46 Kottakkal K. K. Abid Hussain Thangal IUML
47 Thavanur K.T. Jaleel LDF Independent
48 Ponnani P. Sreeramakrishnan CPI(M)
49 Thrithala V. T. Balram INC
50 Pattambi Muhammed Muhsin CPI
51 Shornur P. K. Sasi CPI(M)
52 Ottappalam P. Unni CPI(M)
53 Kongad K. V. Vijayadas CPI(M)
54 Mannarkkad N. Samsudheen IUML
55 Malampuzha V. S. Achuthanandan CPI(M)
56 Palakkad Shafi Parambil INC
57 Tarur A. K. Balan CPI(M)
58 Chittur K. Krishnankutty JD(S)
59 Nemmara K. Babu CPI(M)
60 Alathur K. D. Prasenan CPI(M)
61 Chelakkara U. R. Pradeep CPI(M)
62 Kunnamkulam A. C. Moideen CPI(M)
63 Guruvayoor K. V. Abdul Khader CPI(M)
64 Manalur Murali Perunelli CPI(M)
65 Wadakkanchery Anil Akkara INC
66 Ollur K. Rajan CPI
67 Thrissur V. S. Sunil Kumar CPI
68 Nattika Geetha Gopi CPI
69 Kaipamangalam E. T. Tyson CPI
70 Irinjalakuda K. U. Arunan CPI(M)
71 Puthukkad C. Raveendranath CPI(M)
72 Chalakudy B. D. Devassy CPI(M)
73 Kodungallur V. R. Sunil Kumar CPI
74 Perumbavoor Eldhose Kunnappilly INC
75 Angamaly Roji M. John INC
76 Aluva Anwar Sadath INC
77 Kalamassery V. K. Ebrahimkunju IUML
78 Paravur V. D. Satheesan INC
79 Vypeen S. Sharma CPI(M)
80 Kochi K. J. Maxi CPI(M)
81 Thripunithura M. Swaraj CPI(M)
82 Ernakulam Hibi Eden INC
83 Thrikkakara P. T. Thomas INC
84 Kunnathunad (SC) V.P. Sajeendran INC
85 Piravom Anoop Jacob KC (Jacob)
86 Muvattupuzha Eldo Abraham CPI
87 Kothamangalam Antony John CPI(M)
88 Devikulam S. Rajendran CPI(M)
89 Udumbanchola M. M. Mani CPI(M)
90 Thodupuzha P. J. Joseph KC(M)
91 Idukki Roshy Augustine KC(M)
92 Peerumade E. S. Bijimol CPI
93 Pala Vacant
94 Kaduthuruthy Monce Joseph KC(M)
95 Vaikom C. K. Asha CPI
96 Ettumanoor K. Suresh Kurup CPI(M)
97 Kottayam Thiruvanchoor Radhakrishnan INC
98 Puthuppally Oommen Chandy INC
99 Changanassery C. F. Thomas KC(M)
100 Kanjirappally N. Jayaraj KC(M)
101 Poonjar P. C. George Independent
102 Aroor A. M. Ariff CPI(M)
103 Cherthala P. Thilothaman CPI
104 Alappuzha T. M. Thomas Isaac CPI(M)
105 Ambalappuzha G. Sudhakaran CPI(M)
106 Kuttanad Thomas Chandy NCP
107 Haripad Ramesh Chennithala INC
108 Kayamkulam Prathiba Hari CPI(M)
109 Mavelikkara R. Rajesh CPI(M)
110 Chengannur Saji Cherian CPI(M)
111 Thiruvalla Mathew T. Thomas JD(S)
112 Ranni Raju Abraham CPI(M)
113 Aranmula Veena George CPI(M)
114 Konni Adoor Prakash INC
115 Adoor Chittayam Gopakumar CPI
116 Karunagapally R. Ramachandran CPI
117 Chavara Vijayan Pillai CPI(M)
118 Kunnathur Kovoor Kunjumon RSP Independent
119 Kottarakkara P. Aisha Potty CPI(M)
120 Pathanapuram K. B. Ganesh Kumar KC(B)
121 Punalur K. Raju CPI
122 Chadayamangalam Mullakara Ratnakaran CPI
123 Kundara J. Mercykutty Amma CPI(M)
124 Kollam M. Mukesh CPI(M)
125 Eravipuram M. Noushad CPI(M)
126 Chathannoor G.S. Jayalal CPI
127 Varkala V. Joy CPI(M)
128 Attingal B. Satyan CPI(M)
129 Chirayinkeezhu V. Sasi CPI
130 Nedumangad C. Divakaran CPI
131 Vamanapuram D. K. Murali CPI(M)
132 Kazhakoottam Kadakampally Surendran CPI(M)
133 Vattiyoorkavu K. Muraleedharan INC
134 Thiruvananthapuram V. S. Sivakumar INC
135 Nemam O. Rajagopal BJP
136 Aruvikkara K. S. Sabarinathan INC
137 Parassala C. K. Hareendran CPI(M)
138 Kattakkada I. B. Sathish CPI(M)
139 Kovalam M. Vincent INC
140 Neyyattinkara K. A. Ansalan CPI(M)

Speakers of the Kerala Legislative Assembly


The Assembly consists of 140 Members known as Members of Legislative Assembly- MLA representing each constituency.

The qualifications needed to become an MLA are almost similar to the eligibility criteria for an MP. Besides being a citizen of India, the individual should not be less than 25 years of age. On a more fundamental note, a person, who is not a voter from any constituency of the state, is not eligible to become an MLA.

It's to be noted that an MLA is elected by the people of a particular constituency and he/she represents those electorates in the Legislative Assembly. MLAs enjoy the same position in the state as MPs on a national level.

Responsibilities of Legislators

The principal responsibility of an MLA is to represent the people's grievances and aspirations and take them up with the state government. An MLA has the power to utilise several legislative tools including ‘calling attention motion’ to raise issues concerning his/her constituency. It's also expected of the MLA to raise the issues with the relevant government agency and minister. As a legislator, his cardinal role will be to make optimum use of the Local Area Development (LAD) fund in a bid to develop his constituency.

Appointment of Speaker

The Speaker is the primary official of the Assembly. The Assembly elects the Speaker from among its own members. While the Speaker still represents his constituency, he remains an impartial chair of the Assembly and refrains from debating.

When a new assembly is formed, the political party/alliance which is invited by the Governor to form a government, nominates one among them as Pro-term Speaker. The Pro-Term speaker swears in front of Governor and opens the new assembly's first session.

He oversees swearing-in ceremony of all legislators at the assembly hall and then becomes the returning officer for the Speaker Election.

The Leader of the House, Chief Minister presents a motion for speaker election and nominates one among his party/alliance for Speaker position.

The Leader of Opposition supports the motion and nominates one among them as speaker position. The Pro-term speaker then asks whether anyone else wish to contest for speaker post. If any application received, it shall also be enlisted for election.

Based on motion, the pro-term speaker will order for an election and Legislative secretary will arrange an election at the floor of the assembly. The election will be closed affair with each member casting a secret vote on a ballot paper. The results will be counted by Legislative Secretary in front of representatives from both Ruling and Opposition parties.

Accordingly, the pro-term speaker announces the new speaker and both leaders of assembly escort the new speaker to Speaker Dias to take charge of the post.

A similar election is conducted to appoint Deputy Speaker who shall take the office in absence of the speaker.


The speaker is assisted by Legislative Secretariat. The head of Secretariat is Legislative Secretary. The Legislative secretary is the Executive chief of the Assembly and reports only to Speaker and house directly.

The Legislative secretary is supported by 2 Additional Secretaries, Joint Secretaries and Assistant Secretaries. There are under-secretaries for each committee topic and officers in charge.

The Chief Curator manages the entire house activities including housekeeping, maintenance and safety measures. The Chief Editor manages an editorial team to draft questions raised by public and legislators as well as manages answers notes, legislative records, executive orders and archival matters. The Chief Librarian manages the Central Library and Legislative Research cell of Niyamasabha.


From days of Monarchy Kerala Police were not allowed inside Niyamasabha as a matter of enforcing legislative independence. The Niyamasabha has its own security force called Watch and Ward, distinguished by its white uniforms who reports to Assembly Privileges committee and Speaker directly. Its headed by Chief Warden who is in the rank of Superintendent of Police.

The Watch and ward control the security of entire Assembly area as well as nearby Legislative Hostel.


Statutory Committee

The Niyamasabha consists of following committees which are statutory in nature and cannot be disbanded, though the members do change.

1. Business Advisory Committee (BAC)

The BAC is the primary committee to decide the agendas to be listed in each session of the assembly. As a convention, the opposition leader will be the head of the committee with leaders of each parliamentary party subjected to a maximum of 8 members. Speaker of the house is a permanent invitee to this committee.

2. Committee on Environment

3. Committee on Estimates

4. Committee on Government Assurances

5. Committee on Local Fund Accounts

6. Committee on Official Language

7. Committee on Papers Laid on the Table

8. Committee on Petitions

9. Committee on Private Members' Bills and Resolutions

10. Committee on Privileges and Ethics

11. Committee on Public Accounts

12. Committee on Public Undertakings

13. Committee on Subordinate Legislation

14. Committee on the Welfare of Backward Class Communities

15. Committee on the Welfare of Fishermen and Allied Workers

16. Committee on the Welfare of Non-resident Keralites

17. Committee on the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes

18. Committee on the Welfare of Senior Citizens

19. Committee on the Welfare of Women, Children and Physically Handicapped

20. Committee on the Welfare of Youth and Youth Affairs

21. House Committee

22. Library Advisory Committee

23. Rules Committee

Subject Committee

Apart from the statutory committee, the assembly has a subject committee for each Department of Government. Though they are not statutory in nature, its established by the house on regular basis to monitor and control executive decisions of each department when a specific bill intended to make into a legislation comes before assembly. Normally when a bill is presented and amendments or disputes arise, the bills are sent to a subject committee specifically formed such departmental activity.

As per Kerala Legislature Rules, the following committees are regularly established in the house.

1. Subject Committee - I:- Departments of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries

2. Subject Committee - II:- Land Revenue, Land usage, wetland protection, Endowments and Devaswom

3. Subject Committee - III:- Water Resources, Irrigation projects and Dam safety

4. Subject Committee - IV:- Industry and Minerals

5. Subject Committee - V:- Public Works, Transport & Communications

6. Subject Committee - VI:- Education

7. Subject Committee - VII:- Power, Labour and Labour Welfare

8. Subject Committee - VIII:- Economic Affairs

9. Subject Committee - IX:- Local Administration, Rural Development and Housing

10. Subject Committee - X:- Forest, Environment and Tourism

11. Subject Committee - XI:- Food, Civil Supplies and Co-operation

12. Subject Committee - XII:- Health and Family Welfare

13. Subject Committee - XIII:- Social Service

14. Subject Committee - XIV:- Home and Security Affairs

Ad-Hoc Committee

Time-to-time, the assembly can form an ad-hoc committee for business as laid by a motion passed by the house.

See also

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Kollam Assembly Constituency is a legislative assembly constituency in the South Indian state of Kerala. It is one among the 11 assembly constituencies in Kollam district.

Chathannoor (Assembly constituency) constituency of the Kerala legislative assembly in India

Chathannoor Assembly Constituency or Chathannur Assembly Constituency is a legislative assembly constituency in Kollam district of Kerala, India.

P. Ravindran

Padmanabhan Ravindran or P. Ravindran was an Indian politician who was the Minister for Industries, Labour and Forests in Kerala from 1 November 1969 to 3 August 1970. He was the secretary of the CPI Legislature Party from 1967 to 69. Ravindran was imprisoned many times for political reasons. He also chaired as the Chairman and Managing Director of Janayugom Newspaper, Prabhatham Printers and Publishing Company. He has played a major role in building the party cadre in the state of Kerala and received the Sadanandan Award for the Best Co-operator.