Nathuram Vinayak Godse
Nathuram Godse at his trial for the murder of Mahatma Gandhi
Ramachandra Vinayak Godse
19 May 1910
|Died||15 November 1949 39) (aged|
|Cause of death||Hanging|
|Organization|| Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh |
|Criminal charge||Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi|
Nathuram Vinayak Godse (19 May 1910 – 15 November 1949) was a right-wing advocate of Hindu nationalism who assassinated Mahatma Gandhi in New Delhi on 30 January 1948. He shot Gandhi in the chest three times at point-blank range.Godse was a member of the right-wing, Hindu nationalist organisation Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS); he believed that Gandhi favoured the political demands of India's Muslims during the partition of India.
Hindu nationalism has been collectively referred to as the expression of social and political thought, based on the native spiritual and cultural traditions of the Indian subcontinent. Defenders of Hindu nationalism have tried to avoid the label "nationalism" by arguing that the use of the term "Hindu nationalism" to refer to Hindū rāṣṭravāda is a simplistic translation and is better described by the term "Hindu polity".
Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948 in the compound of Birla House, a large mansion. His assassin was Nathuram Vinayak Godse, advocate of hindu nationalism, a member of the political party the Hindu Mahasabha, and a past member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), which he left in 1940 to form an armed organization. Godse had planned the assassination.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British colonial rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā was applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa and is now used worldwide. In India, he was also called Bapu, a term that he preferred, and Gandhi ji, and is known as the Father of the Nation.
He plotted the assassination with Narayan Apte and six others. After a trial that lasted more than a year, Godse was sentenced to death on 8 November 1949. Although pleas for commutation were made by Gandhi's two sons, Manilal Gandhi and Ramdas Gandhi, they were turned down by India's prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, deputy prime minister Vallabhbhai Patel, and the Governor-General C. Rajagopalachari.Godse was hanged at Ambala Central Jail on 15 November 1949.
Narayan Dattatraya Apte was an Indian activist and entrepreneur who was executed for his role in the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi. He was born into a family of scholars.
In law, a commutation is the substitution of a lesser penalty for that given after a conviction for a crime. The penalty can be lessened in severity, in duration, or both. Unlike most pardons by government and overturnings by the court, a commutation does not affect the status of a defendant's underlying criminal conviction.
Manilal Mohandas Gandhi was the second son of Mohandas Gandhi and Kasturba Gandhi.
Nathuram Vinayakrao Godse was born into a Maharashtrian Chitpavan Brahmin family.His father, Vinayak Vamanrao Godse, was a postal employee; his mother was Lakshmi (née Godavari). At birth, he was named Ramachandra. Nathuram was given his name because of an unfortunate incident. Before he was born, his parents had three sons and a daughter, with all three boys dying in their infancy. Fearing a curse that targeted male children, young Ramachandra was brought up as a girl for the first few years of his life, including having his nose pierced and being made to wear a nose-ring (nath in Marathi). It was then that he earned the nickname "Nathuram" (literally "Ram with a nose-ring"). After his younger brother was born, they switched to treating him as a boy.
The Marathi people or Maharashtrians are an ethnolinguistic group who speak Marathi, an Indo-Aryan language as their native language. They inhabit the state of Maharashtra as well as districts bordering the state, such as Belgaum and Karwar of Karnataka and the state of Goa in western India. Their language, Marathi, is part of the Indo-Aryan language family. It is to be noted that the term 'Maratha' by historians, is at times used to refer to all Marathi speaking people, irrespective of caste and at times to a Maharashtrian caste called Maratha. The Marathi community came into political prominence in the 17th century when Maratha warriors, under Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, established the Maratha Empire, which is credited to a large extent for ending the Mughal rule.
The Chitpavan Brahmin or Kokanastha Brahmin is a Hindu Maharashtrian Brahmin community inhabiting Konkan, the coastal region of the state of Maharashtra in India. The community came into prominence during the 18th century when the heirs of Peshwa from the Bhat family of Balaji Vishwanath became the de facto rulers of the Maratha empire. Under the British Raj, they were the one of the Hindu communities in Maharashtra to flock to western education and they provided the bulk of social reformers, educationalists and nationalists of the late 19th century. Until the 18th century, the Chitpavans were held in low esteem by the Deshastha, the older established Brahmin community of Maharashtra region.
Brahmin is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
Godse attended the local school at Baramati through the fifth standard, after which he was sent to live with an aunt in Pune so that he could study at an English-language school.[ citation needed ] During his school days, he highly respected Gandhi.
Pune, is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai. It is the ninth most populous city in the country with an estimated population of 3.13 million. Along with it’s extended city limits Pimpri Chinchwad and the three cantonment towns of Pune, Khadki and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region (PMR). According to the 2011 census, the urban area has a combined population of 5.05 million while the population of the metropolitan region is estimated at 7.27 million.
Godse dropped out of high school and became an activist with Hindu nationalist organizations Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (National Volunteer Organisation) and Hindu Mahasabha, although the exact dates of his membership are uncertain.
The Hindu Mahasabha is a right wing Hindu nationalist political party in India.
Godse started a Marathi language newspaper for the Hindu Mahasabha called Agrani, which some years later was renamed Hindu Rashtra.[ citation needed ] Godse rejected Gandhi's philosophy, believing Gandhi repeatedly sabotaged the interests of Hindus by using the "fasting unto death" tactic on many issues. In Godse's view, Gandhi was giving in to interests that seemed to him anti-national.
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by around 83 million Marathi people of Maharashtra, India. It is the official language and co-official language in the Maharashtra and Goa states of Western India, respectively, and is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. At 83 million speakers in 2011, Marathi ranks 19th in the list of most spoken languages in the world. Marathi has the third largest number of native speakers in India, after Hindi and Bengali. The language has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indian languages, dating back to around 900 AD. The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect. Koli and Malvani Konkani have been heavily influenced by Marathi varieties.
Godse joined RSS in Sangli (Maharashtra) in 1932 as a boudhik karyawah (ground worker), and simultaneously remained a member of the Hindu Mahasabha, both right wing organizations. He often wrote articles in newspapers to publicise his thoughts. During this time, Godse and M. S. Golwalkar, later RSS chief, often worked together, and they translated Babarao Savarkar's book "Rashtra Mimansa" into English. They had a falling out when Golwalkar took the entire credit for this translation.[ citation needed ] In the early 1940s, Godse formed his own organization, "Hindu Rashtra Dal" on the Vijayadashami day of 1942, though he continued to remain a member of the RSS and Hindu Mahasabha.
In 1946, Godse claimed to have left the RSS and Hindu Mahasabha over the issue of the partition of India. His relations with many members of the RSS soured, and he felt that the RSS was softening in its stance.
Godse approached Gandhi on 30 January 1948 during the evening prayer at 17:17. When Godse bowed, one of the girls flanking and supporting Gandhi, said to Godse, "Brother, Bapu ("Father", a nickname for Gandhi) is already late" and tried to put him off, but he pushed her aside and shot Gandhi in the chest three times at point-blank range with a Beretta M1934 semi-automatic pistol. Herbert Reiner Jr., a young vice-consul at the new American embassy in Delhi, was the first to rush forward and grasp Godse by the shoulders, spinning him into the arms of some military personnel, who disarmed him.Reiner then held Godse by the neck and shoulders until he was taken away by the military and police. Gandhi was taken back to his room in Birla House, where he died soon thereafter.
Godse was put on trial at the Punjab High Court, at Peterhoff, Shimla. On 8 November 1949, he was sentenced to death. Although pleas for commutation were made by Gandhi's two sons, Manilal Gandhi and Ramdas Gandhi, they were turned down by India's prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, deputy prime minister Vallabhbhai Patel and the Governor-General Chakravarti Rajagopalachari,and Godse was hanged at Ambala Jail on 15 November 1949.
In his court trial speech Godse provides a detailed critique of Gandhian politics. The speech was banned but later became available in a book titled May it Please Your Honourco-written by Nathuram's brother Gopal Godse.
Millions of Indians mourned Gandhi's assassination; the Hindu Mahasabha was vilified and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh was temporarily banned. However, investigators could find no evidence that the RSS bureaucracy had formally sponsored or even knew of Godse's plot. The ban on the RSS was lifted in 1949.
To this day RSS denies any connection with Godse and disputes the claim that he was a member.Godse's brother Gopal Godse claimed that all the Godse brothers were members of the RSS at the time of the assassination. The nephew of Godse, Satyaki Savarkar, confirmed Godse resigned from his position in Hindu Mahasabha in 1946, and while he was very critical of RSS and discontinued ties with RSS, there is no official procedure to be excluded from RSS.
Brahmins in Maharashtra became targets of violence after the assassination, mostly by elements from the Maratha, Jain and Lingayat communities.
In 2014, following the Bharatiya Janata Party's rise to power, the Hindu Mahasabha began attempts to rehabilitate Godse and portray him as a patriot. It requested Prime Minister Narendra Modi to install the bust of Godse. It created a documentary film Desh Bhakt Nathuram Godse (Patriot Nathuram Godse) for release on the death anniversary of Gandhi on 30 January 2015.There were attempts to build a temple for Godse and to celebrate 30 January as a Shaurya Diwas ("Bravery Day"). A civil suit was filed in Pune Court asking for a ban on the documentary film.
In May 2019, in the lead up to the final phase of Indian elections, BJP's candidate from Bhopal, Pragya Thakur, called Godse a "patriot".Facing intense backlash, she apologized later.
(pg 13,14)Destruction was even larger in kolhapur...(pg14)Shahu Maharaj had actively collaborated with the British against the freedom movement, which was locally identified with Chitpawan Brahmins like B.G.Tilak...(pg14) The biggest violence took place in the seven Patwardhan (Chitpawan) princely states such as Sangli, where the remarkably advanced factories owned by Chitpawans were largely destroyed/ Here, Jains and Lingayats joined the Marathas in the attacks. The events hastened the integration of Patwardhan states (by march 1948) into the Bombay province, an integration opposed by the Brahmins - fearing Maratha predominance in the integrated province.
My friends had greeted me, and arranged a small ceremony. Late Shri ... On completion he published the series in a book form titled 'Gandhi Hatya Ani Mee' (Gandhi assassination and I) in October 1967. The Government being allergic to the truth which exposed their falsehood, banned the book two months later
The axe was to fall on the Marathi memoirs of Gopal Godse. ... and "spurned", he decided to publish his memoirs. It was immediately banned in several parts of India and copies of the book forefeited to the State
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, abbreviated as RSS, is an Indian right-wing, Hindu nationalist, paramilitary volunteer organisation that is widely regarded as the parent organisation of the ruling party of India, the Bharatiya Janata Party. The RSS is one of the principal organizations of the Sangh Parivar group. Founded on 27 September 1925, it claimed a commitment to selfless service to India. It is the world's largest voluntary inspiring missionary organization.
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, popularly known as Veer Savarkar, was an Indian independence activist, politician, lawyer, writer, and the formulator of the Hindutva philosophy.
Godse is an Indian surname, and may refer to:
Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar was the second Sarsanghchalak of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. Golwalkar authored the books Bunch of Thoughts and We, or Our Nationhood Defined.
Gopal Vinayak Godse was the younger brother of Nathuram Godse and one of the conspirators in the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi on 30 January 1948. He was the last among them to die and lived his last days in Pune.
Madan Lal Pahwa was one of the conspirators involved in assassinating Mahatma Gandhi. He came to India in 1947 as a refugee after the partition of India. The plight of refugees intensified his anger against Gandhi, the main leader of the Indian National Congress, and other Congress leaders. He tried to murder Gandhi on 20 January 1948 in a prayer meeting at Birla House New Delhi but failed in his attempt. Later when Nathuram Godse killed Gandhi on 30 January 1948, a case of attempt to murder was filed against Madan Lal. He was found guilty, and was sentenced to life imprisonment for his involvement.
Vishnu Ramakrishna Karkare, a Hindu Mahasabha activist was sentenced to life imprisonment for his role in an attempt to assassinate Mahatma Gandhi.
Pramod Muthalik is the chief of the Rashtriya Hindu Sena, the parent organisation of the Sri Ram Sena.
The Hindu Revolution is a term in Hindu nationalism referring to a sociopolitical movement aiming to overthrow the secular Republic of India and replace it with a Hindu State.
The Kapur Commission was a commission of inquiry of Mysore, India, into the murder conspiracy of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
Me Nathuram Godse Boltoy is a two-act play written in the Marathi language. It has been written by Pradeep Dalvi. It is based on the book May It Please You Honour written by Gopal Godse. According to Karline McLain the play "enacts Godse's defense plea" and thus "explores the assassination of Gandhi and the trial of Godse from Godse's point of view.
Dattatraya Sadashiv Parchure (1902–1985) was a doctor and a member of the Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha. He was one of several people accused of the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi. Initially sentenced to life imprisonment by a lower court, he was acquitted upon appeal by the Punjab High Court.
Himani Savarkar (1947-2015) was a leader of the Hindu Mahasabha party and the President of Abhinav Bharat. She was the daughter of Gopal Godse, hence a niece of the Gandhi's assassin Nathuram Godse, and a daughter-in-law of Narayan Savarkar, the younger brother of the Hindu nationalist pioneer V. D. Savarkar.
Bunch of Thoughts is one of the two books written by M. S. Golwalkar, also referred to as Guruji, who was the second Sarsanghchalak (president) of the right wing Hindu group Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. This book was published in 1966. The RSS leaders Rajendra Singh and Bhaurao Deoras had made a joint statement in 1978 to the effect that Golwalkar's purpose of writing the book was "to clarify and understand the true purpose, the exact nature, the ambit and scope of the RSS work...and its activities."
Pragya Singh Thakur, also known as Sadhvi Pragya, is an Indian politician belonging to the Bharatiya Janata Party. During the college days, she was active member of Akhil Bhartiya Vidhyarthi Parishad (ABVP) and later joined Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh (RSS).