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An Islamic republic is a sovereign state that is officially ruled by Islamic laws and is contrasted to Islamic monarchy. As a name or title, four states are Islamic republics, including Afghanistan, Iran, Mauritania and Pakistan. Pakistan first adopted the title under the constitution of 1956; Mauritania adopted it on 28 November 1958; Iran adopted it after the 1979 Iranian Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty; and Afghanistan adopted it in 2004 after the fall of the Taliban government.
Despite sharing the "Islamic republic" name, the countries differ greatly in their governments and laws, and of the four only Iran is a religious theocratic state. As a term, it has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. To some Muslim religious leaders in the regions who advocate it, an Islamic republic is a state under a particular Islamic form of government. They see it as a compromise between a purely Islamic caliphate and a secular, nationalist republic. In their conception of the Islamic republic, the penal code of the state is required to be compatible with some or all laws of Sharia and the state may not be a monarchy as many Middle Eastern states are presently. Despite this, there are republics with Islam as a state religion and that are (at least partly) ruled by Islamic laws, but do not carry the "Islamic republic" name - examples include Iraq, Yemen, Sudan, Algeria, Maldives and Bangladesh.
Iran officially uses it as a title in all governance names referring to the country (e.g. the Islamic Republic of Iran Army or the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting) as opposed to its equivalents in Afghanistan which are called the Afghan National Army and the Radio Television Afghanistan. Unlike the others, Iran also uses the IRI acronym of the Islamic Republic of Iran as part of official acronyms.
|State||Date of name adoption||Government type|
|7 December 2004||Unitary presidential republic|
|1 April 1979||Unitary Khomeinist presidential republic (de facto theocratic-republican subject to a Supreme Leader)|
|28 November 1960||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|23 March 1956||Federal parliamentary constitutional republic|
Afghanistan is an Islamic republic consisting of three branches, the executive, the legislative and the judicial. The nation is led by the president Ashraf Ghani, with Amrullah Saleh and Sarwar Danish as the vice presidents. The National Assembly is the legislature, a bicameral body having two chambers, the House of the People and the House of Elders. The Supreme Court is led by Chief Justice Said Yusuf Halem, the former Deputy Minister of Justice for Legal Affairs.
Despite the Islamic name, the constitution formed in 2004 is very similar to the monarchy-era 1964 Constitution of Afghanistan.
Two months after the Islamic Revolution in 1979, the new government held the Iranian Islamic Republic referendum on 10 and 11 Farvardin (30 and 31 March) to change the Pahlavi dynasty into an Islamic republic. On 12 Farvardin (1 April), it was announced that 98.2% of the Iranian voters wanted to establish the Islamic republic.
Before the referendum, some political groups suggested various names for the ideology of the Iranian revolution such as the Republic (without Islam) or the Democratic Republic. Ruhollah Khomeini, the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, asked people to vote for the name Islamic Republic, not a word more and not a word less.
According to the constitution, the Islamic Republic of Iran is a system based on the following beliefs:
# the One God (as stated in the phrase "There is no other god except God"), His exclusive sovereignty and right to legislate, and the necessity of submission to His commands;
- divine revelation and its fundamental role in setting forth the laws;
- the return to God in the Hereafter, and the constructive role of this belief in the course of man's ascent towards God;
- the justice of God in creation and legislation;
- continuous leadership and perpetual guidance, and its fundamental role in ensuring the uninterrupted process of the revolution of Islam;
- the exalted dignity and value of man, and his freedom coupled with responsibility before God; in which equity, justice, political, economic, social and cultural independence, and national solidarity are secured by recourse to:
- continuous leadership of the holy persons, possessing necessary qualifications, exercised on the basis of the Quran and the Sunnah, upon all of whom be peace;
- sciences and arts and the most advanced results of human experience, together with the effort to advance them further;
- negation of all forms of oppression, both the infliction of and the submission to it, and of dominance, both its imposition and its acceptance.
According to a commentary on the constitution, just as the establishment of Islamic republic system is based on the beliefs of people, namely governing of right, justice and Quran. However, its continuation lasted with the same principles and there is an important role for the beliefs of Iranian people. Furthermore, those beliefs are of complete and determinate roles in all affairs. They are considered as guidelines for governors and statesmen. There is an important role for beliefs such as the principle of unity of God and believing in it.In spite of that, there are other principles are to the submission in front of Allah and His order. Therefore, legislation is limited to Allah and laws so far as correspond to divine legislation are valid. Belief in divine revelation and prophecy are essential to Islamic worldview and there are two kinds of justice. The first kind is legislative (Tashri'i) and the other kind is creative (Takivini). Creative justice is based on justice and equality. Legislative justice is respected to making divine law in Islamic society. Besides, the basis of Shia school is in terms of imamate or leadership.
According to the principle of imamate in Shia, it is indispensable to obey of the prophet of Allah and of those possessed of authority. Shia clergy believes that the conception of the term "those possessed of authority" denoted on innocent Shia imams. When the Imam is absent, the valy faghih is in charge of leadership of society. In other words, religious leaders undertake the responsibility of the imamate. There is more emphasizing on the dignity (karamat) and the high value of humans which is along with freedom and responsibility. The principle of dignity is a necessary condition of the Islamic republic in terms of existence, but there are many meanings for the term dignity. Sometimes it refers to generosity, nobleness and honor, but Islam considers it two sorts of dignity for human beings, namely essential or innate dignity and acquired dignity. According to innate dignity, human being possessed of the right of living among other creatures. The principle is also mentioned by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. On the basis of acquired dignity, the human is able to pass the degrees of perfection with the aid of actuality of his potentialities and talents.
For the first time, Ruhollah Khomeini referred to the terms of Islamic republic for the Iranian people. He believes that the Iranian people want an Islamic state which is a republic. Responding to a journalist's question on the ambiguity of the term Islamic republic, Khomeini stated that the term republic has the same sense as other uses and Islamic republic has considered both Islamic ideology and the choice of people.
The Islamic Republic of Mauritania is a country in the Maghreb region of western North Africa.
Pakistan was the first country to adopt the adjective Islamic to modify its republican status under its otherwise secular constitution in 1956. Despite this definition, the country did not have a state religion until 1973, when a new constitution, more democratic and less secular, was adopted. Pakistan only uses the Islamic name on its passports, visas and coins. Although Islamic Republic is specifically mentioned in the constitution of 1973, all government documents are prepared under the name of the Government of Pakistan. The Constitution of Pakistan, Part IX, Article 227 states: "All existing laws shall be brought in conformity with the Injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah,in this Part referred to as the Injunctions of Islam, and no law shall be enacted which is repugnant to such Injunctions".
The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria used an Islamic republic government system from 1996 to 2000.
Between 1978 and 2000, the Comoros was the Federal and Islamic Republic of the Comoros.
The Turkic Uyghur- and Kirghiz-controlled Turkish Islamic Republic of East Turkestan was declared in 1933 as an independent Islamic republic by Sabit Damulla Abdulbaki and Muhammad Amin Bughra. However, the Chinese Muslim 36th Division of the National Revolutionary Army defeated their armies and destroyed the republic during the Battles of Kashgar, Yangi Hissar and Yarkand.The Chinese Muslim Generals Ma Fuyuan and Ma Zhancang declared the destruction of the rebel forces and the return of the area to the control of the Republic of China in 1934, followed by the executions of the Turkic Muslim Emirs Abdullah Bughra and Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra. The Chinese Muslim General Ma Zhongying then entered the Id Kah Mosque in Kashgar and lectured the Turkic Muslims on being loyal to the Nationalist Government.
In December 2015, the then-president Yahya Jammeh declared The Gambia to be an Islamic republic. Jammeh said that the move was designed to distance the West African state from its colonial past, that no dress code would be imposed and that citizens of other faiths would be allowed to practice freely.However, he later ordered all female government employees to wear headscarves before rescinding the decision shortly after. The announcement of an Islamic republic has been criticized as unconstitutional by at least one opposition group. After the removal of Jammeh in 2017, his successor Adama Barrow said the Gambia would no longer be an Islamic republic.
Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini, also known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian politician, revolutionary, and cleric. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and the end of the 2,500 year old Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989.
Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main branches of Islam. It holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor and the Imam (leader) after him, most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm, but was prevented from the caliphate as a result of the incident of Saqifah. This view primarily contrasts with that of Sunni Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor and consider Abu Bakr, who was appointed caliph by a group of Muslims at Saqifah, to be the first rightful caliph after Muhammad. A person observing Shia is called a Shi'ite.
Pan-Islamism is a political ideology advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic country or state – often a caliphate – or an international organization with Islamic principles. As a form of internationalism and anti-nationalism, Pan-Islamism differentiates itself from pan-nationalistic ideologies, for example Pan-Arabism, by seeing the ummah as the focus of allegiance and mobilization, excluding ethnicity and race as primary unifying factors. It portrays Islam as being anti-racist and against anything that divides the human race based on ethnicity.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 December 1979, and went into force replacing the Constitution of 1906. It was amended on 28 July 1989. The constitution has been called a "hybrid" of "theocratic and democratic elements". While articles One and Two vest sovereignty in God, article six "mandates popular elections for the presidency and the Majlis, or parliament." However, main democratic procedures and rights are subordinate to the Guardian Council and the Supreme Leader, whose powers are spelled out in Chapter Eight.
There exist a number of perspectives on the relationship of Islam and democracy among Islamic political theorists, the general Muslim public, and Western authors.
An Islamic state is a form of government based on Islamic law. As a term, it has been used to describe various historical polities and theories of governance in the Islamic world. As translation of the Arabic term dawlah islāmiyyah it refers to a modern notion associated with political Islam (Islamism).
In Shi'a Islam the guidance of clergy and keeping such a structure holds a great importance. The clergy structure depends on the branch of Shi'ism is being referred to.
Velayat-e faqih, also known as Islamic Government, is a book by the Iranian Muslim cleric, faqīh, and revolutionary Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, first published in 1970, and probably the most influential document written in modern times in support of theocratic rule.
The Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist, also called the Governance of the Jurist, is a post-Occultation theory in Shia Islam which holds that Islam gives a faqīh custodianship over people. Ulama supporting the theory disagree over how encompassing custodianship should be. One interpretation – Limited Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist – holds that guardianship should be limited to non-litigious matters including religious endowments (Waqf) judicial matters and the property for which no specific person is responsible. Another – Absolute Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist – maintains that Guardianship should include all issues for which ruler in the absence of Imams have responsibility, including governance of the country. The idea of guardianship as rule was advanced by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in a series of lectures in 1970 and now forms the basis of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The constitution of Iran calls for a faqih, or Vali-ye faqih, to serve as the Supreme Leader of the government. In the context of Iran, Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist is often referred to as "rule by the jurisprudent", or "rule of the Islamic jurist".
Shia and Sunni Islam are the two major denominations of Islam. They chose sides following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in AD 632. A dispute over succession to Islamic prophet Muhammad as a caliph of the Islamic community spread across various parts of the world, which led to the Battle of Jamal and Battle of Siffin. The dispute intensified greatly after the Battle of Karbala, in which Hussein ibn Ali and his household were killed by the ruling Umayyad Caliph Yazid I, and the outcry for revenge divided the early Islamic community, which is known today as Islamic schism to differ from Christian schism that happened later.
Khomeinism is the founding ideology of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Impact of the religious and political ideas of the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini include replacing Iran's millennia-old monarchy with theocracy. Khomeini declared Islamic jurists the true holders of not only religious authority but political authority, who must be obeyed as "an expression of obedience to God", and whose rule has "precedence over all secondary ordinances [in Islam] such as prayer, fasting, and pilgrimage."
The ideas and practices of the leaders, preachers, and movements of the Islamic revival movement known as Islamism have been criticized by Muslims and non-Muslims.
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is His last Messenger.
The ideology of the Iranian Revolution has been called a "complex combination" of nationalism, political populism, and Shia Islamic "religious radicalism".
The Iranian revolution expresses itself in the language of Islam, that is to say, as a democratic movement with a religious leadership, a religiously formulated critique of the old order, and religiously expressed plans for the new. Muslim revolutionaries look to the birth of Islam as their model, and see themselves as engaged in a struggle against paganism, oppression, and empire.
The Interim Government of Iran was the first government established in Iran after the Iranian Revolution, and the first nominal republic established in Iran after 2,500 years of Persian monarchy. The regime was headed by Mehdi Bazargan, one of the members of the Freedom Movement of Iran, and formed on the order of Ruhollah Khomeini on 4 February 1979. From 4 February to 11 February, Bazargan and Shapour Bakhtiar, the Shah's last Prime Minister, both claimed to be the legitimate prime minister; Bakhtiar fled on 11 February. Mehdi Bazargan was the prime minister of the interim government and introduced a seven-member cabinet on 14 February 1979. Ebrahim Yazdi was elected as the Foreign Minister.
A constitutional referendum was held in Iran on 2 and 3 December 1979. The new Islamic constitution was approved by 99.5% of voters.
The Supreme Leader of Iran, also referred to as Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution, but officially called the Supreme Leadership Authority, is the head of state, self appointed political and religious authority of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The armed forces, judiciary, state television, and other key government organizations are subject to the Supreme Leader. The current longtime officeholder, Ali Khamenei, has been issuing decrees and making the final decisions on economy, environment, foreign policy, education, national planning, and other aspects of governance in Iran. Khamenei also makes the final decisions on the amount of transparency in elections, and has dismissed and reinstated presidential cabinet appointees.
The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, known simply as Neẓām, is the ruling state and current political system in Iran, in power since the Islamic revolution and fall of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
Ruhollah Khomeini's life in exile was the period that Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini spent from 1964 to 1979 in Turkey, Iraq and France, after Mohamed Reza Shah Pahlavi had arrested him twice for dissent from his “White Revolution” announced in 1963. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government,and returned to Tehran from exile on 1979.
The Islamic Republic of Mauritania, situated in western North Africa [...].
We have, by contrast, chosen to include the predominantly Arabic-speaking countries of western North Africa (the Maghreb), including Mauritania (which is a member of the Arab Maghreb Union) [...].
The Magrebian countries or the Arab countries of western North Africa (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia) [...].