Islamic republic

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Map showing countries with "Islamic Republic" in their official titles Islamic republics.svg
Map showing countries with "Islamic Republic" in their official titles

An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Mauritania. Pakistan first adopted the title under the constitution of 1956. Mauritania adopted it on 28 November 1958. Iran adopted it after the 1979 Iranian Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty. Afghanistan adopted it in 2004 after the fall of the Taliban government. Despite having similar names the countries differ greatly in their governments and laws.

Islamic state type of government in which the primary basis for government is sharia (Islamic law)

The term Islamic state has been used to describe various historical polities and theories of governance in the Islamic world. As translation of the Arabic term dawlah islāmiyyah it refers to a modern notion associated with political Islam (Islamism).

Iran Islamic Republic in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With 82 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the capital, largest city, and leading economic and cultural center.

Afghanistan A landlocked south-central Asian country

Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and in the far northeast, China. Its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi) and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range. Kabul serves as the capital and its largest city.

Contents

The term "Islamic republic" has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. To some Muslim religious leaders in the Middle East and Africa who advocate it, an Islamic republic is a state under a particular Islamic form of government. They see it as a compromise between a purely Islamic caliphate and secular nationalism and republicanism. In their conception of the Islamic republic, the penal code of the state is required to be compatible with some or all laws of Sharia, and the state may not be a monarchy, as many Middle Eastern states are presently.[ citation needed ]

Sovereign state Political organization with a centralized independent government

In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state.

Caliphate Islamic form of government

A caliphate is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph, a person considered a political-religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah. Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires. During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate (632–662 ), the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258). In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from 1517. During the history of Islam, a few other Muslim states, almost all hereditary monarchies, have claimed to be caliphates.

Republicanism is a representative form of government organization. It is a political ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic. Historically, it ranges from the rule of a representative minority or oligarchy to popular sovereignty. It has had different definitions and interpretations which vary significantly based on historical context and methodological approach.

Iran officially uses the name "Islamic Republic" in all governance names referring to the country, e.g. Islamic Republic of Iran Army, Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting etc., as opposed to for example its equivalents in Afghanistan, which are called Afghan National Army and Radio Television Afghanistan. Also, Iran, unlike the others, uses it as part of official acronyms, i.e. 'IRI' for "Islamic Republic of Iran".

Islamic Republic of Iran Army combined regular military forces of Irans military

The Islamic Republic of Iran Army, acronymed AJA, simply known as the Iranian Army or Artesh, is the "conventional military of Iran" and part of Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The army is tasked to protect the territorial integrity of the Iranian state from external and internal threats and to project power. Artesh has its own Joint Staff which coordinates its four separate service branches: Ground Forces, Air Force, Navy and the newly established Air Defense Force.

Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting organization

The Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB), formerly called National Iranian Radio and Television until the Iranian revolution of 1979, is an Iranian media corporation which holds a monopoly of domestic radio and television services in Iran, and is also among the largest media organizations in the Asian and Pacific regions, and a regular member of Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union. IRIB is independent of the Iranian government, but its head is appointed directly by the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.

Afghan National Army branch of the Afghan Armed Forces

The Afghan National Army (ANA) is the land warfare branch of the Afghan Armed Forces. It is under the Ministry of Defense in Kabul and is largely trained by US-led NATO forces. The ANA is divided into six corps, with the 201st in Kabul followed by the 203rd in Gardez, 205th in Kandahar, 207th in Herat, 209th in Mazar-i-Sharif and the 215th in Lashkar Gah. The current Chief of Staff of the ANA is Lieutenant General Mohammad Sharif Yaftali.

List of Islamic republics

StateDate of name adoption
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Islamic Republic of Afghanistan 7 December 2004
Flag of Iran.svg  Islamic Republic of Iran 1 April 1979 [1]
Flag of Mauritania.svg  Islamic Republic of Mauritania 28 November 1960
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Islamic Republic of Pakistan 23 March 1956

Current

Iran

Two months after the Islamic Revolution in 1979, the new government held the Iranian Islamic Republic referendum on 10 and 11 Farvardin (30 and 31 March) to change the Pahlavi dynasty into an Islamic Republic. On 12 Farvardin, it was announced that 98.2 percent of the Iranian voters wanted to establish the "Islamic Republic". [2] [3]

March 1979 Iranian Islamic Republic referendum

A referendum on creating an Islamic Republic was held in Iran on 30 and 31 March 1979.

Pahlavi dynasty Dynasty that ruled Iran from 1925 until 1979

The Pahlavi dynasty was the last ruling house of the Imperial State of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution. The dynasty was founded by Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925, a former brigadier-general of the Persian Cossack Brigade, whose reign lasted until 1941 when he was forced to abdicate by the Allies after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. He was succeeded by his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.

Before the Islamic Republic referendum, some political groups suggested various names for the ideology of the Iranian revolution, such as the Republic (without Islam) or the democratic republic. But Ruhollah Khomeini, the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, asked people to vote for the name "Islamic Republic", not a word more and not a word less. [3] [4]

Ruhollah Khomeini 20th-century Iranian religious leader and politician, founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, also known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian politician and cleric. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and the end of the 2,500 year old Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989.

According to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Islamic Republic is a system based on beliefs in: [5]

Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran National constitutional law

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 December 1979, and went into force replacing the Constitution of 1906. It was amended on 28 July 1989. The constitution has been called a "hybrid" of "theocratic and democratic elements". While articles One and Two vest sovereignty in God, article six "mandates popular elections for the presidency and the Majlis, or parliament." However, main democratic procedures and rights are subordinate to the Guardian Council and the Supreme Leader, whose powers are spelled out in Chapter Eight.

  1. the One God (as stated in the phrase "There is no other god except God"), His exclusive sovereignty and right to legislate, and the necessity of submission to His commands;
  2. divine revelation and its fundamental role in setting forth the laws;
  3. the return to God in the Hereafter, and the constructive role of this belief in the course of man's ascent towards God;
  4. the justice of God in creation and legislation;
  5. continuous leadership and perpetual guidance, and its fundamental role in ensuring the uninterrupted process of the revolution of Islam;
  6. the exalted dignity and value of man, and his freedom coupled with responsibility before God; in which equity, justice, political, economic, social and cultural independence, and national solidarity are secured by recourse to:
  • continuous leadership of the holy persons, possessing necessary qualifications, exercised on the basis of the Quran and the Sunnah, upon all of whom be peace;
  • sciences and arts and the most advanced results of human experience, together with the effort to advance them further;
  • negation of all forms of oppression, both the infliction of and the submission to it, and of dominance, both its imposition and its acceptance.
Commentary

According to a commentary on Constitution, just as the establishment of Islamic Republic system is based on the beliefs of people namely governing of right, justice and Quran. However, its continuation lasted with the same principles and there is an important role for the beliefs of Iranian people. Also, those beliefs are of complete and determinate roles in all affairs. Those beliefs considered as guidelines for governors and statesmen. There is an important role for beliefs such as the principle of unity of God and believing in it. [6] There are, in spite of that, other principles are to the submission in front of Allah and his order. Therefore, legislation is limited to god and laws so far as correspond to divine legislation are valid. Belief in divine revelation and prophecy also are essential to Islamic worldview. We have two kinds of justice. The first kind is legislative (Tashri’i) and the other kind is creative or Takivini. Creative justice is based on the Justice and equality. Legislative justice is respected to Making divine law in Islamic society. Besides, the basis of Shia school is in terms of Imamate or leadership.

According to the principle of Imamate in Shia, it is indispensable to obey of the prophet of God and of those possessed of authority. Shia Ulama believes that the conception of the term "those possessed of authority" denoted on Innocent Shia Imams. Certainly, when Imam is absent, Valy faghih is in charge of leadership of society. In other words, religious leaders undertake the responsibility of Imamate. There is more emphasizing on the dignity (Karamat) and the high value of humans which is along with freedom and responsibility.The principle of Dignity is a necessary condition of the Islamic republic in terms of existence.There is many meaning for dignity. Sometimes it refers to generosity, nobleness and honor. However Islam considers with two sorts of dignity for human beings: essential or innate dignity and acquired dignity. According to innate dignity, Human being possessed of the right of living among other creatures. The principle also mentioned by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. On the basis of Acquired dignity, human is able to pass the degrees of perfection with the aid of actuality of his potentialities and talents. [7]

Opinions

For the First time, Rouhollah Khomeini referred to the terms of Islamic republic for Iranian people. He believes that Iranian people want an Islamic state which is a republic. Responding to Journalist's question on the ambiguity of the term Islamic republic, Khomeini believes that republic has the same sense as other uses. Islamic republic has considered both with Islamic ideology and choice of people. [8]

Iraq

Iraq, a country neighbouring Iran, is a federal Islamic Republic according to the constitution, consists of a republican, representative, parliamentary, and democratic system of government. Some Shiite leaders had proposed changing the country’s official name to the Islamic Republic of Iraq, a move opposed by Iraq’s secularists. [9]

Afghanistan

Afghanistan is an Islamic republic consisting of three branches, the executive, legislative and judicial. The nation is led by President Ashraf Ghani with Abdul Rashid Dostum and Sarwar Danish as vice presidents. Abdullah Abdullah serves as the chief executive officer (CEO). The National Assembly is the legislature, a bicameral body having two chambers, the House of the People and the House of Elders. The Supreme Court is led by Chief Justice Said Yusuf Halem, the former Deputy Minister of Justice for Legal Affairs. [10] [11]

Pakistan

Pakistan was the first country to adopt the adjective "Islamic" to modify its republican status under its otherwise secular constitution in 1956. Despite this definition, the country did not have a state religion until 1973, when a new constitution, more democratic and less secular, was adopted. Pakistan only uses the "Islamic" name on its passports, visas, and coins. Although "Islamic Republic" is specifically mentioned in the Constitution of 1973, all government documents are prepared under the name of the Government of Pakistan. The Constitution of Pakistan, part IX, article 227 says "All existing laws shall be brought in conformity with the Injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah,in this Part referred to as the Injunctions of Islam, and no law shall be enacted which is repugnant to such Injunctions".

Mauritania

The Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of western North Africa. [12] [13] [14]

Former

Comoros

1978–2000 Federal and Islamic Republic of the Comoros.

East Turkestan

The Turkic Uyghur- and Kirghiz-controlled Turkish Islamic Republic of East Turkestan was declared in 1933 as an independent Islamic republic, by Sabit Damulla Abdulbaki and Muhammad Amin Bughra. However, the Chinese Muslim 36th Division of the National Revolutionary Army defeated their armies and destroyed the republic during the Battles of Kashgar, Yangi Hissar and Yarkand. [15] The Chinese Muslim Generals Ma Fuyuan and Ma Zhancang declared the destruction of the rebel forces and the return of the area to the control of the Republic of China in 1934, followed by the executions of the Turkic Muslim Emirs Abdullah Bughra and Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra. The Chinese Muslim General Ma Zhongying then entered the Id Kah Mosque in Kashgar and lectured the Turkic Muslims on being loyal to the Central Government.

The Gambia

In December 2015, then-President Yahya Jammeh declared The Gambia to be an Islamic republic. Jammeh said that the move was designed to distance the West African state from its colonial past and that no dress code would be imposed and citizens of other faiths would be allowed to practice freely. [16] However, he later ordered all female government employees to wear headscarves [17] before rescinding the decision shortly after. The announcement of an Islamic republic has been criticized as unconstitutional by at least one opposition group. [18] After the removal of Jammeh in 2017 his successor Adama Barrow said the Gambia will be a republic once again eliminating the Islamic republic. [19]

Chechen Republic of Ichkeria

The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria used an Islamic republic government system from 1996 to 2000 [20]

See also

Related Research Articles

Shia Islam Denomination of Islam which holds that Muhammad designated Ali as his successor and leader (imam), whose adherents form the majority of the population in Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain

Shia Islam is one of the two main branches of Islam. It holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor and the Imam (leader) after him, most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm, but was prevented from the caliphate as a result of the incident of Saqifah. This view primarily contrasts with that of Sunni Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor and consider Abu Bakr, who they claim was appointed caliph by a small group of Muslims at Saqifah, to be the first rightful caliph after the Prophet.

Muslim world Muslim-majority countries, states, districts, or towns

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced. In a modern geopolitical sense, these terms refer to countries where Islam is widespread, although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion. The term Muslim-majority countries is an alternative often used for the latter sense.

Iranian Revolution Revolution in Iran to overthrow the Shah replace him with Ayatollah Khomeini.

The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution, was a series of events that involved the overthrow of the last monarch of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, and the replacement of his government with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leader of one of the factions in the revolt. The movement against the United States-backed monarchy was supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements.

Pan-Islamism political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state – often a caliphate – or an international organization with Islamic principles

Pan-Islamism is a political ideology advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic country or state – often a caliphate – or an international organization with Islamic principles. As a form of internationalism and anti-nationalism, Pan-Islamism differentiates itself from pan-nationalistic ideologies, for example Pan-Arabism, by seeing the ummah as the focus of allegiance and mobilization, excluding ethnicity and race as primary unifying factors. It portrays Islam as being anti-racist and against anything that divides the human race based on ethnicity.

Islam and democracy Islam and democracy

There exist a number of perspectives on the relationship of Islam and democracy among Islamic political theorists, the general Muslim public, and Western authors.

<i>Islamic Government</i> Book by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

Velayat-e faqih, also known as Islamic Government, is a book by the Iranian Muslim cleric, faqīh, and revolutionary Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, first published in 1970, and probably the most influential document written in modern times in support of theocratic rule.

The Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist, also called the Governance of the Jurist, is a post-Occultation theory in Shia Islam which holds that Islam gives a faqīh custodianship over people. Ulama supporting the theory disagree over how encompassing custodianship should be. One interpretation – Limited Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist – holds that guardianship should be limited to non-litigious matters including religious endowments (Waqf) judicial matters and the property for which no specific person is responsible. Another – Absolute Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist – maintains that Guardianship should include all issues for which ruler in the absence of Imams have responsibility, including governance of the country. The idea of guardianship as rule was advanced by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in a series of lectures in 1970 and now forms the basis of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The constitution of Iran calls for a faqih, or Vali-ye faqih, to serve as the Supreme Leader of the government. In the context of Iran, Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist is often referred to as "rule by the jurisprudent", or "rule of the Islamic jurist".

Political thought and legacy of Ruhollah Khomeini

Khomeinism is the founding ideology of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Impact of the religious and political ideas of the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini include replacing Iran's millennia-old monarchy with theocracy. Khomeini declared Islamic jurists the true holders of not only religious authority but political authority, who must be obeyed as "an expression of obedience to God", and whose rule has "precedence over all secondary ordinances [in Islam] such as prayer, fasting, and pilgrimage."

Criticism of Islamism

The ideas and practices of the leaders, preachers, and movements of the Islamic revival movement known as Islamism, have been criticized by Muslims and non-Muslims. Among those authors and scholars who have criticized Islamism, or some element of it, include Maajid Nawaz, Reza Aslan, Abdelwahab Meddeb, Muhammad Sa'id al-'Ashmawi, Khaled Abu al-Fadl, Gilles Kepel, Matthias Küntzel, Joseph E. B. Lumbard, and Olivier Roy.

Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is a messenger of God.

The ideology of the Iranian Revolution has been called a "complex combination" of nationalism, political populism, and Shia Islamic "religious radicalism".

The Iranian revolution expresses itself in the language of Islam, that is to say, as a religious movement with a religious leadership, a religiously formulated critique of the old order, and religiously expressed plans for the new. Muslim revolutionaries look to the birth of Islam as their model, and see themselves as engaged in a struggle against paganism, oppression, and empire.

Interim Government of Iran government of Iran from February to November 1979

The Interim Government of Iran was the first government established in Iran after the Iranian Revolution, and the first nominal republic established in Iran after 2,500 years of Persian monarchy. The regime was headed by Mehdi Bazargan, one of the members of the Freedom Movement of Iran, and formed on the order of Ruhollah Khomeini on 4 February 1979. From 4 February to 11 February, Bazargan and Shapour Bakhtiar, the Shah's last Prime Minister, both claimed to be the legitimate prime minister; Bakhtiar fled on 11 February. Mehdi Bazargan was the prime minister of the interim government and introduced a seven-member cabinet on 14 February 1979. Ebrahim Yazdi was elected as the Foreign Minister.

A constitutional referendum was held in Iran on 2 and 3 December 1979. The new Islamic constitution was approved by 99.5% of voters, with a 71.6% turnout.

Supreme Leader of Iran Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Supreme Leader of Iran, also referred to as Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution, but officially called the Supreme Leadership Authority, is the head of state as well as the ultimate political and religious authority of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The armed forces, judiciary, state television, and other key government organizations are subject to the Supreme Leader. The current longtime officeholder, Ali Khamenei, has been issuing decrees and making the final decisions on economy, environment, foreign policy, education, national planning, and everything else in Iran. Khamenei also makes the final decisions on the amount of transparency in elections, and has dismissed and reinstated presidential cabinet appointees. The Supreme Leader directly chooses the ministers of Defense, Intelligence and Foreign Affairs, as well as certain other ministers, such as the Science Minister. Iran's regional policy is directly controlled by the office of the Supreme Leader with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' task limited to protocol and ceremonial occasions. All of Iran's ambassadors to Arab countries, for example, are chosen by the Quds Corps, which directly report to the Supreme Leader.

Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran legislative, executive and judiciary powers of Iran

The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: نظام جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎, romanized: Neẓām-e jomhūrī-e eslāmi-e Irān, known simply as Neẓām is the ruling state and current political system in Iran, in power since the revolution and fall of Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.

Ruhollah Khomeinis life in exile

Ruhollah Khomeini's life in exile refers to the period that Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini spent from 1964 to 1979 in Turkey, Iraq and France, after Mohamed Reza Shah Pahlavi had arrested him twice for dissent from his “White Revolution” announced in 1963. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government,and returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians.

References

  1. Iran Islamic Republic, Encyclopædia Britannica.
  2. "Iran Islamic Republic Day". The free dictionary by Farlex. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  3. 1 2 "The first election held after the revolution / day when the government took the poor". Fars News Agency. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  4. "Islamic Republic Day". Islamic Revolution Document Center. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  5. Constitution of Iran Unofficial English translation hosted at University of Bern, Switzerland (with good summaries)
  6. Amir Saeed Vakil, Pouryya Askary (2004). constitution in now law like order. p. 44.
  7. Sayyed Muhammad Hashemi (2013). Constitution of islamic republic of Iran. Mizan.
  8. Arshin Adib-Moghaddam (2014). A Critical In troduction to Khomeini. Cambridge University Press. p. 231.
  9. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/iraq-drafting-constitution
  10. "The Supreme Court Chief Justice Biography". supremecourt.gov.af. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015.
  11. "Database". afghan-bios.info.
  12. Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. Facts On File, Inc. 2009. p. 448. ISBN   143812676X. The Islamic Republic of Mauritania, situated in western North Africa
  13. Seddon, David (2004). A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East. We have, by contrast, chosen to include the predominantly Arabic-speaking countries of western North Africa (the Maghreb), including Mauritania (which is a member of the Arab Maghreb Union)...
  14. Branine, Mohamed (2011). Managing Across Cultures: Concepts, Policies and Practices. p. 437. The Magrebian countries or the Arab countries of western North Africa (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia)...
  15. Chahryar Adle; Madhavan K. Palat; Anara Tabyshalieva (2005). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Towards the contemporary period: from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century. UNESCO. p. 395. ISBN   92-3-103985-7 . Retrieved 28 October 2010.
  16. "Gambia declared Islamic republic by President Yahya Jammeh". BBC. 12 December 2015.
  17. "Female government workers in the Gambia told to wear headscarves". the Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  18. Rifai, Ryan (12 December 2015) "Gambia's president declares Islamic statehood". Al-Jazeera. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  19. "The Gambia: President Adama Barrow pledges reforms". Al Jazeera. 27 January 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  20. "Конституция Чеченской Республики » Zhaina — Нахская библиотека". zhaina.com. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016.