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The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam is a compilation of lectures delivered by Muhammad Iqbal on Islamic philosophy and published in 1930. These lectures were delivered by Iqbal in Madras, Hyderabad, and Aligarh. The last chapter, "Is Religion Possible", was added to the book from the 1934 Oxford Edition onwards.
Sir Muhammad Iqbal, widely known as Allama Iqbal was a poet, philosopher and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement. He is called the "Spiritual Father of Pakistan." He is considered one of the most important figures in Urdu literature, with literary work in both Urdu and Persian.
Two terms traditionally used in the Islamic world are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa, which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam, which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic theology.
Chennai is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is the biggest cultural, economic and educational centre of south India. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the sixth-most populous city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. The city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area, which is the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world. Chennai is among the most-visited Indian cities by foreign tourists. It was ranked the 43rd-most visited city in the world for the year 2015. The Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai as the safest city in India. Chennai attracts 45 percent of health tourists visiting India, and 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists. As such, it is termed "India's health capital". As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems.
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In Reconstruction, Iqbal called for a re-examination of the intellectual foundations of Islamic philosophy. The book is a major work of modern Islamic thought. It was a major influence on Iranian sociologist Ali Shariati and other contemporary Muslim reformers, including Tariq Ramadan.
Ali Shariati Mazinani was an Iranian revolutionary and sociologist who focused on the sociology of religion. He is held as one of the most influential Iranian intellectuals of the 20th century and has been called the "ideologue of the Iranian Revolution", although his ideas ended up not forming the basis of the Islamic Republic.
Tariq Ramadan is a Swiss Muslim academic, philosopher, and writer. He is Professor of Contemporary Islamic Studies at St Antony's College, Oxford and the Faculty of Theology and Religion, University of Oxford, but as of 2018 is taking an agreed leave of absence. He is a visiting professor at the Faculty of Islamic Studies at Hamad Bin Khalifa University in Qatar, and the Université Mundiapolis in Morocco. He is also a senior research fellow at Doshisha University in Japan. He is the director of the Research Centre of Islamic Legislation and Ethics (CILE), based in Doha. He is a member of the UK Foreign Office Advisory Group on Freedom of Religion or Belief. He was elected by Time magazine in 2000 as one of the seven religious innovators of the 21st century and in 2004 as one of the 100 most influential people in the world and by Foreign Policy readers as one of the top 100 most influential thinkers in the world and Global Thinkers. Ramadan describes himself as a "Salafi reformist".
Translation: This book was translated into Persian by Mohamad Masud Noruzi in 2011.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.
D.S. Margoliouth, an orientalist and a professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford, wrote "From the Qur'anic law of inheritance which makes the share of the male equal to that of two females the superiority of the male over the female has been inferred; such an assumption would, Sir M.Iqbal observes, be contrary to the spirit of Islam."The Qur'an says: And for women are rights over men similar to those for men over women."William Owen Carver (1898-1943) observed "His [Iqbal's] aim was "to reconstruct Muslim religious philosophy with due regard to the philosophical traditions of Islam and the more recent developments of human knowledge." Edward Hulmes noted "One of the author’s [Iqbal's] motives was to encourage his fellow countrymen to explore their own cultural roots after years of British colonial rule. But his aim was also to transcend the limited boundaries of national identity in order to ‘build bridges’ between peoples of different cultures and religious traditions."
David Samuel Margoliouth, FBA was an English orientalist. He was briefly active as a priest in the Church of England. He was Laudian Professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford from 1889 to 1937.
Syed Abul Hasan Ali al Hasani al Nadwi has written in his book Glory of Iqbal that there are certain ideas of Iqbal that he does not agree with. He is especially critical of these lectures.
In the same book, Syed Abul Hasan a footnote also mentions that his mentor, Syed Sulaiman Nadwi used to wish that it would have been better if these lectures had not been published.
The Pakistani philosophy is the philosophical activity or the philosophical academic output both within Pakistan and abroad. It encompasses the history of philosophy in the state of Pakistan, and its relations with nature, science, logic, culture, religion, and politics since its establishment on August 1947.
Sulaiman Nadvi was a Pakistani historian, biographer, littérateur and scholar of Islam. He co-authored Sirat-un-Nabi and wrote Khutbat-e-Madras.
Muḥammad Ilyās ibn Muḥammad Ismā‘īl Kāndhlawī Dihlawī was an Indian Islamic scholar who founded the Tablighi Jamaat Islamic revivalist movement, in 1925, in Mewat province. Tablighi Jamaat was another group started for the reformation of Muslims.
Contemporary Islamic philosophy revives some of the trends of medieval Islamic philosophy, notably the tension between Mutazilite and Asharite views of ethics in science and law, and the duty of Muslims and role of Islam in the sociology of knowledge and in forming ethical codes and legal codes, especially the fiqh and rules of jihad. See list of Islamic terms in Arabic for a glossary of key terms used in Islam.
Jāvēd Ahmad Ghāmidī is a Pakistani Muslim theologian, Quran scholar, Islamic modernist, exegete and educationist. He is also the founding President of Al-Mawrid Institute of Islamic Sciences and its sister organisation Danish Sara. He became a member of the Council of Islamic Ideology on 28 January 2006, where he remained for a couple of years. He also taught Islamic studies at the Civil Services Academy for more than a decade from 1979 to 1991. He was also a student of the famous Islamic scholar and exegete, Amin Ahsan Islahi. He is running an intellectual movement similar to Wastiyya in Egypt on the popular electronic media of Pakistan.
Muzaffar Iqbāl is a Pakistani-Canadian Islamic scholar and author. Iqbal earned his doctorate (1983) in Chemistry from the University of Saskatchewan and then left the field of experimental science to devote himself fully to his chosen fields: literature, history, philosophy, Islamic intellectual and spiritual traditions. Between 1984 and 1990, he taught Urdu at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1984–85), wrote two acclaimed novels in Urdu, Inkhila (Uprooting) and Inqta (Severance). During 1980 and 1990, he published a number of translations of poetry of Latin American poets and wrote a series of literary essays on South American writers. He also wrote on literary theory.
Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama is an Islamic institution at Lucknow, India, which draws large number of Muslim students from all over the world. Nadwatul Ulama fosters a diverse range of both scholars and students including Hanafis, Shafi'is and Ahl al-Hadith. Additionally it is one of very few institutes in the region to teach the Islamic Sciences completely in Arabic.
Zarb-i-Kalimضربِ کلیم is a philosophical poetry book of Allama Iqbal in Urdu, a poet-philosopher of the Indian subcontinent. It was published in 1936, two years before his death.
Muhammad Asad was an Austro-Hungarian-born Muslim journalist, traveler, writer, linguist, political theorist, diplomat and Islamic scholar. Asad was one of the most influential European Muslims of the 20th century.
Sayyid Hussain Ahmad Madani was an Islamic scholar from the Indian subcontinent. His followers called him Shaykh al-Islām, Shaykh Ul Arab Wal Ajam to acknowledge his expertise in hadith and fiqh. He was among the first recipients of the civilian honour of Padma Bhushan in 1954. According to The Nation newspaper, "Deoband dignitaries started their struggle against the imperial subjugation of the Indo-Pak subcontinent at a time when nobody dared to utter a word against the British rule."
Manazir Ahsan Gilani was an Islamic scholar from the Deobandi school of thought, which is one of the major Islamic schools in Indian subcontinent. Maulana Manazir Ahsan Gilani is often referred as Muhaqiqe Islam, Sultanul Qalam and Mutakallime Millat. He was born on the 9th of Rabiul Awal 1310 H in a village called Gilani in Bihar. His father’s name was Abul Khair. Their Arab descendants reached the Indian subcontinent about three centuries ago via Iran and finally settled in a village which came to be known as Gilaan. His elementary education was at home and then he stayed in Tonk for six years studying under the revered Maulana Syed Hakeem Barakaat Ahmad. Thereafter, he was admitted in Darul Uloom Deoband and studied Bukhari and Tirmizhi from Shaikhul Hind Maulana Mehmood-ul-Hasan and also accepted Shaikhul Hind as his spiritual mentor. He also studied Muslim from Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri. His other teachers at Darul Uloom Deoband include: Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, Mufti Azizur Rahman Usmani, Maulana Habibur Rahman Usmani and Maulana Syed Ashghar Hussain Deobandi. While at Darul Uloom Deoband, he was noticed by his teachers to have special qualities which outshined him from the rest of the students.
Abul Hasan Ali Hasani Nadwi also spelt Abul Hasan Ali al Hasani an Nadvi was an Indian Islamic scholar and author of over fifty books in various languages. He was a theorist of the revivalist movement.
Syed Zafarul Hasan was a prominent twentieth-century Muslim philosopher.
Muhammad Yusuf Kandhlawi 1917–(1965) was an Islamic born in British India, who became the second ameer of Tablighi Jamaat.
Khtbat-e-Madras is a collection on life of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by Syed Sulaiman Nadvi. An immense amount of literature about Muhammad is available in different languages of the world besides Arabic. When Syed Sulaiman Nadvi was preparing the material for this book he had in mind basically a non-Arab, non-Muslim audience. He had already coauthored a seven-volume biography of Muhammad, which is highly regarded in the Muslim world for its scholarly merits.
Syed Salman Al Husaini Al Nadwi is a scholar and professor in the Islamic sciences. He is an author of numerous scholarly works in Arabic and Urdu. Salman Hussaini Nadwi is serving as the Dean of the Faculty of Dawah at the Darul-uloom Nadwatul Ulama madrasa in Lucknow. Besides these he is also serving as the chairman of the Dr. Abdul Ali Unani Medical College and Hospital, Chancellor of Darul Uloom Syed Ahmad Shaheed – Katoli, President of Jamiat Shabaab ul Islam. He is also a member of the All India Muslim Personal Law Board, member of the court of Aligarh Muslim University, a member of Rabita Adab Islami Alalami, a member of Islamic Fiqh Academy (India) and a member of many other Islamic organisations. In addition, he is a founding member of numerous medical, IT and engineering colleges in India. Shaykh Salman is also the editor and co-editor of thirteen different periodicals in English, Urdu, Persian and Arabic languages published in India and abroad.
Syed Iqbal Zaheer is an Indian Islamic scholar and writer. By profession he is an engineer. He was trained in Islamic disciplines by traditional scholars. He has proficiency in three languages: English, Arabic and Urdu. A polymath, and a prolific writer, he has wide interests and can freely write – journalistically – on advanced scientific topics such as cellular biology, quantum physics, or conundrums faced by the scientists in astrophysics. An interesting feature of his writings – apart from the fact that he writes on subjects not dealt by many – is that, in each of his book he adopts a new style of writing.
Muhammad Saad Kandhlawi is an Indian Islamic scholar.
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