Timeline of Mashhad

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The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Mashhad, Iran.


Prior to 20th century

20th century

21st century

See also

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mashhad</span> City in Razavi Khorasan, Iran

Mashhad, also spelled Mashad, is the second-most-populous city in Iran, located in the relatively remote north-east of the country about 900 kilometres from Tehran. It serves as the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province and has a population of 3,001,184, which includes the areas of Mashhad Taman and Torqabeh.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tabas</span> City in South Khorasan, Iran

Tabas, formerly known as Golshan, is the capital city of Tabas County in South Khorasan Province of Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 35,150, in 9,903 families.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Razavi Khorasan province</span> Province of Iran

Razavi Khorasan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, located in northeastern Iran. The city of Mashhad is the center and capital of the province. Razavi Khorasan is one of the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan province in 2004. In 2014 it was placed in Region 5 with Mashhad as the location of the region's secretariat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi</span> Library in Mashhad, Iran

The Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi is a large library in Mashad, Iran. Established before 1457, it holds over 1.1 million volumes. It is an international center for Islamic research, containing numerous manuscripts and rare works of antiquity of Islamic history.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abbas Vaez-Tabasi</span> Iranian Ayatollah (1935-2016)

Abbas Vaez Tabasi was an influential Iranian cleric who held memberships at different institutions. He was Grand Imam and Chairman of the Astan Quds Razavi board from 1979 until his death in 2016.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Astan Quds Razavi</span>

Astan Quds Razavi is a bonyad based at Mashhad, Iran. It is the administrative organization which manages the Imam Reza shrine and various institutions which belong to the organization.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Imam Reza shrine</span> Tomb of the eighth Imam of the Shiites

The Shrine Imam Reza (as) or the Shrine of Razavi is the burial place of Ali bin Musa al-Reza, the eighth Imam of Imami Shiites. This place, which is located in the center of Mashhad in Razavi Khorasan, Iran, is revered as a "sanctuary" and a holy place for Imami Shiites. Every year many pilgrims come to visit this shrine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shahr Khodro F.C.</span> Iranian football club

Shahr Khodro Football Club, previously known as Padideh, is an Iranian football club based in Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan, that competes in the Persian Gulf Pro League. The club was founded in 2013 and was known as Padideh Khorasan Football Club between 2013 and 2019, and between March and August 2021.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abdullah Musawi Shirazi</span> Iranian Grand Ayatollah (1892-1984)

Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Abdullah Al-Musawi Al-Shirazi was a Grand Ayatollah of Twelver Shi'a Islam.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Imam Reza Stadium</span>

The Imam Reza Stadium is an all-seated football stadium located in Mashhad, Iran. The stadium has a seating capacity of 27,700 and is the sixth biggest stadium in Iran. It hosts some matches of the Iran national football team. The stadium completed in January 2017 and was opened on 14 March 2017 on the day of Chaharshanbe Suri.

Mehdi Azizian is an Iranian businessman and economist who was President and CEO of Astan Quds Razavi (AQR) from 1 March 2014 until 29 March 2016. He was previously Economic Vice President of the company.

The Astan Quds Razavi Museum in Mashhad, which was founded in 1937, is one of the most significant public museums in Iran. Located in the vicinity of the Holy Shrine of Imam Reza (AS) and Gowharshad Mosque, as two magnificent monuments exemplifying the Islamic art and architecture in the past twelve centuries, the AQR Museum has been visited for almost eight decades by millions of pilgrims and tourists from Iran and other countries throughout the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hossein Saberi</span>

Hossein Saberi is an Iranian academic, translator and researcher with a special interest in Islamic Law and Jurisprudence. He is professor of jurisprudence (fiqh) in the Faculty of Theology and Islamic Studies, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, and the current Director of FUM Press.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ahmad Marvi</span> Iranian Twelver Shia cleric

Ahmad Marvi is an Iranian Twelver Shia cleric, former general and former police officer who has recently been appointed as the custodian of Astan Quds Razavi by the decree of the supreme leader of Iran, Seyyed Ali Khamenei.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mohammad Taghi Modarres Razavi</span> Iranian author, University professor and literary researcher

Mohammad Taghi Modarres Razavi distinguished Professor of University of Tehran, was an Iranian Literary researcher and author. He was born in Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran on March 18, 1896, and died on November 19, 1986, in Tehran, Iran.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mohammad Reza Kalaei</span> Director of Sarakhs Special Economic Zone

Mohammad Reza Kalaei is an economist who has been working for the last time as the Director of Sarakhs Special Economic Zone. He previously worked as the mayor of Mashhad.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sayf ol-Dowleh</span> Iranian prince of Qajar dynasty

Soltan Mohammad Mirza better known by his honorific title Sayf ol-Dowleh was an Iranian prince of the Qajar dynasty and thirty-ninth son of Fath-Ali Shah, king of Qajar Iran. He was the governor of Isfahan between 1820 to 1835 and contributed to its restoration after the damage it suffered in the civil war between Zand sovereigns and Agha Mohammad Khan, rebuilding several of the Safavid pavilions and designing his own palace.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sadegh Amirazizi</span> Iranian army general and politician (1905 – 1992)

Sadegh Amirazizi (1905–1992) was an Imperial Iranian Army general and a politician who served as the minister of interior three times during the reign of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Following the 1979 revolution he left Iran and settled in Paris, France. He died there in 1993 and buried in Behest e Zahra Cemetery in Iran.

With the establishment of the Safavid dynasty, Shiism was declared the official religion of Iran. In implementing this purpose, the Safavid kings developed the holy places as a place for the Shia people by expanding the culture of endowment and creating endowments. The shrine of Imam Reza in Mashhad, the only tomb of Shia imams in Iran, was the most important religious shrine and the Safavids' focus. The Safavid kings tried to expand it in various ways, including allocating government budgets and endowments and giving ornaments and charity. One of the significant results of their performance was the increase in endowments of the Imam Reza shrine, which continued in the direction of creating a center for the spread of Shia culture, its prosperity, and continuity.


  1. Diodorus (17.77.5)
  2. Curtius (6.6.4-5)
  3. Justin (12.3.8 )
  4. Arrian (4.9.9)
  5. muhammad-bagher al-majlisi, bahaar-ol-anvaar
  6. feiz al-kashaani, al-vaafi
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Bosworth 2007.
  8. 1 2 Mawlawī 2011.
  9. 1 2 3 Britannica 1910.
  10. 1 2 3 Massumeh Farhad. "Mashhad". Oxford Art Online .{{cite web}}: Missing or empty |url= (help) Retrieved 9 February 2017
  11. John H. Lorentz (2010). A to Z of Iran. Scarecrow Press. ISBN   978-0-8108-7638-5.
  12. 1 2 3 Streck 1934.
  13. 1 2 3 "Mashhad Municipality Portal" . Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  14. "Persia". Statesman's Year-Book. London: Macmillan and Co. 1921. hdl:2027/njp.32101072368440 via HathiTrust. Meshed
  15. "City: Mashhad, Iran". ArchNet . MIT Libraries . Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  16. "Population of capital cities and cities of 100,000 and more inhabitants". Demographic Yearbook 1965. New York: Statistical Office of the United Nations. 1966. pp. 140–161.
  17. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistical Office (1987). "Population of capital cities and cities of 100,000 and more inhabitants". 1985 Demographic Yearbook. New York. pp. 247–289.
  18. "Countries of the World: Iran". Statesman's Yearbook 2003. UK: Palgrave Macmillan. 2002. ISBN   978-0-333-98096-5.
  19. "Population of capital cities and cities of 100,000 or more inhabitants". Demographic Yearbook 2015. United Nations Statistics Division. 2016.

This article incorporates information from the Persian Wikipedia.


in English

in other languages

  • Muhammad Hasan Khan Sani al-Dawla, Matla' al-shams (in Persian), Tehran, OCLC   45141226 1883-1885
  • M. P. Pagnini Alberti (1971), Strutture commerciali di una città di pelligrinaggio: Mashhad (Iran nord-orientale) (in Italian), Università degli Studi di Trieste, Istituto de Geografia, OCLC   492722329