Map of the Mihrabanid dynasty
|Shams al-Din 'Ali ibn Mas'ud|
• c. 1495-c. 1537
|Sultan Mahmud ibn Nizam al-Din Yahya|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
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|History of Iran|
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The Mihrabanid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty that ruled Sistan (or Nimruz) from 1236 until the mid-16th century. It is the third indigenous Muslim dynasty of Sistan, having been preceded by the Saffarid and Nasrid dynasties.
Sīstān, known in ancient times as Sakastan, is a historical and geographical region in present-day eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. Largely desert, the region is bisected by the Helmand River, the largest river in Afghanistan, which empties into the hamun lakes that form part of the border between the two countries.
Most of what is known about the Mihrabanids comes from two sources. The first, the Tarikh-i Sistan, was completed in the mid-14th century by an unknown chronologist and covers the first hundred years of the dynasty's history. The other, the Ihya' al-muluk, was written by the 17th century author Malik Shah Husayn ibn Malik Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad and covers the entire history of the Mihrabanids' rule of Sistan.
The Mihrabanids used the title of malik during their rule of Sistan. A malik could inherit the throne or be appointed by the nobles and military commanders. Their capital was generally the city of Shahr-i Sistan. Outside of the capital, the Mihrabanids frequently had problems asserting their authority over the outer towns of the province, and on occasion had to resort to force in order to bring them into line. The maliks often gave control of these towns to other Mihrabanids. Sometimes the Mihrabanids managed to extend their influence beyond Sistan, such as when parts of Quhistan were conquered in the late 13th century.
Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek, Malick, or Melekh is the Semitic term translating to "king", recorded in East Semitic and later Northwest Semitic and Arabic.
Zaranj or Zarang is a city in southwestern Afghanistan, near the border with Iran, which has a population of 160,902 people as of 2015. It is the capital of Nimruz province and is linked by highways with Lashkar Gah to the east, Farah to the north and the Iranian city of Zabol to the west. Zaranj is a major border crossing between Afghanistan and Iran, which is of significant importance to the trade-route between Central Asia and South Asia with the Middle East.
Quhistan or Kohistan was a region of medieval Persia, essentially the southern part of Khurasan. Its boundaries appear to have been south of Khorasan to north, Yazd to West, Sistan to South, Afghanistan to East. Ghohestan was a province in old days with a rich history in Persian literature, art and science. Notable historical towns include Ferdows, Qaen, Gonabad, Tabas, Birjand, Kashmar, Khac, Taybad, and Torbat-e Heydarieh. It is home to famous castles. Safron, berberies (Zereshk) and jujube (Annab) are among the famous agricultural products that are exclusively produced in Ghohestan. Hakim Nezari Ghohestani, Sima Bina and Professor Reza Ghohestani are among famous people who are originally from Ghohestan.
The Mihrabanids were often vassals of their more powerful neighbors. The Mihrabanids assumed control of Sistan in the wake of its subjugation by the Mongols. After the foundation of the Ilkhanate by Hulegu Khan in 1256 the maliks recognized the Ilkhans as their overlords. Under the Ilkhans, Sistan's distance from the capital gave the Mihrabanids a high degree of autonomy. During this time they intermittently fought against the Kartid maliks of Herat, who were also Ilkhanid vassals, and had replaced them in eastern Persia.By 1289, all of Quhistan had been conquered by the Mihrabanids, with Nasir al-Din Muhammad giving it to his son Shams al-Din 'Ali as an appanage. After the Ilkhanate's collapse in the mid-14th century the Mihrabanids were independent for almost half a century. This independence was ended by Timur, who invaded Sistan in 1383 and caused extensive devastation to the province. The Mihrabanids henceforth were Timurid vassals until the latter's overthrow by the Shaybanids in the first decade of the 16th century. The last malik of the dynasty decided to recognize the authority of the Safavids, eventually handing over control of Sistan and ending the Mihrabanids' governance of the region.
The Mongol Empire existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating from Mongolia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Eastern Europe and parts of Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into Siberia, eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Indochina and the Iranian Plateau; and westwards as far as the Levant and the Carpathian Mountains.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate, was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was founded in the 13th century and was based primarily in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey. The Ilkhanate was originally based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219–24 and was founded by Hulagu Khan, son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. At its greatest extent, the state expanded into territories that today comprise most of Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Turkey, western Afghanistan, and the Northwestern edge of the Indian sub-continent. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, converted to Islam.
Herāt is the third-largest city of Afghanistan. It has a population of about 436,300, and serves as the capital of Herat Province, situated in the fertile valley of the Hari River in the western part of the country. It is linked with Kandahar, Kabul, and Mazar-i-Sharif via Highway 1 or the ring road. It is further linked to the city of Mashhad in neighboring Iran through the border town of Islam Qala, and to Mary in Turkmenistan to the north through the border town of Torghundi.
Both the Mihrabanids and the general population of Sistan were Sunni Muslims. In the early 16th century Malik Sultan Mahmud became a Safavid vassal; as a result certain Shi'i religious practices were introduced, such as the Shi'i call to prayer. This transition was disliked by many of the people of Sistan.
Sultan Mahmud was the last Mihrabanid malik of Sistan, from c. 1495 until c. 1537.
The adhan, athan, or azaan is the Islamic call to worship, recited by the muezzin at prescribed times of the day. The root of the word is ʾadhina أَذِنَ meaning "to listen, to hear, be informed about". Another derivative of this word is ʾudhun (أُذُن), meaning "ear".
Shams al-Din 'Ali ibn Mas'ud ibn Khalaf ibn Mihraban was the first Mihrabanid malik of Sistan. He ruled from 1236 until his death.
Nasir al-Din Muhammad was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1261 until his death. He was the son of Mubariz al-Din Abu'l-Fath ibn Mas'ud.
Nusrat al-Din Muhammad was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1318 until his death. He was the son of Nasir al-Din Muhammad.
The Nasrid dynasty, also referred to as the Later Saffarids of Seistan or the Maliks of Nimruz, was an Iranian Sunni dynasty that ruled Sistan in the power vacuum left by the collapse of the Ghaznavid Empire and until the Mongol invasion of Central Asia. The Nasrids were a branch of the Saffarid dynasty, and the establishment of the Nasrid Kingdom at Nimruz in 1068 until its dissolution in 1225 represents a transient resurgence of Saffarid rule in Sistan.
The history of Afghanistan, as a state began in 1747 with its establishment by Ahmad Shah Durrani. The written recorded history of the land presently constituting Afghanistan can be traced back to around 500 BCE when the area was under the Achaemenid Empire, although evidence indicates that an advanced degree of urbanized culture has existed in the land since between 3000 and 2000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up to large parts of Afghanistan in the north. Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army arrived at what is now Afghanistan in 330 BCE after conquering Persia. Since then, many empires have risen from Afghanistan, including the, Greco-Bactrians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Hindu Shahi, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Khaljis, Timurids, Mughals, Hotakis and Durranis.
The Saffarid dynasty was a Muslim Persian dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, with its capital at Zaranj. Khorasan, Afghanistan and Sistan from 861 to 1003. One of the first indigenous Persian dynasties to emerge after the Arab Islamic invasions, its founder was Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar, who was born in 840 in a small town called Karnin (Qarnin), which was located east of Zaranj and west of Bost, in what is now Afghanistan - a native of Sistan and a local ayyār, who worked as a coppersmith (ṣaffār) before becoming a warlord. He seized control of the Sistan region and began conquering most of Iran and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Pakistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
The House of Inju was a Shia dynasty of Mongol origin that came to rule over the Persian cities of Shiraz and Isfahan during the 14th century AD. Its members became de facto independent rulers following the breakup of the Ilkhanate until their defeat in 1357.
The Kurt dynasty, also known as the Kartids, was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Tajik origin, that ruled over a large part of Khorasan during the 13th and 14th centuries. Ruling from their capital at Herat and central Khorasan in the Bamyan, they were at first subordinates of Sultan Abul-Fateh Ghiyāṣ-ud-din Muhammad bin Sām, Sultan of the Ghurid Empire, of whom they were related, and then as vassal princes within the Mongol Empire. Upon the fragmentation of the Ilkhanate in 1335, Mu'izz-uddin Husayn ibn Ghiyath-uddin worked to expand his principality. The death of Husayn b. Ghiyath-uddin in 1370 and the invasion of Timur in 1381, ended the Kurt dynasty's ambitions.
Qutb al-Din Muhammad was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1330 until his death. He was the son of Rukn al-Din Mahmud.
Taj al-Din was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1346 until 1350. He was the son of Qutb al-Din Muhammad.
Jalal al-Din Mahmud was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1350 until his death. He was the son of Rukn al-Din Mahmud.
'Izz al-Din was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1352 until 1380. He was the son of Rukn al-Din Mahmud.
Qutb al-Din was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1380 until 1383. He was the son of 'Izz al-Din ibn Rukn al-Din Mahmud.
Taj al-Din Shah-i Shahan Abu'l Fath or Shah-i-Shahan of Sistan was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1383 until his death. He was the son of Mas'ud Shihna.
Qutb al-Din Muhammad was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1403 until his death. He was the son of Shams al-Din Shah 'Ali.
Shams al-Din 'Ali was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1419 until his death. He was the son of Qutb al-Din Muhammad.
Shams al-Din Muhammad was the Mihrabanid malik of Sistan from 1480 until around the end of the 15th century. He was the eldest son of Nizam al-Din Yahya.
Qutb ad-Din is a masculine given name composed of the elements Qutb and ad-Din. Notable bearers of the name include: