List of monarchs of Persia

Last updated

Shah of Iran
Standard of the Shahanshah of Iran.svg
Standard of the Shah
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 2.jpg
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Persia
Details
First monarch Medes
Last monarch Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Formation705 BCE
Abolition11 February 1979
Pretender(s)

This article lists the monarchs of Persia , who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Median dynasty by Medes around 705 BC until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.

Iran Country in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia and officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.

Medes ancient Iranian civilization

The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as Media between western and northern Iran. Under the Neo-Assyrian Empire, late 9th to early 7th centuries BC, the region of Media was bounded by the Zagros Mountains to its west, to its south by the Garrin Mountain in Lorestan Province, to its northwest by the Qaflankuh Mountains in Zanjan Province, and to its east by the Dasht-e Kavir desert. Its neighbors were the kingdoms of Gizilbunda and Mannea in the northwest, and Ellipi and Elam in the south.

Pahlavi dynasty Dynasty that ruled Iran from 1925 until 1979

The Pahlavi dynasty was the last ruling house of the Imperial State of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution. The dynasty was founded by Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925, a former brigadier-general of the Persian Cossack Brigade, whose reign lasted until 1941 when he was forced to abdicate by the Allies after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. He was succeeded by his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.

Contents

Earlier monarchs in the area of modern-day Iran are listed in:

Minor dynasties and vassal monarchs can be found in:

This is a list of kings of Iran of the medieval Islamic period, AD 820 to 1432, arranged genealogically.

Achaemenid Kingdom (~705–559 BCE)

PortraitNameFamily relationsReignNotes
Achaemenid dynasty (~705–559 BC)
Achaemenes ~705 BCFirst ruler of the Achaemenid kingdom
Teispes Son of Achaemenes ~640 BC
Cyrus I on horseback, seal.png Cyrus I Son of Teispes ~580 BC
Cambyses I - April 2013 - 2.jpg Cambyses I Son of Cyrus I and father of Cyrus II ~550 BC

Achaemenid Empire (559–334/327 BCE)

Extent of the first Persian Empire, the Achaemenid Empire Achaemenid (greatest extent).svg
Extent of the first Persian Empire, the Achaemenid Empire
PortraitTitlesRegnal namePersonal nameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Achaemenid dynasty (559–334/327 BC)
Olympic Park Cyrus-3.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the Four Corners of the World Cyrus the Great 600 BCSon of Cambyses I king of Anshan and Mandana daughter of Astyages 559–530 BC530 BCKing of Anshan from 559 BCE. Killed in battle with Massagetes
Cambyses II of Persia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Cambyses II ?Son of Cyrus the Great530–522 BC521 BCDied while en route to put down a rebellion.

Pharaonic titulary: Horus: Smatawy, Nswbty: Mesutire [1]

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Bardiya Gaumata (?)?Son of Cyrus the Great (possibly an imposter claiming to be Bardiya)522 BC522 BCKilled by Persian aristocrats
Darius In Parse.JPG The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Darius I 550 BCESon of Hystaspes 522–486 BC486 BCPharaonic titulary: Horus: Menkhib
Nswbty: Stutre [2]
Xerxes Image.png The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Xerxes I 519 BCESon of Darius I485–465 BC465 BCMost likely is the King Ahasuerus of the Book of Esther [3]
Artaxerxes I image.png The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Artaxerxes I Arses?Son of Xerxes I465–424 BCE424 BCEBelieved by some to be the King Ahaseurus of the Book of Esther
The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Xerxes II Artaxerxes?Son of Artaxerxes I424 BCE424 BCEOnly recognised in Persia itself, killed by Sogdianus
The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt? Sogdianus ?Son of Artaxerxes I424–423 BCE423 BCEOnly recognised in Persia and Elam, killed by Darius II
The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Darius II Ochus?Son of Artaxerxes I424–404 BCE404 BCE
Artaxerxes II.jpg The Great King, King of Kings Artaxerxes II Arsaces436Son of Darius II404–358 BCE358 BCE
Artaxerxes III of Persia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Artaxerxes III Ochus?Son of Artaxerxes II358–338 BCE338 BCEKilled
The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Artaxerxes IV Arses?Son of Artaxerxes III338–336 BCE336 BCEKilled
Darius III of Persia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Darius III Artashata380Son of Arsames son of Ostanes son of Darius II336–330 BCE330 BCEKilled by Artaxerxes V
The punishment of Bessus by Andre Castaigne (1898-1899).jpg The Great King, King of Kings Artaxerxes V Bessus?Probably a descendant of Artaxerxes II330–329 BCE329 BCEKilled by Alexander III

Note: Ancient Persia is generally agreed to have ended with the collapse of the Achaemenid dynasty as a result of the Wars of Alexander the Great.

Wars of Alexander the Great conflicts fought by King Alexander III of Macedon ("The Great"), against other Greek powers, the Persian Empire and warlords as far east as Punjab, India

The wars of Alexander the Great were fought by King Alexander III of Macedon, first against the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Darius III, and then against local chieftains and warlords as far east as Punjab, India. Due to the sheer scale of these wars, and the fact that Alexander was generally undefeated in battle, he has been regarded as one of the most successful military commanders of all time. By the time of his death, he had conquered most of the world known to the ancient Greeks. Although being successful as a military commander, he failed to provide any stable alternative to the Achaemenid Empire—his untimely death threw the vast territories he conquered into civil war.

Macedonian Empire (336–306 BCE)

The Macedonian Empire at its greatest extent Macedonia (ancient kingdom, greatest extent).svg
The Macedonian Empire at its greatest extent
PortraitTitleNameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Argead dynasty (336–306 BCE)
Alexander III of Macedon.jpg King Alexander the Great 356 BCESon of Philip II of Macedonia336–323 BCE 13 June 323 BCE King of Macedonia from 336 BCE as Alexander III
Macedonia, dinastia degli antigonidi, tetradracma di filippo III, 323-316 ac ca.JPG King Philip III c. 359 BCESon of Philip II of MacedoniaJune 323– 317 BCE317 BCEKilled by Olympias
Alexandros IV Aigos Budge.png King Alexander IV Sept. 323 BCESon of Alexander IIISept. 323–309 BCE309 BCEKing of Macedonia as Alexander IV until 309 BC. Killed by Cassander son of Antipater
Regent Perdiccas ?June 323–321 BCE321 BCERegent for Alexander IV & Philip III, Prince of Orestis
Regent Antipater 398 BCESon of Iollas321–319 BCE319 BCERegent for Alexander IV & Philip III
Regent Polyperchon 394 BCESon of Simmias319–316 BCE303 BCERegent for Alexander IV & Philip III. Exercised no actual power in Persia.
Kassander316BC.jpg Regent Cassander c. 350Son of Antipater316–309 BCE297 BCERegent for and murderer of Alexander IV. Exercised no actual power in Persia.

Seleucid Empire (311–129 BCE)

The Seleucid Empire at its greatest extent Seleucid Empire (greatest extent).svg
The Seleucid Empire at its greatest extent
PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Seleucid dynasty (311–129 BCE)
Seleuco I Nicatore.JPG King Seleucus I Nicator c. 358 BCESon of Antiochus son of Seleucus311–281 BCE281 BCEAssumed title of "King" from 306 BCE.
AntiochusI.jpg King Antiochus I Soter ?Son of Seleucus I281–261 BCE261 BCECo-ruler from 291
AntiochusIIMET.jpg King Antiochus II Theos 286 BCESon of Antiochus I261–246 BCE246 BCE
SeleucusII.jpg King Seleucus II Callinicus ?Son of Antiochus II246–225 BCE225 BCE
SeleucusIII.jpg King Seleucus III Ceraunus Alexanderc. 243 BCESon of Seleucus II225–223 BCE223 BCE
Antiochos III.jpg Great King Antiochus III the Great c. 241 BCESon of Seleucus II223–187 BCE187 BCE
SeleucusIV.JPG King Seleucus IV Philopator ?Son of Antiochus III187–175 BCE175 BCE
Antiokhos IV.jpg King Antiochus IV Epiphanes Mithridatesc. 215 BCESon of Antiochus III175–163 BCE163 BCEKilled in Elymais
Antiochus v.jpg King Antiochus V Eupator c. 172 BCESon of Antiochus IV163–161 BCE161 BCE
DemetriosISoter.JPG King Demetrius I Soter 185 BCESon of Seleucus IV161–150 BCE150 BCE
AlexanderI.jpg King Alexander Balas ?Purported son of Antiochus IV150–146 BCE146 BCE
DemetriusII.jpg King Demetrius II Nicator ?Son of Demetrius I146–139 BCE139 BCEDefeated and captured by Parthians. He married Rhodogune daughter of Mithridates I
Antiochos VI.jpg King Antiochus VI Dionysus 148 BCESon of Alexander III.145–142 BCE138 BCEIn competition with Demetrius II.
Antiochus VII coin (Mary Harrsch).jpg King Antiochus VII Sidetes ?Son of Demetrius I139–129 BC129 BCKilled in battle with Phraates II

Parthian Empire (247 BCE – CE 228)

The Parthian Empire at its greatest extent Parthian Empire (greatest extent).svg
The Parthian Empire at its greatest extent

The Seleucid dynasty gradually lost control of Persia. In 253, the Arsacid dynasty established itself in Parthia. The Parthians gradually expanded their control, until by the mid-2nd century BCE, the Seleucids had completely lost control of Persia. Control of eastern territories was permanently lost by Antiochus VII in 129 BCE.

Parthia region of north-eastern Iran

Parthia is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran. It was conquered and subjugated by the empire of the Medes during the 7th century BC, was incorporated into the subsequent Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC, and formed part of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire following the 4th-century-BC conquests of Alexander the Great. The region later served as the political and cultural base of the Eastern-Iranian Parni people and Arsacid dynasty, rulers of the Parthian Empire. The Sasanian Empire, the last state of pre-Islamic Persia, also held the region and maintained the Seven Parthian clans as part of their feudal aristocracy.

For more comprehensive lists of kings, queens, sub-kings and sub-queens of this Era see:

PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Arsacid dynasty (247 BC – 228 AD)
Coin of Arsaces I of Parthia.jpg King, Karen, Autocrator Arsaces I Tiridates I or Arsaces?A descendant of Arsaces son of Phriapatius who was probably son of Artaxerxes II 247–211 BCE211 BCE
Coin of Arsaces II of Parthia.jpg ? Arsaces II Artabanus I or Arsaces?Son of Arsaces I 211–185 BCE [4] 185 BCE
PhriapatiusCoinHistoryofIran.jpg ?Arsaces III Phriapatius ?Grandson of Tiridates I 185–170 BCE [4] 170 BCE
Phraates I.jpg ?Arsaces IV Phraates I ?Son of Phriapatius 170–167 BCE [5] 167 BCE
Mithradatesi.jpg The Great King, Theos, Theopator, PhilhelleneArsaces V Mithridates I ?Son of Phriapatius 167 [5] –132 BCE [6] 132 BCE
PhraatesIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg The Great King, Philopator, Theopator, NikephorosArsaces VI Phraates II ?Son of Mithridates I 132–127 BCE [6] 127 BCEKilled in battle with Scythians
Coin of Artabanus I of Parthia.jpg KingArsaces VII Artabanus II ?Son of Phriapatius 127–126 BCE [6] 126 BCEKilled in battle with Tocharians
The Great King, Theopator, Philadelphos, Philhellene, EpiphanesArsaces VIIIVologases(?) [6] ?Son of Phriapatius 126–122 BCE [6] 122 BCEHe was the first Arsacid king of Media, Arran and Iberia
The Great King, King of kings, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces IXArtabanus(?) [6] ?Son of Artabanus II 122–121 BCE121 BCEKilled in battle with Medians
MithradatesII.jpg The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Epiphanes, SoterArsaces X Mithridates II ?Son of Artabanus II 121 [7] –91 BCE91 BCE
Coin of Gotarzes I of Parthia.jpg The Great King, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Euergetes, AutocratorArsaces XI Gotarzes I ?Son of Mithridates II 91–87 BCE87 BCE
The Great King, Theopator, NicatorArsaces XIIArtabanus(?) [5] ?Probably son of Arsaces VIII Vologases(?)91–77? BCE77? BCE
The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Euergetes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philopator, EpiphanesArsaces XIIIMithridates [6] ?Probably son of Mithridates II 88–67 BCE67 BCE
Orodesi.jpg The Great King, Euergetes, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XIV Orodes I ?Probably son of Mithridates II 80–75 BCE75 BCE
The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XV Sanatruces 157 BCEProbably son of Arsaces VIII Vologases(?) [5] 77–70 BCE70 BCE
The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene, EusebesArsaces XVI [5] Arsaces(?) or Vardanes(?) or Vonones(?)??77–66 BCE66 BCEThe most obscure major monarch of the first millennium BC. Nothing about him is currently known.
Coin of Phraates III of Parthia.jpg The Great King, Theos, Euergetes, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XVII Phraates III ?Son of Sanatruces 70–57 BCE57 BCEKilled by Orodes II
The Great King, Philopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XVIII [5] ??probably son of Arsaces XVI66–63 BCE63 BCEThe second most obscure monarch of the first millennium BC, nothing about him is known.
The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Theos, Eupator, Theopator, PhilhelleneArsaces XIX Mithridates III ?Son of Phraates III 65 [5] –54 BCE54 BCEKilled by Orodes II
Coin of Orodes II of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Philopator, Eupator, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, KtistesArsaces XX Orodes II ?Son of Phraates III 57–38 BCE38 BCEKilled by Phraates IV
Coin of Pacorus I of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XXI Pacorus I ?Son of Orodes II 50–38 BCE38 BCEKilled in battle with Romans
PhraatesIVProfile.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XXII Phraates IV ?Son of Orodes II 38–2 BCE2 BCEKilled by Musa
King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Autocrator, PhiloromaeosArsaces XXIII Tiridates II ?Probably a descendant of Arsaces XIII Mithridates30–25 BCEafter 23 BCEDeposed and went to Rome
?Arsaces XXIVMithridates [8] ?Probably a descendant of Arsaces XIII Mithridates12–9 BCE?
Parthian Queen Bust.jpg Queen of Queens, Thea, UraniaMusa Musa ?Queen of Phraates IV 2 BCE – 4 CE4? CE
King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XXV Phraates V ?Son of Phraates IV & Musa 2 BCE – 4 CE4 CEDeposed and went to Rome
OrodesIIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XXVI Orodes III ?Probably a descendant of Arsaces XIII Mithridates4–66Killed by Parthian aristocrats
Coin of Vonones I of Parthia.jpg The Great King, King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, NikephorusArsaces XXVII Vonones I ?Son of Phraates IV 8–1219Deposed and went to Rome. Later, he was killed by Romans.
Coin of Artabanus II of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XXVIII Artabanus III ?Probably a descendant of Arsaces XIII Mithridates10–4040
?Arsaces XXIX Tiridates III ?Probably a descendant of Tiridates II 35–36?Deposed and went to Rome
?Arsaces XXXCinnamus?Son of Artabanus III 37?Abdicated
Godarz.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XXXI Gotarzes II 11Son of Artabanus III 40–5151
VardanesICoinHistoryofIran.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XXXII Vardanes I ?Son of Artabanus III 40–4646Killed by Gotarzes II
Vononesii.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XXXIII Vonones II ?Probably son of Artabanus III c. 45–5151
?Arsaces XXXIVMithridates [9] ?Son of Vonones I 49–50?Deposed and mutilated by Gotarzes II
VologasesI.JPG King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, The LordArsaces XXXV Vologases I ?Son of Vonones II 51–7777
King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XXXVI Vardanes II ?Son of Vologases I 55–58?Deposed
VologasesIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XXXVII Vologases II ?Probably the eldest son of Vologases I 77–89/90?
PacorusII.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XXXVIII Pacorus II ?Probably the younger son of Vologases I 77–115115
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XXXIX Artabanus IV ?Probably son of Vologases I or Artabanus III 80–81?
Coin of Osroes I of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XL Osroes I ?brother of Pacorus II 89/90–130130
Coin of Vologases III of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XLI Vologases III ?Probably son of Sanatruces I king of Armenia 89–109 who was brother of Osroes I 105–148148He was also king of Armenia as Vologases I
Coin of Parthamaspates of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XLII Parthamaspates ?Son of Osroes I 116–117after 123Deposed and went to Rome
Coin of Mithridates IV of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XLIII Mithridates IV ?Probably son of Osroes I c. 130 – c. 145c. 145
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XLIV [10] ???c. 140 – c. 140c. 140
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XLV Vologases IV ?Son of Mithridates IV 148–191191
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XLVI Vologases V ?Son of Vologases IV 191–208208
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XLVII Osroes II ?Probably son of Vologases IV c. 190 – c. 195?
Coin of Vologases VI of Parthia.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XLVIII Vologases VI 181Son of Vologases V 208–228228Killed by Ardashir I
Artabanusiv.jpg King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces XLIX Artabanus V ?Son of Vologases V 213–226226Killed by Ardashir I
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, PhilhelleneArsaces LTiridates IV [11] ?Son of Vologases IV 217–222?He was also king of Armenia

Sasanian Empire (224–651)

The Sasanian Empire at its greatest extent Sasanian Empire (greatest extent).svg
The Sasanian Empire at its greatest extent
PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
House of Sasan
ArdashirIGoldCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah [12] Ardashir I 180Son of Papak, who was son of Sasan 28 April 224 – February 242February 242
ShapurICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Shapur I 215Son of Ardashir I 12 April 240 – May 270May 270
HormizdICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Wuzurg Armananshah [13] Hormizd I Hormozd-Ardashir?Son of Shapur I May 270 – June 271June 271
BahramINoFireAltarCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Gilanshah Bahram I ?Son of Shapur I June 271 – September 274September 274
BahramIICroppedCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Bahram II ?Son of Bahram I September 274 – 293293
Bahram III.jpg Shahanshah, Sakanshah Bahram III ?Son of Bahram II 293293Deposed
NarsehCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Wuzurg Armananshah Narseh I ?Son of Shapur I 293–302302
HormizdIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Hormizd II ?Son of Narseh I 302–309309Killed by Iranian aristocrats
Shahanshah Adhur Narseh ?Son of Hormizd II 309309Killed by Iranian aristocrats
Shahanshah, Dhū al-aktāf [14] Shapur II 309Son of Hormizd II 309–379379
ArdashirIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Ardashir II ?Son of Shapur II 379–383383
ShapurIIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Shapur III ?Son of Shapur II 383 – December 388December 388Killed by Iranian aristocrats
BahramIVOtherCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Kirmanshah Bahram IV ?Son of Shapur II December 388 – 399399
YazdegerdICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Yazdegerd I 363Son of Shapur III 399 – 21 January 42021 January 420Killed by Iranian aristocrats
BahramVCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Bahram V 406Son of Yazdegerd I 21 January 420 – 20 June 43820 June 438
YazdegerdIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Yazdegerd II ?Son of Bahram V 20 June 438 – 15 December 45715 December 457
Shahanshah Hormizd III 399Son of Yazdegerd II 457–459459Killed by Peroz I
Perozi.jpg Shahanshah Peroz I 459Son of Yazdegerd II 457 – January 484January 484Killed in battle with Hephthalites
Balash.jpg Shahanshah Balash ?Son of Yazdegerd II February 484 – 488488
Kavad i.jpg Shahanshah Kavadh I 449Son of Peroz I 488–49613 September 531Deposed
Zamarzp.jpg Shahanshah Djamasp ?Son of Peroz I 496–498502Deposed
Kavad i.jpg Shahanshah Kavadh I 449Son of Peroz I 498 – 13 September 53113 September 531
Anoushiravan.jpg Shahanshah, Anushiravan, The Just Khosrau I 500Son of Kavadh I 13 September 531 – 31 January 57931 January 579
HormizdIV.jpg Shahanshah Hormizd IV 540Son of Khosrau I 31 January 579 – 5 September 5905 September 590Killed by Vistahm
Gold coin with the image of Khosrau II.jpg Shahanshah, Aparviz Khosrau II 570Son of Hormizd IV September 590 – September 590February 28, 628Deposed and went to Byzantine territory
House of Mihran
BahramChobinCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Chubineh Bahram VI Mehrbandak?Son of Bahram Gushnasp from House of Mihran September – 590 January 591591Assassinated under the order of Khosrau II
House of Sasan
Gold coin with the image of Khosrau II.jpg Shahanshah, Aparviz Khosrau II 570Son of Hormizd IV January 591 – 25 February 628February 28, 628Executed by Mihr Hormozd under the orders of Kavadh II
House of Ispahbudhan
BistamCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Vistahm ?Son of Shapur from the House of Ispahbudhan. He was the uncle of Khosrau II and husband of Gorduya, sister of Bahram VI 591 – 596 or 600596 or 600Killed by his wife Gorduya or by his general Pariowk
House of Sasan
KavadhIICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Kavadh II Shiruyah?Son of Khosrau II 25 February 628 – 15 September 62815 September 628Died from plague
Aradashiriii.jpg Shahanshah Ardashir III 621Son of Kavadh II 15 September 628 – 27 April 62927 April 629Killed by Shahrbaraz
House of Mihran
ShahrbarazCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah, Shahrvaraz Shahrbaraz ?Sasanian general from the House of Mihran 27 April 629 – 17 June 62917 June 629Killed by Farrokh Hormizd under the orders of Borandukht
House of Sasan
Khusrau iii.jpg Shahanshah Khosrau III ?Nephew of Khosrau II 630630Killed after a few days reign
Puran Dokht Imaginary Portrait.jpg Shahbanu [15] Borandukht 590Daughter of Khosrau II 17 June 629 – 16 June 630 (First reign)

631 – 632 (Second reign)

632Deposed by Iranian aristocrats and replaced by Shapur-i Shahrvaraz

Restored to the Sasanian throne, and later strangled to death by Piruz Khosrow

Shahanshah Shapur-i Shahrvaraz ?Son of Shahrbaraz and an unknown sister of Khosrau II 630?Deposed by Iranian aristocrats and replaced by Azarmidokht
Shahanshah Peroz II Gushnasp-Bandeh?Son of Mihran-Goshnasp & Chaharbakht who was daughter of Yazdandad son of Khosrau I.630630Killed by Iranian aristocrats
Azarmedukht.jpg Shahbanu Azarmidokht ?Daughter of Khosrau II 630–631631Killed by Iranian aristocrats
KhosrauIVCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Khosrau IV Khurrazadh?Son of Khosrau II 631631Killed by Iranian aristocrats
House of Ispahbudhan
FarrokhHormizdVCoin.jpg Shahanshah Farrokh Hormizd ?Son of Sasanian general Vinduyih, the brother of Vistahm 630–631631Killed by Siyavakhsh under the orders of Azarmidokht
House of Sasan
HormizdVICoinHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Hormizd VI ?Grandson of Khosrau II 630–631631Killed by Iranian aristocrats
YazdegerdIIICoinCroppedHistoryofIran.jpg Shahanshah Yazdegerd III 624Son of Shahryar the son of Khosrau II 16 June 632–651651Killed by a miller

Note: Classical Persia is generally agreed to have ended with the collapse of the Sasanian Empire as a result of the Muslim conquest of Persia.

Muslim conquest of Persia historical event

The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion.

Dabuyid Kingdom (642–760)

Dabuyids (c. 720) Dabuyid dynasty (greatest extent).svg
Dabuyids (c. 720)

A Zoroastrian Persian dynasty that held power in the north for over a century before finally falling to the Abbasid Caliphate.

PortraitTitleNameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Dabuyid dynasty (642–760)
GilGavbaraHistoryofIran.jpg Ispahbadh Gil Gavbara ?Son of Piruz642–660660
Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah Dabuya ?Son of Gil Gavbara 660–676676
Ispahbod FarXan's coin-3.jpg Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah Farrukhan I the Great ?Son of Dabuya 712–728728
Dad-burzmihr.jpg Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah Dadhburzmihr ?Son of Farrukhan the Great 728–740/741740/741
Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah Farrukhan II the Little ?Son of Farrukhan the Great 740/741–747/48747/48Regent for Khurshid of Tabaristan
Ispahbod Xurshid's coin-1.jpg Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah Khurshid of Tabaristan 734Son of Dadhburzmihr 740/741–760761Committed suicide

Rashidun Caliphate (642–661)

The Rashidun Empire reached its greatest extent under Caliph Uthman, in 654 Rashidun Caliphate (greatest extent).svg
The Rashidun Empire reached its greatest extent under Caliph Uthman, in 654

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

PortraitTitleName Kunya BirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Rashidun Caliphs Umar ibn Al-Khattab - `umr bn lkhTWb thny lkhlf lrshdyn.svg Al-Faruq, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Umar ibn Al-Khattab Abu Hafs583Son of Khattab ibn Nufayl.642–644644Umar became Caliph in 634 and his forces conquered Persia in 642. Killed by Piruz Nahavandi
Uthman.png Zonnurain, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Uthman ibn Affan Abu Amr579Son of Affan, of the Umayyad clan.644–656656Killed by Kharijites
Rashidun Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib - `ly bn 'by Tlb.svg Al-Mortaza, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin, Great Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib Abul-Hasan598Son of Abu Talib, of the Hashemite clan. Son-in-law of Muhammad.656–661661Killed by Kharijites

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)

Umayyad Caliphate at its greatest extent (c. 750) Umayyad Caliphate (greatest extent).svg
Umayyad Caliphate at its greatest extent (c. 750)

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

PortraitTitleName Kunya BirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Muawiyah I Abu Abdullah?Son of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, cousin of Uthman ibn Affan and distant cousin of Muhammad 661–680680
Yazid ibn Muawiya.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Yazid I Abu Khalid?Son of Muawiyah I 680–683683
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Muawiyah II Abu Abd ur-Rahman?Son of Yazid I 683–684?Abdicated (?)
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Marwan I Abu Abd al-Malik?Son of Hakam cousin of Muawiyah I 684–685685Killed by his wife
First Umayyad gold dinar, Caliph Abd al-Malik, 695 CE.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Abd al-Malik Abu'l-Walid?Son of Marwan I 685–705705
drhm wlyd bn `bdlmlkh z ylt sjstn (systn.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Walid I Abu'l-Abbas?Son of Abd al-Malik 705–715715
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Sulayman Abu Ayyub?Son of Abd al-Malik 715–717717
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Umar II Abu Hafṣ?Son of Abd al-Aziz son of Marwan I 717–720720
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Yazid II Abu Khalid?Son of Abd al-Malik 720–724724
Siria (damasco), califfo hisham, dirhem omayyade, 724-743.JPG Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Hisham Abu'l-Walid?Son of Abd al-Malik 724–743743
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Walid II Abu'l-Abbas?Son of Yazid II 743–744744
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Yazid III Abu Khalid?Son of Al-Walid I and Shahfarand daughter of Peroz III 744–744744Killed
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Ibrahim Abu Ishaq?Son of Al-Walid I 744–744744Killed
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Marwan II Abu Abd al-Malik?Son of Muhammad son of Marwan I 744–750750Ruled from Harran in the Jazira. Killed by Saffah

Abbasid Caliphate (750–946)

Abbasid Caliphate at its greatest extent (c. 850) Abbasid Caliphate (greatest extent).svg
Abbasid Caliphate at its greatest extent (c. 850)

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Balami - Tarikhnama - Abu'l-'Abbas al-Saffah is proclaimed the first 'Abbasid Caliph (cropped).jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin As-Saffah Abu'l-Abbas Abdullah721Son of Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abdallah who was Muhammad's paternal uncle750–754754
Abbasid Dinar - Al Mansur - 140 AH (758 AD).JPG Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mansur Abu Ja'far Abdullah714Brother of As-Saffah 754–775775
Abbasid al-Mahdi dirham Kirman 166AH.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mahdi Abu Abdullah Muhammad744/745Son of Al-Mansur 775–785785
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Hadi Abu Mohammad Musa764Son of Al-Mahdi 785–786786
Harun Al-Rashid and the World of the Thousand and One Nights.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Ar-Rashid Abu Ja'far Harun763/766Son of Al-Mahdi 786–809809
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Amin Abu Abdullah Muhammad787Son of Harun al-Rashid 809–813813Killed by Al-Ma'mun
John the Grammarian as ambassador before Theophilos and Mamun.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Ma'mun Abu'l-Abbas Abdullah786Son of Harun al-Rashid 813–833833
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mu'tasim Abu Ishaq Muhammad795Son of Harun al-Rashid 833–842842
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Wathiq Abu Ja'far Harun816Son of Al-Mu'tasim 842–847847
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mutawakkil Abu'l-Fazl Ja'far821Son of Al-Mu'tasim 847–861861Killed by Al-Muntasir
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Muntasir Abu Ja'far Muhammad837Son of Al-Mutawakkil 861–862862
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Musta'in Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad836Son of Muhammad son of Al-Mu'tasim 862–866866Deposed and later killed
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mu'tazz Abu Abdullah Zubayr847Son of Al-Mutawakkil 866–869869Deposed and later killed
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Muhtadi Abu Ishaq Muhammad?Son of Al-Wathiq 869–870870
Dinar of al-Mu'tamid, AH 271.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mu'tamid Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad844Son of Al-Mutawakkil 870–892892
Dinar of al-Mu'tadid, AH 285.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mu'tadid Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad854/861Son of Talha al-Muwaffaq son of Al-Mutawakkil 892–902902
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Muktafi Abu Mohammad Ali877/878Son of Al-Mu'tadid 902–908908
Dinar of al-Muqtadir with Abu'l-Abbas and Amid al-Dawla.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Muqtadir Abul-Fazl Ja'far895Son of Al-Mu'tadid 908–929

and

929–932

929Briefly deposed.
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Qahir Abu Mansur Muhammad899Son of Al-Mu'tadid 929

and

932–934

929Forced to resign the throne in the face of public protest, later deposed and blinded.
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'mininAbu'l-Abbas Ar-Radi Muhammad907Son of Al-Muqtadir 934–940940De facto power in the hands of Ibn Ra'iq 936-938
Dirham of al-Muttaqi.jpg Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Muttaqi Abu Ishaq Ibrahim908Son of Al-Muqtadir 940–944944De facto power in the hands of Bajkam 940-941, Ibn Ra'iq 941-942, Nasir al-Dawla 942-943 & Tuzun 943-944, who deposed and blinded him.
Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mustakfi Abu'l-Qasim Abdullah905Son of Al-Muktafi 944–946946De facto power in the hands of Tuzun 944-945 & Abu Jafar 945-946. Deposed and blinded by Mu'izz al-Dawla

Samanid Empire (819–999)

Samanid Empire at its greatest extent Samanid Empire (greatest extent).svg
Samanid Empire at its greatest extent

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Samanid dynasty (819–999)
Ahmad I ??819–864/865864/5
Nasr I ??864/865–892892
Adel Isma'il I ??892–907907
Shaheed Ahmad II ??907–914914
Nasr II Samarqand coin 921 922.jpg Saeed Nasr II ??914–942943
Hamid Nuh I ??942–954954
Rashid 'Abd al-Malik I ??954–961961
Mo'ayyed Mansur I ??961–976976
Radhi Nuh II ??976–996997
Abol Hareth Mansur II ??996–999999
Abol Favares 'Abd al-Malik II ??999999
Montaser Isma'il II ??1000–10051005

Saffarid Kingdom (861–1003)

Saffarid Empire at its greatest extent Saffarid dynasty (greatest extent).svg
Saffarid Empire at its greatest extent

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

PortraitTitleName Kunya BirthFamily relationsReignDeathNote
Saffarid dynasty (861–1003)
Emir Ya'qub as-Saffar 840Son of al-Layth861–879879Died of sickness
Emir Amr ?Son of al-Layth879–901902Captured by the Samanids, later executed on 20 April 902 in Baghdad
Emir Tahir Abu'l-Hasan?Son of Muhammad, son of Amr901–908?Imprisoned in Baghdad
Emir Al-Layth ?Son of Ali, son of al-Layth909–910928Dies of natural causes as a prisoner in Baghdad in 928
Emir Muhammad ?Son of Ali, son of al-Layth910–911?Imprisoned in Baghdad
Emir Amr Abu Hafs902Son of Ya'qub 912–913?Overthrown by the Samanids
AhmadIbnMuhammadSaffaridCoin.jpg Emir Ahmad Abu Ja'farJune 21, 906Son of Muhammad, son of Amr 923–963March 31, 963Killed by Abu’l-‘Abbas and a Turkic Ghilman
KhalafibnAhmadCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir Khalaf Abu AhmadNovember 937Son of Ahmad ibn Muhammad 963–1003March 1009Overthrown by the Ghaznavids in 1003, died in exile in 1009

Ghurid Kingdom (879–1215)

Map of the Ghurid dynasty at its greatest extent by the year 1202 Ghurid dynasty (greatest extent).svg
Map of the Ghurid dynasty at its greatest extent by the year 1202

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

PortraitTitleNameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNote
Ghurid dynasty (879–1215)
Malik Amir Suri ?Father of Muhammad ibn Suri [16] ?–??was the first Malik of the Ghurid dynasty
MuhammadibnSuriPaintingHistoryofIran.jpg Malik Muhammad ibn Suri ?Son of Amir Suri ?–10111011Poisoned himself
Malik Abu Ali ibn Muhammad ?Son of Muhammad ibn Suri 1011–10351035Overthrown and killed by his nephew Abbas ibn Shith
Malik Abbas ibn Shith ?1035–10601060Deposed and killed by the Ghaznavids, replaced by his son Muhammad ibn Abbas
Malik Muhammad ibn Abbas ?Son of Abbas ibn Shith 1060–10801080
Malik Qutb al-din Hasan ?Son of Muhammad ibn Abbas 1080–11001100
Malik Izz al-Din Husayn ?Son of Qutb al-din Hasan 1100–11461146
Malik Sayf al-Din Suri ?Son of Izz al-Din Husayn 1146–11491149
Malik Baha al-Din Sam I ?Son of Izz al-Din Husayn 11491149
Malik Ala al-Din Husayn ?Son of Izz al-Din Husayn 1149–11611161
Malik Sayf al-Din Muhammad ?Son of Ala al-Din Husayn 1161–11631163
Ghyasudeen-Ghuri.jpg Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad 1139Son of Baha al-Din Sam I 1163–12021202
Shahabuddin Suri.jpg Sultan Mu'izz al-Din 1149Son of Baha al-Din Sam I 1173–12061206
Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud ?Son of Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad 1206–12121212
Sultan Baha al-Din Sam III ?Son of Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud 1212–12131213
Sultan Ala al-Din Atsiz 1159Son of Ala al-Din Husayn 1213–12141214
Sultan Ala al-Din Ali ?Son of Shuja al-Din Muhammad 1214–12151215

Buyid Kingdom (934–1062)

Buyid Dynasty at its greatest extent Buyid Dynasty (greatest extent).svg
Buyid Dynasty at its greatest extent

The Buyid Kingdom was divided into a number of separate emirates, of which the most important were Fars, Ray, and Iraq. Generally, one of the emirs held a sort of primus inter pares supremacy over the rest, which would be marked by titles like Amir al-umara and Shahanshah.

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNote
Buyids of Fars (933–1062)
Emir, Amir al-umara Imad al-Dawla Abu'l-Hasan Ali891Son of Buya934–949949Also Senior Buyid Emir (934-949)
Adud al-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, Shahanshah Adud al-Dawla Fanna Khusraw936Son of Rukn al-Dawla and nephew of Imad al-Dawla 949–983983Senior Buyid Emir (976-983) and Emir of Iraq (978-983)
Emir, Amir al-umara Sharaf al-Dawla Abu'l-Fawaris Shirdil962Son of Adud al-Dawla 983–989989Also Senior Buyid Emir and Emir of Iraq (987-989)
Emir, King Samsam al-Dawla Abu Kalijar Marzuban964son of Adud al-Dawla 989–998998Also Emir of Iraq and self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir (983-986)
Baha' al-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, King, Shahanshah Baha' al-Dawla Abu Nasr Firuz971Son of Adud al-Dawla 998–10121012Also Emir of Iraq (988-1012) and Senior Buyid Emir (997-1012)
Emir Sultan al-Dawla Abu Shuja992Son of Baha' al-Dawla 1012–10241024Also Emir of Iraq and Senior Buyid Emir (1012-1021)
AbuKalijarBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, Shahanshah Abu Kalijar Marzuban1011Son of Sultan al-Dawla 1024–10481048Also Emir of Kerman (1028-1048), Senior Buyid Emir (1037-1048) and Emir of Iraq (1044-1048)
Emir Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun ?Son of Abu Kalijar 1048–10541062Lost Fars to Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah
Emir Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah ?Son of Abu Kalijar 1051–1054?Lost Fars to Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun
Emir Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun ?Son of Abu Kalijar 1054–10621062Killed by the Shabankara tribal chief Fadluya
Buyids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamadan (935–1038)
Ruknal-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, Amir al-umara Rukn al-Dawla Abu Ali Hasan898Son of Buya935–976976Also Senior Buyid Emir (949-976)
Emir Fakhr al-Dawla Abu'l-Hasan Ali952Son of Rukn al-Dawla 976–980

and

983–997

980Also Emir of Hamadan & Tabaristan (984-997) and Senior Buyid Emir (991-997)
Muayyadal-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir Mu'ayyad al-Dawla Abu Mansur941Son of Rukn al-Dawla 976–983983Also Emir of Hamadan (976–983), Jibal (977–983), Tabaristan (980–983), and Gorgan (981–983)
AbuTalebRostamCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir Majd al-Dawla Abu Taleb Rostam993Son of Fakhr al-Dawla 997–10291029Only in Rey, briefly self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Shamsal-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir Shams al-Dawla Abu Taher?Son of Fakhr al-Dawla 997–10211021Only in Isfahan and Hamaedan, briefly self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Emir Sama' al-Dawla Abu'l-Hasan Ali?Son of Shams al-Dawla 1021–10231023Only in Hamadan, Deposed by Kakuyids
Buyids of Iraq and Khuzistan (945–1055)
Emir, Amir al-umara Mu'izz al-Dawla Abu'l-Husayn Ahmad915Son of Buya945–966966
Emir, Amir al-umara Izz al-Dawla Abu Mansur Bakhtiyar943Son of Mu'izz al-Dawla 966–979979Self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir (976-978)
Adud al-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, Shahanshah Adud al-Dawla Fanna Khusraw937Son of Rukn al-Dawla 977–983983Also Emir of Fars (949-983) and Senior Buyid Emir (976-983)
Emir, King Samsam al-Dawla Abu Kalijar Marzban964Son of Adud al-Dawla 983–987998Also self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir (983-986) and Emir of Fars & Kerman (989-998)
Emir, Amir al-umara Sharaf al-Dawla Abu'l-Fawaris Shirdil962Son of Adud al-Dawla 987–989989Also Emir of Fars (983-989) and Senior Buyid Emir (987-989)
Baha' al-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir Baha' al-Dawla Abu Nasr Firuz970Son of Adud al-Dawla 989–10121012Also Senior Buyid Emir (997-1012) and Emir of Fars (999-1012)
Emir Sultan al-Dawla Abu Shuja992Son of Baha' al-Dawla 1012–10211024Also Senior Buyid Emir (1012-1021) and Emir of Fars (1012-1024)
Emir, Shahanshah, King Musharrif al-Dawla Abu 'Ali1002Son of Baha' al-Dawla 1021–10251025Closest thing to Senior Buyid Emir (1024-1025)
Emir Jalal al-Dawla Abu Tahir Jalal al-Dawla994Son of Baha' al-Dawla 1027–10431043
AbuKalijarBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg Emir, Shahanshah Abu Kalijar Marzuban1011Son of Sultan al-Dawla 1043–10481048Also Emir of Fars (1024-1048), Emir of Kerman (1028-1048) and Senior Buyid Emir (1037-1048)
Emir Al-Malik al-Rahim Abu Nasr Khusrau Firuz?Son of Abu Kalijar 1048–10551058Also Senior Buyid Emir (1051-1055). Deposed by Tughril of the Seljuqs

Ziyarid Kingdom (928–1043)

PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal NameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Ziyarid dynasty (928–1043)
Abolhajjaj, Emir Mardavij ?son of Ziyar928–934934
Abutaher Voshmgir ?son of Ziyar934–967967
Zahir od-Dowleh Bisotoon ?son of Voshmgir 967–976976
Shams ol-Ma'ali, Abolhasan Qabus ?son of Voshmgir 976–10121012
Falak ol-Ma'ali Manuchehr ?son of Qabus 1012–10311031
Sharaf ol-Ma'ali Anushiravan ?son of Manuchehr 1031–10431043
Onsor ol-Ma'ali Keikavus ?son of Eskandar son of Qabus ??
Gilanshah ?son of Keykavous ??

Seljuk Empire (1029–1194)

A map showing the Great Seljuk Empire at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092 Seljuk Empire (greatest extent).svg
A map showing the Great Seljuk Empire at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Seljuqs (1029–1191)
Beg, SultanRukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Toğrül I Abu Talib Mohammad995Son of Mikha'il son of Seljuq1029–10631063
AlpArslan.PNG SultanʿAdud ad-Dawla Alp Arslan Abu Shujaʿ Mohammad1039Son of Chaghri Beg Dawud brother of Toğrül I 1063–10721072
Buyuk Selcuklu Sultani Meliksah.jpg SultanJalal ad-Dawla wa'd-Din Malik Shah I Abu'l-Fath Hasan1055Son of Alp Arslan 1072–10921092Killed by Assassins
SultanNasir ad-Dawla wa'd-DinAbu'l-Qasim Mahmud I 1086Son of Malik Shah I 1092–10941094
SultanRukn ad-Dunya wa'd-DinAbu'l-Muzaffar Barkiyaruq 1080Son of Malik Shah I 1094–11051105
SultanGhiyath ad-Dunya wa'd-DinAbu Shuja Muhammad I Tapar1082Son of Malik Shah I 1105–11181118
SultanMuglith ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Mahmud II 1104Son of Muhammad I 1118–11311131Dominated by his uncle Sanjar and killed in a rebellion against him.
SultanRukn ad-Dunya wa'd-DinAbu Talib Toghrul II 1109Son of Muhammad I 1132–11341134Ruled only in Iraq, dominated by his uncle Ahmed Sanjar
SultanAs-Salatin Muʿizz ad-Dunyā wa'd-DīnAbu'l-Harith Ahmed Sanjar 1087Son of Malik Shah I 1097–11571157Ruled in Khorasan, dominating a series of nephews in Iraq.
SultanGhiyath ad-Dawla wa'd-DinAbu'l-Fath Mas'ud 1109Son of Muhammad I 1134–11521152Ruled over the western portion of the empire. Preoccupations in the east meant Sanjar was unable to dominate him.
SultanMugith ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Malik Shah II 1128Son of Mahmud II 1152–1153

and

1160

1153Deposed by Khass Bey

Regained throne but then deposed by the people of Isfahan after 16 days.

SultanGhiyath ad-Dunya wa'd-DinAbu Shuja Muhammad II 1128Son of Mahmud II 1153–11601160Rule contested with his uncle Sulayman Shah (1153-1155)
SultanMu'izz ad-Dunya wa'd-DinAbu'l-Harith Sulayman Shah 1118Son of Muhammad I 1153–1155

and

1160–1161

1162Rule contested with his nephew Muhammad II

Deposed by Inanj, Lord of Reyy and the court officials

SultanRukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Arslan 1134Son of Toghrul II 1161–11761176De facto power in the hands of Ildeniz (1160-1174) and his son Pahlavan (1174-1176)
SultanRukn ad-Dunya wa'd-DinAbu Talib Toghrul III ?Son of Arslan 1176–11941194De facto power in the hands of Pahlavan (1176-1186) and Qizil Arslan (1186-1188). Deposed by Qizil Arslan in 1191.

Killed by Khwarazm Shah Tekish

SultanSanjar II?Son of Sulayman Shah 1189–11911191De facto power in the hands of Qizil Arslan (1189-1191). Deposed by Qizil Arslan in 1191.
Eldiguzids (1191)
Sultan Qizil Arslan ?Son of Ildeniz 11911191Held de facto power (1186-1188). Deposed Qizil Arslan in 1191, declared himself Sultan and died an hour before his coronation.

Khwarazmian Empire (1153–1220)

Khwarazmian Empire at its greatest extent Khwarazmian dynasty (greatest extent).svg
Khwarazmian Empire at its greatest extent

An empire built from Khwarezm, covering part of Iran and neighbouring Central Asia.

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthFamily RelationsReignDeathNote
Khwarazmian dynasty (1153–1220)
SultanAla ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Atsiz 1097/1105son of Muhammad I of Khwarazm 1153–11561156Ruling in Khwārazm from 1127
SultanTaj ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Fath Il-Arslan ?son of Atsiz 1156–11721172
SultanAla ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Tekish ?son of Il-Arslan 1172–12001200With opposition from Sultan shah
Mort de Muhammad Hwarazmshah.jpeg ShahAla ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Fath Muhammad Sanjar ?son of Tekish 1200–12201220Eliminated by the Mongols
Jalal od-Din, SultanJalal ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Mingburnu ?son of Muhammad 1220–12311231Reign largely guerilla warfare against the Mongol conquerors

Mongol Empire (1220–1256)

Mongol Empire at its greatest extent Mongol Empire (greatest extent).svg
Mongol Empire at its greatest extent

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
YuanEmperorAlbumGenghisPortrait.jpg Khan Genghis Temujin1162Son of Yesugei Baghatur 1220–12271227Ruling in Mongolia from 1206
Tolui Khan.jpg Khan Tolui 1192Son of Genghis 25 August 1227 – 13 September 122913 September 1229Regent
YuanEmperorAlbumOgedeiPortrait.jpg Khan Ögedei c. 1186Son of Genghis 13 September 1229 – 11 December 12411232
Toregene Khatun coin.png Khatun Töregene ?Wife of Ögedei 1242 – March 1246?Regent
Guyuk.jpg Khan Güyük c. 1206Son of Ögedei and Töregene 1246–12481248
Khatun Oghul Qaimish ?Wife of Güyük 1248–12511251Regent
Mongke.jpg Khan Möngke 10 January 1209Son of Tolui 1 July 1251 – 11 August 125911 August 1259

Ilkhanate and successor kingdoms (1256–1501)

Ilkhanate at its greatest extent Ilkhanate (greatest extent).svg
Ilkhanate at its greatest extent

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Ilkhanate (1256–1357)

PortraitTitleThrone namePersonal nameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Hulagu Khan.jpg Khan, Ilkhan Hulagu c. 1217Son of Tolui 1256 – 8 February 12658 February 1265
Abaqa Khan.jpg Khan, Ilkhan Abaqa 1234Son of Hulagu 1265 – 1 April 12821 April 1282
Teguder recevant une ambassade.jpeg Khan, Ilkhan, SultanAhmadNicholas Tekuder ?Son of Hulagu 1282–12841284Killed by Arghun
AbaqaOnHorseArghunStandingGhazanAsAChild.jpg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan Arghun c. 1258Son of Abaqa 1284 – 7 March 12917 March 1291
Geikhatu interrogeant Shingtur Nuyan.jpeg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan Gaykhatu ?Son of Abaqa 1291–12951295Killed by general Taghachar
Baydu coin with Khagan's name.jpg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan Baydu ?Son of Taraqai son of Hulagu 12951295Executed by Ghazan
Ghazan with wife at his court.jpg Khan, Ilkhan, SultanMahmud Ghazan 5 November 1271Son of Arghun 1295–13041304
Majma' al-Tavarikh 001.jpg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan,Muhammad Khodabandeh Öljaitü 1280Son of Arghun 1304 – 16 December 131616 December 1316
Ilhanli Ebu said enguriye 720.jpg Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan Abu Sa'id Ala' ad-Din Bahadur2 June 1305Son of Öljaitü 1316 – 1 December 13351 December 1335
Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan Arpa Ke'un Mu'izz ad-Din Mahmud?Son of Suseh son of Munkqan son of Malik-Temur son of Ariq Böke son of Tolui 1335 – 10 April 133610 April 1336Killed in battle by Ali Padshah
Khan, Ilkhan, SultanNasir ad-Din Musa ?Son of Ali son of Baydu 12 April 1336 – 13371337Puppet of Ali Padshah, fled after being defeated by the Jalayirid Hasan Buzurg
Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan Togha Temür ?Son of Sudi son of Bababahathor son of Abokan son of Amakan son of Tur son of Jujiqisar son of Yesugei Baghatur 1335–13531353In opposition to Jalayirid and Chupanid candidates, killed by the Sarbadar Yahya Karawi
Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan,Muzaffar ad-Din Muhammad ?Son of Yul Qotloq son of Il Temur son of Ambarji son of Mengu Temur son of Hulagu 1336–13381338Puppet of Hasan Buzurg, executed by the Chupanid Hasan Kucek
Khatun Sati beg c. 1300Daughter of Öljaitü 1338–1339After 1345Puppet of Hasan Kucek, who deposed her.
Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan,Izz ad-Din Jahan Temür ?Son of Ala-Fireng son of Gaykhatu 1339–1340?Puppet of Hasan Buzurg, who deposed him for Togha Temür.
Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan Suleiman ?Husband of Sati beg and son of Yusef Shah son of Soga son of Yeshmut son of Hulagu May 1339–1345?Puppet of Hasan Kucek, fled to Diyarbakr in the disorder after his death.
Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan Anushirwan ??1344–1356?Puppet of the Chupanid Malek Ashraf
Khan, Ilkhan, SultanLuqman?Son of Togha Temür1353–1388?Puppet of Timur
Khan, Ilkhan, SultanGhazan II??1356–1357?Puppet of Malek Ashraf

Sarbadars (1332–1386)

Sarbadars in 1345 Sarbadars (greatest extent).svg
Sarbadars in 1345
PortraitTitleNameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
AmirAbd al-Razzaq ibn Fazlullah?1337–13381338Revolted against Togha Temür, stabbed to death by his brother
Amir Wajih ad-Din Masud ibn Fazlullah ?brother of Abd al-Razzaq1338–13441344Captured by the Paduspanids and executed.
Amir Muhammad Aytimur (1343–1346)?Unrelated to predecessors1344–13461346Overthrown and executed
Amir Kulu Isfendiyar ?Unrelated to predecessors1346–c. 1347c. 1347
Amir Shams al-Din ibn Fazl Allah ?brother of Abd al-Razzaqc. 1347?Forced to abdicate by successor
Amir Khwaja Shams al-Din 'Ali ?Unrelated to predecessors1347–1351/13521351/1352Assassinated by a disgruntled official
Amir Yahya Karawi ?Unrelated to predecessors1351/1352–1355/13561355/1356Eliminated Togha Temür, assassinated.
Amir Zahir al-Din Karawi ?Nephew of Yahya Karawi1355/13561355/1356Deposed by vizier
Amir Haidar Qassab ?Unrelated to predecessors1355/13561356Assassinated by a Turkish slave
Amir Lutf Allah ?Son of Wajih ad-Din Masud1356–1357/1358 or 13611357/1358 or 1361Deposed and executed by his vizier
AmirHasan al-Damghani?Unrelated to predecessors1357/1358 or 1361–1361/13621361/1362Overthrown by Dervish rebels
AmirKhwaja 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad ibn Masud?Unrelated to predecessors1361/1362–1376/1377

and

1376/1377–1381

?Restored, became vassal of Tamerlane in 1381
AmirRukn ad-Din?Unrelated to predecessors1376/1377?Installed by Dervish rebels.

Chupanids (1335–1357)

Chupanids at their greatest extent Chobanids.svg
Chupanids at their greatest extent
PortraitTitleNameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Amir Hassan Kuchak c. 1319Son of Timurtash son of Chupan July 16, 1338 – December 15, 1343December 15, 1343Ruled on behalf of his Il-Khanate puppets Sati Beg and Suleiman Khan.
Amir Yagi Basti ?Son of Chupan 1343–13441344Assassinated by his co-ruler Malek Ashraf.
AmirSurganc. 1320Son of Chupan and Sati Beg 1343–13451345Driven out by his co-ruler Malek Ashraf.
Amir Malek Ashraf ?Brother of Hassan Kuchak 1343–13571357Ruled on behalf of his Il-Khanate puppets Anushirwan. Hung by Jani Beg of the Golden Horde.
Amir Temürtas ?Son of Malek Ashraf13601360Short-lived puppet of the Golden Horde.

Jalayirids (1335–1432)

Jalayirids at their greatest extent Jalairid Sultanate.svg
Jalayirids at their greatest extent
PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Ulus BegTaj-ud-Din Hasan Buzurg ?Son-in-law of Chupan 1336–13561356Ruled through Ilkhanate puppets Muhammad Khan and Jahan Temür.
Bahadur KhanMu'izz-ud-dunya wa'd-Din Shaikh Uvais c. 1337–1374Son of Hasan Buzurg1356–13741374
Shaikh Hasan ?Son of Shaikh Uvais1374–13741374Killed by the Amirs
ShaikhJalal-ud-Din Husain I (1374–1382)?Son of Shaikh Uvais1374–13821382Executed by his rebellious brother Ahmed
Shaikh Bayazid ?Son of Shaikh Uvais1382–13841384In opposition to Husain and Ahmed
SultanGhiyath ud-Din Ahmad ?Son of Shaikh Uvais1383–14101410In exile 1393-4, 1400-2, 1403-5. Killed in battle by Qara Yusuf
SultanAla ud-Dunya Shah Walad ?Son of Ali, son of Uvais1410–14111411
Sultan Mahmud ?Son of Shah Walad14111425Under regency of Tandu Khatun
Sultan Uvais ?Son of Shah Walad1415–14211421
Sultan Muhammad ?Son of Shah Walad14211421
Sultan Mahmud ?Son of Shah Walad1421–14251425Second reign
Hussain ?Son of Ala-ud-Dawlah, son of Ahmed1425–14321432Defeated by Kara Koyunlu

Injuids (1335–1357)

Injuids at their greatest extent Injuids (greatest extent).svg
Injuids at their greatest extent
PortraitTitleNameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Sharaf ad-Din Mahmud Shah?1304–13351335Highly autonomous master of the Ilkhanate royal estates (the injü), removed by Abu Sa'id, executed by Arpa Ke'un.
AmirGhiyath ad-Din Kai-Khusrau?Son of Mahmud Shah1335–1338/91338/9
AmirJalal ad-Din Mas'ud Shah?Son of Mahmud Shah1338–13421342In opposition to Kai-Khusrau. Jalayirid partisan. Assassinated by Chupanids.
AmirShams ad-Din Muhammad?Son of Mahmud Shah1339/401339/40In opposition to Mas'ud Shah. Murdered by his Chupanid supporter.
AmirShaikh Abu Ishaq?Son of Mahmud Shah1343–1357?Defeated & executed by the Muzaffarids

Muzaffarids (1314–1393)

Muzaffarids at its greatest extent Muzaffarids (greatest extent).svg
Muzaffarids at its greatest extent
PortraitTitleNameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Emir Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar 13011314–13581368Founder of the Muzaffarid dynasty
EmirShah Shuja?1358–13841384
EmirZain al-Abidin?1384–13871387
EmirShah Yahya?1387–13911391Only ruled in Shiraz
EmirShah Mansur?1391–13931393

Kara Koyunlu (1375–1468)

Kara Koyunlu at its greatest extent Qara Qoyunlu (greatest extent).svg
Kara Koyunlu at its greatest extent
PortraitTitleRegnal NamePersonal NameBirthReignDeathFamily relationsNotes
BeyQara MuhammadQara Muhammad Turmush ibn Bairam Khwaja?1378–13881388First Bey of Kara Koynulu
BeyQara YusufAbu Nasr Qara Yusuf Nuyan ibn Muhammad?1388–14201420Reign ended by Timurid invasion
BeyQara IskanderQara Iskander ibn Yusuf?1420–14361436Killed
BeyJahan ShahMuzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah ibn Yusuf13971438 – 11 November 146711 November 1467Son of Qara YusufKilled by Uzun Hasan of the Ak Koyunlu
BeyHasan AliHasan Ali ibn Jahan Shah?11 November 1467 – 14681468Son of Jahan ShahKilled by Uzun Hasan of the Ak Koyunlu

Aq Koyunlu (1378–1497)

Ak Koyunlu at the year of Uzun Hasan's death, 1478 Ag Qoyunlu (greatest extent).svg
Ak Koyunlu at the year of Uzun Hasan's death, 1478

Sources: [17] [18]

PortraitTitleRegnal NamePersonal NameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
BeyQara OsmanQara Yuluk (Nickname)?1378–14351435For aiding Timur, he was given Diyarbakir in 1402
BeyAliNur al-Din Ali ibn Qara Yülük?Son of Qara Osman1435–14381438
BeyHamza?1403–14351444
BeyJahangirM‘uizz al-Din Jahangir ibn Ali ibn Qara Yülük?Son of Qara Osman1444–14531453
HasanAgha.jpg BeyUzun HassanUzun Hassan ibn Jahangir?Son of Jahangir1453 – January 6, 1478January 6, 1478
BeyKhalilKhalil ibn Uzun Hasan?Son of Uzun Hasan1478–14791479
BeyYaqubYaqub ibn Uzun Hasan?Son of Uzun Hasan1479–14901490
BeyBaysongurBaysongur ibn Yaqub?Son of Yaqub1490–14911491
BeyRostamRostam ibn Maqsud?Son of Maqsud1491–14971497
BeyAhmad GovdeAhmad Govde ibn Muhammad?Son of Muhammad14971497

Timurid Empire (1370–1507)

Locator map of the Timurid Empire, c. 1400 Timurid Empire (greatest extent).svg
Locator map of the Timurid Empire, c. 1400
PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Timurid dynasty (1370–1507)
Timur reconstruction01.jpg Emir, Beg, Khan, Mirza, Gurkani Timur Tarmashirin Khan Barlas9 April 1336Son of Muhammad Taraghai1370 – 18 February 140518 February 1405
Emir, Khan Pir Muhammad Pir Muhammad Khan bin Jahangirc. 1374Grandson of Timur18 February 1405 – 22 February 140722 February 1407
Xalil-Sulton.jpg Emir, Sultan, Shah Khalil Sultan Khalil Sultan bin Miran Shahc. 1384Grandson of Timur18 February 1405 – 13 May 140913 May 1409
Shahruch reconstruction.jpg Mirza Shahrukh Mirza Shahrukh Mirza30 August 1377Son of Timur18 February 1405 – 12 March 144712 March 1447
Mirza, Sultan Ulugh Beg Mirza Muhammad Tāraghay22 March 1394Son of Shahrukh Mirza12 March 1447 – 27 October 144927 October 1449Deposed and murdered by his successor
Rulers in Transoxiana (1449–1469):
Mirza, Sultan Abdal-Latif Padarkushc. 1429Son of Ulugh Beg27 October 1449 – 9 May 14509 May 1450Murdered by Amirs
Mirza 'Abdullah c. 1410Grandson of Shah Rukh9 May 1450 – June 1451June 1451Deposed and executed by his successor
Sultan Abu Said Mirza.jpg Mirza Abu Sa'id 1424Nephew of Ulugh Beg and great-grandson of TimurJune 1451 – 17 February 146917 February 1469Conquered Khurasan in 1459, realm disintegrates at his death.
Rulers in Khurasan (1449–1459, 1459–1507)
Mirza Abul-Qasim Babur ?Grandson of Shah Rukh1449 – 14571457
Mirza Shah Mahmud c. 1446Son of Babur1457 – 14571460sExpelled by successor
Mirza Ibrahim ?Nephew of Babur1457 – March 1459March 1459Died at Battle of Sarakhs
Interregnum (1459–1469)
Behhzad 001.jpg Mirza, Sultan Husayn Bayqarah June/July 1438Great-grandson of Timur24 March 1469 – 4 May 15064 May 1506
Mirza Badi' al-Zaman ?Son of Husayn4 May 1506 – 15071517Driven out by Uzbeks
Uzbeks (1507–1510)
Shaybani.jpg Khan Shaybani Khan Abul Fath Muhammadc. 14511507 – 2 December 15102 December 1510Died at the Battle of Marv

Note: Medieval Persia is generally agreed to have ended with rise of the Safavid Empire

Safavid Empire (1501–1736)

The maximum extent of the Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas I Safavid dynasty (greatest extent).svg
The maximum extent of the Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas I
PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Safavid dynasty (1501–1736)
Sefi 1-i 1629-42.jpg Shah, Sultan, Kagan-i Suleyman shan Ismail I 1487son of Sultan Heidar7 November 1502 – 23 May 152423 May 1524
Tahmasb-1.jpg Shah, Sahib-i-Qiran, Sultan bar Salatin, Kagan-i Suleyman shan Tahmasp I 1514son of Ismail I 23 May 1525 – 25 May 157625 May 1576
Shah Ismayil II.jpg Shah Ismail II 1537son of Tahmasp I 25 May 1576 – 24 November 157724 November 1577Poisoned (?)
Mohammen xudabende Sefevid.jpg Khodabandeh, Ashraf, Soltan Mohammad I 1532son of Tahmasp I 25 May 1576 – 1 October 15871596Deposed
ShahAbbasPortraitFromItalianPainter.jpg Shahanshah, Sultan, Great Abbas I 1571son of Mohammad I 1 October 1587 – 19 January 162919 January 1629
Shah Safi.png Shah, Mirza Safi Sam Mirza1611son of Mohammd Baqer (Safi) Mirza son of Abbas I 19 January 1629 – 12 May 164212 May 1642
Abbas II of Persia.jpg Shah Abbas II 1632son of Safi 12 May 1642 – 26 October 166626 October 1666
Suleiman I of Persia.jpg Shah, Hakem-ol Hokama Suleiman I Safi Mirza1645son of Abbas II 26 October 1666 – 29 July 169429 July 1694
Sultan Husayn of Persia.jpg Shah, Sultan, Sadr-ol Hakem Sultan Husayn 1668son of Suleiman I 29 July 1694 – 11 September 172211 September 1722Deposed & then killed by Ashraf Hotak
Afghan Rebellion
SHAH-MAHMUD-HOTAK.jpg Shah Mahmud Hotak 1697?son-in-law of Sultan Husayn son of Mirwais Khan Hotak 23 October 1722 – 22 April 172522 April 1725Recognised as Shah of Persia after the Siege of Isfahan
Ashraf Shah Hotaki 1725-1729.jpg Shah Ashraf Hotak ?cousin of Mahmud Hotak 22 April 1725 – 5 October 17295 October 1729Ruled in opposition to Tahmasp II and lost control of Persia after the Battle of Damghan
Safavid Restoration
Persia, scia thamasp II, decuplo afshari d'oro, 1722-1732.JPG Shah Tahmasp II 1704son of Sultan Husayn 11 September 1722 – 16 April 17321740Ruled in opposition to Mahmud Hotak, later deposed & then killed by Nader
Abbas III.jpg Shah Abbas III 1730son of Tahmasp II 16 April 1732 – 22 January 17361739Under control of Nader. Deposed & then killed by Nader

Afsharid Empire (1736–1796)

Afsharid dynasty at its greatest extent Afsharid dynasty (greatest extent).svg
Afsharid dynasty at its greatest extent
PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthFamily relationsReignDeathNotes
Afsharid dynasty (1736–1796)
Nader Shah Afshar.jpg Shah, Sultan, Hakem-ol Hokama, Hazrat-e Ashraf Nader Shah Nadhar Qoli Khan1698son of Imam Qoli Beig Afshar22 January 1736 – 19 June 174719 June 1747Before crowning his title was Tahmasp Qoli Khan. Killed
Shah Adil Shah Ali Qoli Beig1719/20son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of Nader 19 June 1747 – 29 July 17481749Deposed, blinded & then killed by Ebrahim
Shah Ebrahim Afshar Mohammd Ali Beig1724son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of Nader 29 July 1748 – 3 September 17481749Deposed & then killed by Shahrukh Afshar
Shah Shahrukh Afshar 1734son of Reza Qoli Mirza son of Nader. His mother was Fatemeh Soltan Beigom daughter of Sultan Husayn I Safavi3 September 1748 – 17961796Deposed & blinded by Suleiman II (1749), restored (1750)
Brief Safavid control [19] (1749–1750)
Shah Suleiman II of Persia Mir Sayyed Mohammad Marashi?Pretender to the Safavid throne1749–1750?Removed and blinded
Afsharid restoration [20] (1750–1796)
Shah Shahrukh Afshar 1734son of Reza Qoli Mirza son of Nader. His mother was Fatemeh Soltan Beigom daughter of Sultan Husayn I Safavi3 September 1748 – 17961796Deposed & blinded by Suleiman II (1749), restored (1750)

Zand Kingdom (1751–1794)

Map of the Zand dynasty at Lotf Ali Khan time Zand dynasty.svg
Map of the Zand dynasty at Lotf Ali Khan time
PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthReignDeathFamily relationsNotes
Zand dynasty (1751–1794)
Karim Khan by Charles Heath.jpg Khan, Vakil e-Ra'aayaa Karim Khan Mohammad Karim17051751 – 6 March 17796 March 1779son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha
Khan Mohammad Ali Khan 17606 March 1779 – 19 June 177919 June 1779son of Karim
Khan Abol Fath Khan 17556 March 1779 – 22 August 17791787son of Karim
Khan Zaki Khan ?6 March 1779 – 22 August 177922 August 1779son of Budaq Khan & Bay Agha
Image of sadiq khan zand.png Khan Sadiq Khan Zand Mohammad Sadeq?22 August 1779 – 14 March 17811782son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha
Ali Murad Khan Zand.png Khan Ali Murad Khan 172014 March 1781 – 11 February 178511 February 1785son of Allah Morad (Qeytas) Khan Zand Hazareh
Ja`far Khan.png Khan Jafar Khan ?18 February 1785 – 23 January 178923 January 1789son of Sadeq
Sayed Murad Zand.png Khan Sayed Murad Khan ?23 January 1789 – 10 May 178910 May 1789son of Khoda Morad Khan Zand Hazareh
Lotf Ali Khan.jpg Khan Lotf Ali Khan 176923 January 1789 – 20 March 179420 March 1794son of Ja'far Deposed, blinded & then killed by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar

Qajar Empire (1794–1925)

Map of the Qajar dynasty at Mohammad Khan time Qajar dynasty (greatest extent).svg
Map of the Qajar dynasty at Mohammad Khan time
PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthReignDeathFamily relationsNote
Qajar dynasty (1794–1925)
Aggha Mohammad Khan.jpg Khan, Shahanshah, Khaqan Mohammad Khan Qajar Agha Mohammad Khan14 March 174220 March 1794 – 17 June 179717 June 1797son of Mohammad Hassan Khan QajarGelded prior to accession. Assassinated
Fath Ali Shah(hermitage2).jpg Shahanshah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran Fath-Ali Shah Qajar Baba Khan5 September 177217 June 1797 – 23 October 183423 October 1834son of Hosein Qoli Khan Jahansuz brother of Mohammad
Mohammadshah.jpg Shahanshah, Khaqan Mohammad Shah Qajar Mohammad Mirza5 January 180823 October 1834 – 5 September 18485 September 1848son of Abbas Mirza Nayeb os-Saltaneh son of Fath-Ali
Naser al-Din Schah.jpg Shahanshah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran, Qebleye alam Naser al-Din Shah Qajar 16 July 18315 September 1848 – 1 May 18961 May 1896son of Mohammad and Mahd-e OliaAssassinated at Shah-Abdol-Azim by Mirza Reza Kermani
Mozaffar-ed-Din Shah Qajar - 1.jpg Shahanshah, Khaqan Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar 23 March 18531 May 1896 – 3 January 19073 January 1907son of Naser al-Din
Mohammad Ali Shah.jpg Shahanshah Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar 21 June 18723 January 1907 – 16 July 19095 April 1925son of Mozaffar ad-Din Deposed
AhmadShahQajar2.jpg Shahanshah Ahmad Shah Qajar 21 January 189816 July 1909 – 15 December 192521 February 1930son of Mohammad Ali Deposed

Pahlavi Empire (1925–1979)

Map of the Pahlavi dynasty Iran (orthographic projection).svg
Map of the Pahlavi dynasty
PortraitTitleRegnal namePersonal nameBirthReignDeathFamily relationsNotes
Pahlavi dynasty (1925–1979)
Reza Shah portrait.jpg Shahanshah Reza Shah Reza Khan (later Pahlavi)15 March 187815 December 1925 – 16 September 194126 July 1944son of Abbas AliAbdicated during the Anglo-Soviet invasion
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 2.jpg Shahanshah Ariamehr Mohammad Reza Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi26 October 191916 September 1941 – 11 February 197927 July 1980son of Reza ShahDeposed during the Iranian Revolution

See also

Notes and references

  1. G. Posener, La première domination perse en Égypte, Cairo, 1936, pp. 30-36.
  2. Jürgen von Beckerath, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (= Münchner ägyptologische Studien, vol 46), Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1999. ISBN   3-8053-2310-7, pp. 220–21.
  3. "Ahasuerus". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2014-07-25.
  4. 1 2 Assar, 2004.Assar, 2005. Assar, "Moses of Choren & the Early Parthian Chronology", 2006.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Qashqai, H., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 BCE" Qashqai, H., "The successors of Mithridates II"
  7. Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 BCE"
  8. Josephus Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVI, Ch.8.4
  9. Tacitus, The Annals, 11.10
  10. See: Unknown King (III) (c. AD 140)
  11. See: Tiridates III (c. AD 224 – 228?)
  12. In Persian it means "King of Kings"
  13. "The great king of Armenians"
  14. "The penetrator of the shoulders"
  15. "Queen"
  16. In arabic, ibn means son of. so muhammad ibn suri means: muhammad son of suri (so suri is his father)
  17. Muʾayyid S̲ābitī, ʻAlī (1967). Asnad va Namahha-yi Tarikhi (Historical documents and letters from early Islamic period towards the end of Shah Ismaʻil Safavi's reign.). Iranian culture & literature (46). Kitābkhānah-ʾi Ṭahūrī., pp. 193, 274, 315, 330, 332, 422 and 430. See also: Abdul Hussein Navai, Asnaad o Mokatebaat Tarikhi Iran (Historical sources and letters of Iran), Tehran, Bongaah Tarjomeh and Nashr-e-Ketab, 2536, pages 578,657, 701-702 and 707
  18. H.R. Roemer, "The Safavid Period", in Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. VI, Cambridge University Press 1986, p. 339: "Further evidence of a desire to follow in the line of Turkmen rulers is Ismail's assumption of the title 'Padishah-i-Iran', previously held by Uzun Hasan."
  19. http://www.san.beck.org/1-11-Ottoman1730-1875.html
  20. Lang, David Marshall (1957), The Last Years of the Georgian Monarchy, 1658-1832, p. 148. Columbia University Press

Bibliography

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The history of Khuzestan Province, a province in southwestern Iran, extends from the ancient pre-Aryan Elamite civilization to the modern day Islamic Republic.

Elymais former country

Elymais or Elamais was a semi-independent state of the 2nd century BC to the early 3rd century AD, frequently a vassal under Parthian control, and located at the head of the Persian Gulf in the present-day region of Khuzestan, Iran (Susiana). It is reported that these people were great archers and natives of Susa, which lay to the east of Elymais territory. Most of the Elymais were probably descendants of the ancient Elamites, who once had control of that area in the past. The provinces of Elymais were Massabatice, Corbiane and Gabiane.

Characene

Characene, also known as Mesene (Μεσσήνη) or Meshan, was a state founded by the Iranian Hyspaosines within the Parthian Empire located at the head of the Persian Gulf. Its capital, Charax Spasinou, was an important port for trade between Mesopotamia and India, and also provided port facilities for the city of Susa further up the Karun River. Characene was mainly populated by Arabs, who spoke Aramaic as their cultural language. All rulers of the principality had Iranian names.

Kutik-Inshushinak

Kutik-Inshushinak was king of Elam around 2100 BC, and the last from the Awan dynasty according to the Susa kinglist.

Untash-Napirisha

Untash-Napirisha was king of Elam during the Middle Elamite period. He was the son of the previous Elamite king, Humban-Numena. He was named after Napir, the Elamite god of the moon.

Awan dynasty dynasty

The Awan Dynasty(Sumerian: 𒀀𒉿𒀭𒆠, awan) was the first dynasty of Elam of which anything is known today, appearing at the dawn of historical record. The Elamites were likely major rivals of neighboring Sumer from remotest antiquity; they were said to have been defeated by Enmebaragesi of Kish, who is the earliest archaeologically attested Sumerian king, as well as by a later monarch, Eannatum I of Lagash.

Sistan historical and geographical region in present-day Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan

Sīstān, known in ancient times as Sakastan, is a historical and geographical region in present-day eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan.