List of wars involving Iran

Last updated

The following is an historical overview of the list of wars and conflicts involving Iran (Persia). This list is far from complete.

War Organised and prolonged violent conflict between states

War is a state of armed conflict between states, governments, societies and informal paramilitary groups, such as mercenaries, insurgents and militias. It is generally characterized by extreme violence, aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general. Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties.

Iran Islamic Republic in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the capital, largest city, and leading economic and cultural center.

Contents

ConflictIran
and allies
OpponentsResults
Median Empire
(678–549 BC)
Battle of Nineveh
(612 BC)
Medes
Babylonia
Assyrian Empire Victory
  • Destruction of Assyria's capital

Founding of Neo-Babylonian Empire

Fall of Assur
(614 BC)
Medes
Babylonia
Assyrian Empire Victory
Battle of Eclipse
(585 BC)
Medes Kingdom of Lydia Undecided
Battle of Hyrba
(552 BC)
Medes Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persis Decisive Persian victory
Battle of the Persian border
(551 BC)
Medes Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persis Victory
  • Persian retreat to Pasargadae
Achaemenid Empire
(550–330 BC)
Persian Revolt
(552–549 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Persis Median Empire Victory
  • By conquering Media, Iran became an empire.
Conquest of Lydia
(547 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Lydian EmpireVictory
  • Lydia annexed by Iran.
Conquest of Babylonia
(540–539 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Victory
  • Neo-Babylonian Empire annexed by Iran.
Conquest of Egypt
(525 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Kingdom of Egypt Victory
  • Egypt annexed by Iran.
European Scythian campaign
(513 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Scythians in European ScythiaExpansive stalemate
  • Achaemenid domination of the European Black Sea regions.
Greco-Persian Wars
(499–449 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Greek city states
Delian League
Defeat
Peloponnesian War
(431–404 BC)
Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) Supported by:
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire
Delian League (led by Athens)Victory
  • Dissolution of the Delian League. Spartan hegemony over Athens and its allies.
Battle of Cunaxa
(401 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Cyrus the Younger Victory
Corinthian War
(395–387 BC)
Athens
Argos
Corinth
Thebes
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire
Other allies
Sparta
Peloponnesian League
Peace treaty dictated by Iran (Peace of Antalcidas)
Artaxerxes' II Cadusian Campaign
(385 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Cadusii Defeat, but diplomatic success
  • Negotiated peace with rival chiefs.
Revolt of the Satraps
(372–362 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Rebel satrapies Victory
  • Rebellions chrushed.
Battle of Pelusium (343 BC)
(343 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Egypt Victory
  • Egypt is conquered for a second time by Iran.
Macedon invasion of Iran
(355–328 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire Macedon Defeat
Parthian Empire
(247 BCE–224 B)
Seleucid–Parthian Wars
(238 BC–129 BC)
Parthian Empire Seleucid Empire Victory
  • Expulsion of the Seleucids from Iran.
Armenian–Parthian War
(87–85 BC)
Parthian Empire Kingdom of Armenia Defeat
Roman–Parthian Wars
(66 AD–217 AD)
Parthian Empire
Kingdom of Armenia
Roman Republic
Pontus
Status quo ante bellum
  • Borders changed several times.
Sassanid Empire
(224–651)
Roman-Sassanid Wars
(232–440)
Derafsh Kaviani.png Sassanid Empire Roman Empire Status quo ante bellum
  • Borders changed several times.
Byzantine–Sassanid Wars
(502–628)
Derafsh Kaviani.png Sassanid Empire Byzantine Empire Status quo ante bellum
  • Borders changed several times.
Ethiopian–Persian Wars
(570–578)
Derafsh Kaviani.png Sassanid Empire Kingdom of Aksum Victory
First Perso-Turkic War
(588–589)
Derafsh Kaviani.png Sassanid Empire Hephthalite Empire
Göktürks
Victory
  • The Sassanids captured Balkh.
Second Perso-Turkic War
(588–589)
Derafsh Kaviani.png Sassanid Empire Western Turkic Khaganate
Hephthalite Empire
Victory
  • Turkic invasion of Iran repelled.
Third Perso-Turkic War
(627–629)
Derafsh Kaviani.png Sassanid Empire Western Turkic Khaganate
Byzantine Empire
Defeat
Muslim conquest of Persia
(633–644)
Derafsh Kaviani.png Sassanid Empire
Derafsh Kaviani.png Arab Christians
Rashidun Caliphate Defeat
Saffarid Dynasty
(861–1003)
Ghaznavid Dynasty
(962–1186)
Seljuq Empire
(1037–1194)
Battle of Manzikert
(1071)
Flag placeholder.svg Seljuk Empire JustinianusI.jpg Byzantine Empire Victory
Byzantine–Seljuq wars
(1048–1308)
Flag placeholder.svg Seljuk Empire JustinianusI.jpg Byzantine Empire
Komnenos-Trebizond-Arms.svg Empire of Trebizond
Crusader states
Victory
  • Most of Anatolia conquered by the Seljuks.
Khwarazmian Dynasty
(1077–1231)
Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia
(1218–1221)
Khwarazmian dynasty Mongol Empire Defeat
  • Khwarezmia added to the Mongol Empire.
Timurid Dynasty
(1370–1507)
Campaigns of Timur
(1380–1402)
Timurid.svg Timurid dynasty Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde
Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg Ottoman Empire
Muzaffarids
Jalayirid Sultanate
Tughlaq dynasty
Victory
Timurid Civil Wars
(1405–~1501)
Timurid.svg Various factions Timurid.svg Various factions Collapse of the dynasty
Safavid Dynasty
(1501–1736)
Persian-Uzbek Wars
(1502–1510)
Flag of Persia 1502-1524.svg Safavid dynasty Shaybanids Victory
  • Fall of the Shaybanid Empire.
Battle of Chaldiran
(1514)
Flag of Persia 1502-1524.svg Safavid dynasty Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg  Ottoman Empire Defeat
  • End of Shia uprisings in the Ottoman Empire.
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1523
(1532–1555)
Flag of Shah Tahmasp I.svg Safavid dynasty Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg  Ottoman Empire Defeat
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1578
(1578–1590)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg  Ottoman Empire Defeat
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1603
(1603–1618)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg  Ottoman Empire Victory
Mughal–Safavid War of 1622
(1622–1623)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty Mughal Empire Victory
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1623
(1623–1639)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg  Ottoman Empire Defeat
Mughal–Safavid War of 1649
(1649–1653)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty
War flag of Khanate of Bukhara.svg Khanate of Bukhara
Mughal Empire Victory
Russo-Persian War of 1651
(1651–1653)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Victory
  • Russian fortress on the Iranian side of the Terek River destroyed, and its garrison expelled.
Hotaki-Safavid War
(1709–~1722)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty Black flag.svg Hotaki dynasty Regime change
  • Afghan control of most of Iran.
Omani Invasion of Bahrain
(1717)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty Flag of The Imamate of Oman.svg Imamate of Oman Defeat
  • Omani victory, Bahrain sold back to the Safavids.
Russo-Persian War of 1722
(1722–1723)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russian Empire
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate
Znameno Kartli.gif Georgia
Coat of arms of Gyulistan.jpg Melikdoms of Karabakh and Armenian rebels
Defeat
Safavid-Hotaki War
(1726–1729)
Black flag.svg Hotaki dynasty Safavid Flag.svg Safavid dynasty [1] Regime change
  • End of the Afghan rule in Persia.
Afsharid Dynasty
(1736–1796)
Afsharid–Ottoman War War of 1730
(1730–1735)
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Afsharid dynasty Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg  Ottoman Empire Victory
  • Persian reconquest of the entire Caucasus.
Nadir Shah's invasion of India
(1738–1739)
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Afsharid dynasty   Mughal Empire Victory
  • Persian plundering of India.
Afsharid–Ottoman War War of 1743
(1743–1746)
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Afsharid dynasty Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg  Ottoman Empire Stalemate
Civil War between Afsharid and Qajar
(1747–1796)
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Afsharid dynasty Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan.svg Qajar Dynasty Regime change
Qajar Dynasty
(1785–1925)
Battle of Krtsanisi
(1795)
Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan.svg Qajar dynasty Flag of Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti.svg Kartli-Kakheti
Imereti - drosha.svg Imereti
Victory
Persian Expedition
(1796)
Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan.svg Qajar dynasty Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russian Empire Victory
  • Tactical Russian withdrawal from Iran.
Russo-Persian War of 1804
(1804–1813)
War Flag of Fath Ali Shah.svg Qajar dynasty Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russian Empire Defeat
Ottoman–Persian War of 1821
(1821–1823)
War Flag of Fath Ali Shah.svg Qajar dynasty Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg  Ottoman Empire Stalemate
Russo-Persian War of 1826
(1826–1828)
War Flag of Fath Ali Shah.svg Qajar dynasty Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russian Empire Defeat
  • Treaty of Turkmenchay. Iran irrevocably cedes the remainder of its Caucasus territories comprising parts of the contemporary Azerbaijan Republic that were not ceded yet in 1813, as well as all of what is nowadays the Republic of Armenia.
Siege of Herat
(1838)
Mohammad Shah Qajar Flag.svg Qajar dynasty Flag of Afghanistan (1880-1901).svg Afghanistan Defeat
  • Persian withdrawal from Herat.
Anglo-Persian War
(1856–1857)
Amir Kabir Flag.svg Qajar dynasty Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg East India Company
Flag of Afghanistan (1880-1901).svg Afghanistan
Defeat
  • Persian withdrawal from Herat.
Persian Campaign
(1914–1918) (Part of World War I)
Flag of Persia (1910).svg Qajar dynasty Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russian Empire
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  British Empire
British Raj Red Ensign.svg  British Raj
Stalemate
Pahlavi Dynasty
(1925–1979)
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
(1941) (Part of World War II)
State Flag of Iran (1964-1980).svg Iran Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
British Raj Red Ensign.svg  India
Defeat
Iran-Azerbaijan Crisis
(1945–1946)
State Flag of Iran (1964-1980).svg Iran Flag of the Republic of Mahabad.svg Mahabad
Azerbaijan people's government flag.svg Azerbaijan
Victory
Dhofar Rebellion
(1963–1976) [2]
State Flag of Iran (1964-1980).svg Iran
Old Flag of Oman.svg  Oman
Flag of the Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf.svg PFLOAG
Flag of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman.svg PFLO
Victory
  • Defeat of insurgents, modernization of Oman.
Islamic Republic of Iran
(1979–)
Iran–Iraq War
(1980–1988)
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran
Former Flag of KDP.png KDP
Flag of PUK.png PUK
Badr Organisation Military flag.svg Badr Brigades
Flag of Iraq (1963-1991); Flag of Syria (1963-1972).svg Iraq
Flag of the People's Mujahedin of Iran.svg MEK
Flag of KDP-I.png PDKI
Stalemate
Sistan and Baluchestan insurgency
(2004–2005)
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Jundallah (Iran) Victory
Iran–PJAK Conflict
(2004–2013)
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
Flag of Partiya Jiyana Azad a Kurdistane.png PJAK Victory
  • PJAK withdraws from Iranian territory
Syrian Civil War
(2011–present)
Flag of Syria.svg Syria
Single Color Flag - FFFF00.svg Hezbollah
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Flag of Syria (1932-1958; 1961-1963).svg Free Syrian Army
Flag placeholder.svg Islamic Front
Flag of Jabhat al-Nusra.jpg al-Nusra Front
Flag of The Islamic State of Iraq.jpg Islamic State
Ongoing
  • Rebel and Islamist uprisings quelled in much of Syria.
  • Most of Syria now controlled by Syrian Government, which is supported by Iran.
  • Islamic State in Syria defeated near the end of 2017.
Iraqi Civil War
(2014–2017)
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq
Flag of Kurdistan.svg  Iraqi Kurdistan
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran
Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq
Badr Organisation Military flag.svg Badr Organization
InfoboxHez.PNG Hezbollah
Kata'ib Hezbollah flag.svg Kata'ib Hezbollah
Flag of The Islamic State of Iraq.jpg Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant Victory
  • Iran launches successful airstrikes on ISIL positions in Iraq.
  • Iranian military troops successfully defeat ISIL on the ground.
  • ISIL dissolved in Iraq due to Iranian military intervention.
  • Iranian victory

See also

History of Iran aspect of history

The history of Iran, which was commonly known until the mid-20th century as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.

Persian Corridor

The Persian Corridor was a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred to the Soviet Union during World War II.

Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran Invasion during World War II

The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, also known as the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia, was the joint invasion of Iran in 1941 during the Second World War by the British Commonwealth and the Soviet Union. The invasion lasted from 25 August to 17 September 1941 and was codenamed Operation Countenance. Its purpose was to secure Iranian oil fields and ensure Allied supply lines for the USSR, fighting against Axis forces on the Eastern Front. Though Iran was neutral, the Allies considered Reza Shah to be friendly to Germany, deposed him during the subsequent occupation and replaced him with his young son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

Notes

  1. De facto ruled by Nader Shah.
  2. The rebellion started already in 1962, but Iran did not intervene before 1973.

The Cold War International History Project is part of the History and Public Policy Program at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. The Project was founded in 1991 with the support of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and is located in Washington D.C..

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Anglo-Russian Convention 1907 treaty between the UK and Russia

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Qajar dynasty Iranian royal dynasty of Turkic origin

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Treaty of Gulistan peace treaty

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Treaty of Finckenstein

The Treaty of Finckenstein, often spelled Finkenstein, was concluded between France and Persia in Finckenstein Palace on 4 May 1807 and formalised the Franco-Persian alliance. Napoleon I guaranteed the integrity of Persia, recognized part of Georgia and the other parts of Transcaucasia and a part of the North Caucasus (Dagestan) as Fath Ali Shah's possession, and was to make all possible efforts for restoring those territories to him. Napoleon also promised to furnish the Shah with arms, officers and workmen. France on its side required the Shah to declare war against the United Kingdom, to expel all British people from Persia, and to maintain an open way if France wanted to attack British possessions in the far east. Despite the Treaty of Finckenstein, France failed to win a diplomatic war around Persia and none of the terms of the treaty were realized. On 12 March 1809, the United Kingdom signed a treaty with Persia forcing the French out of that country.

Treaty of Turkmenchay peace treaty

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Afsharid dynasty dynasty

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In the Western world, Persia was historically the common name for Iran. On the Nowruz of 1935, Reza Shah Pahlavi asked foreign delegates to use the term Iran, the endonym of the country, in formal correspondence. Since then, in the Western World, the use of the word "Iran" has become more common. This also changed the usage of the terms for Iranian nationality, and the common adjective for citizens of Iran changed from "Persian" to "Iranian". In 1959, the government of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, Reza Shah Pahlavi's son, announced that both "Persia" and "Iran" could officially be used interchangeably. However the issue is still debated today.

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Greater Iran Cultural region

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Nader Shah ruled as Shah of Iran

Nader Shah Afshar was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Iran (Persia) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion. Because of his military genius as evidenced in his numerous campaigns throughout Middle East, Caucasus, Central and South Asia, such as the battles of Herat, Mihmandust, Murche-Khort, Kirkuk, Yeghevard, Khyber Pass, Karnal and Kars, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia, Sword of Persia, or the Second Alexander. Nader Shah was an Iranian who belonged to the Turkmen Afshar tribe of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, which had supplied military power to the Safavid dynasty since the time of Shah Ismail I.

Persian Empire ancient empire, comprising many dynasties

The Persian Empire refers to a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th century BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.