1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran

Last updated
1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran
Part of Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution and Kurdish separatism in Iran [1]
Map of Iranian Kurdistan.png
The epicenter of insurrection
DateMarch 1979–1981 [2] /1983 [3]
Location
Result

Iranian victory

  • Most of Iranian force diverted to the Iran–Iraq War front since late 1980
  • Pockets of PDKI resistance remain until 1983 [3]
Belligerents

Flag of Iran (1964).svg Interim Government and Council of the Islamic Revolution (1979−80)

Contents


Flag of Iran.svg Islamic Republic of Iran (1980−83)
Flag of Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistana Irane.png KDP-I
Flag of Komala.png Komala
Flag of PUK.png PUK [4]
Flag of Kurdistan Workers' Party 1978.svg PKK [5]
Flag of the Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (Red).svg IPFG [6]
Flag of the Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (Red).svg OIPFG (Minority) [7]
Former Flag of KDP.png KDP
(against PUK) [4]
Commanders and leaders

Flag of Iran.svg Ruhollah Khomeini
Flag of Iran.svg Mehdi Bazargan
Flag of Iran.svg Abulhassan Banisadr
Flag of Iran.svg Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Flag of Iran.svg Mohammad-Javad Bahonar
Flag of Iran.svg Mohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani
Flag of Iran.svg Ali Khamenei
Flag of Iran.svg Mir-Hossein Mousavi

Flag of Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistana Irane.png Rahman Ghassemlou
Flag of Komala.png Foad Soltani  
Flag of Komala.png Abdullah Mohtadi
Flag of Komala.png Sedigh Kamangar
Flag of Komala.png Jafar Shafiyi
Flag of PUK.png Jalal Talabani
Flag of PUK.png Nawshirwan Mustafa
Flag of Kurdistan Workers' Party 1978.svg Abdullah Öcalan

Flag of the Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (Red).svg Ashraf Dehghani [6]
Former Flag of KDP.png Masoud Barzani
Units involved

IRI Army

Revolutionary Guards
Unknown
Strength
Unknown 7,000 (according to the KDPI) [2]
A few captured tanks and light artillery pieces, recoilness guns and machine guns [9]
Casualties and losses
3,000+ killed (Iranian Government claim) [2] 5,000 killed (Iranian Government claim) [2]

1,200 Kurdish political prisoners executed [2]
12 Iranian officers executed for refusing to fight [2]

Total: 3,000 [10] –10,000 killed [11]

The 1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran [2] erupted in mid-March 1979, [2] some two months after the completion of the Iranian Revolution. It subsequently became the largest among the nationwide uprisings in Iran against the new state and one of the most intense Kurdish rebellions in modern Iran. Initially, Kurdish movements were trying to align with the new government of Iran, seeking to emphasize their Muslim identity and seek common ground with other Iranians. KDPI even briefly branded itself as non-"separatist" organization, allegedly criticizing those calling for independence, but nevertheless calling for political autonomy. [12] However, relations between some Kurdish organizations and the Iranian government quickly deteriorated, and though Shi'a Kurds and some tribal leaders turned towards the new Shi'a Islamic State, Sunni Kurdish leftists continued the nationalist project in their enclave in Kurdistan Province. [1]

The consolidation of the Iranian Revolution refers to a turbulent process of Islamic Republic stabilization, following the completion of the revolution. After the Shah of Iran and his regime were overthrown by revolutionaries in February 1979, Iran was in a "revolutionary crisis mode" from this time until 1982 or 1983. Its economy and the apparatus of government collapsed. Military and security forces were in disarray.

Kurdish separatism in Iran

Kurdish separatism in Iran or the Kurdish–Iranian conflict is an ongoing, long running, separatist dispute between the Kurdish opposition in Western Iran and the governments of Iran, lasting since the emergence of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1918.

While at first, Kurdish militants, primarily of the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan, made some territorial gains in the area of Mahabad and ousted the Iranian troops from the region, a large scale offensive in spring 1980 by the Iranian Revolutionary Guard reversed the course of the conflict.

Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan political party

The Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan, also known as the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI), is an armed leftist ethnic party of Kurds in Iran, exiled in northern Iraq. It is banned in Iran and thus not able to operate openly.

Following the eruption of the Iran–Iraq War in September 1980, an even greater effort was made by the Iranian government to crush the Kurdish rebellion, which was the only one of the 1979 uprisings to still go on (Arab, Baluchi, and Turkmen rebellions had already been subdued by that time). By late 1980, the Iranian regular forces and the Revolutionary Guard ousted the Kurdish militants from their strongholds, but groups of Kurdish militants kept executing sporadic attacks against Iranian militias. The clashes in the area went on as late as 1983.

About 10,000 people were killed in the course of the Kurdish rebellion, with 1,200 of them being Kurdish political prisoners, executed in the last phases of the rebellion, mostly by the Iranian government. [2] The Kurdish-Iranian dispute resurged only in 1989, following the assassination of a KDP-I leader.

Background

With traumatic experience during the Pahlavi rule in Iran and two major failed rebellions in 1946 and 1967, Kurdish political organizations were enthusiastic supporters of the revolution against the Shah, which brought Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini to power in February 1979. The Shah had shown himself to be no friend of Kurdish aspirations for greater autonomy nor a loosening of Tehran's control over their affairs. Once again, from the early days of the Islamic revolution, relations between the central government and Kurdish organizations were fraught with difficulties and armed insurrection would ensue.

Shah Persian title

Shah is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran. It was also adopted by the kings of Shirvan namely the Shirvanshahs. It was also used by Persianate societies such as the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire, Mughal emperors of the Indian Subcontinent, the Bengal Sultanate, as well as in Afghanistan. In Iran the title was continuously used; rather than King in the European sense, each Persian ruler regarded himself as the Shahanshah or Padishah of the Persian Empire.

Ayatollah high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics

Ayatollah or ayatullah is a high-ranking Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah cleric. Those who carry the title are experts in Islamic studies such as jurisprudence, Quran reading, and philosophy and usually teach in Islamic seminaries. The next lower clerical rank is Hujjat al-Islam.

Ruhollah Khomeini 20th-century Iranian religious leader and politician, founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, also known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian politician and cleric. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and the end of the 2,500 year old Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989.

The Kurds, with their cross-border alliances, were seen as vulnerable to exploitation by foreign powers who wished to destabilize the young republic. Sunni Kurds, unlike the overwhelming majority of their countrymen, abstained from voting to endorse the creation of an Islamic republic in April 1979. That referendum institutionalized Shia primacy and made no provision for regional autonomy.

The crisis deepened after Kurds were denied seats in the assembly of experts gathering in 1979, which were responsible for writing the new constitution. Ayatollah Khomeini prevented Dr. Ghassemlou, the elected representative of the region, to participate in the assembly of experts’ first meeting. [13] Kurds were therefore deprived of their political rights under the new Iranian constitution [ citation needed ], since the majority of them belonged to the Sunni branch of Islam.[ citation needed ]

Constitution Set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed

A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity, and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

The rebellion

Eruption

As the wave of nationalism engulfed eastern Kurdistan after the fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty in line with a series of anti-revolutionary revolts across the country (in Khuzestan, Iranian Balochistan and other parts of Iran), a full-scale rebellion was imminent. Also, in March 1979, the KDP-I formulated and publicly announced an eight-point plan for Kurdish independence. [14]

The uprising was born in mid-March 1979, when protesting Kurds took over control of police headquarters, army bases, and parts of army barracks in Sanandaj, after failure to disperse them by army troops. [2] According to BBC, the revolt began, when Kurdish tribesmen overpowered Iranian militias in the town of Paveh. [15] Allegedly, unrest then spread to other Kurdish-dominated regions as the Kurds took over towns and army garrisons trying to keep out the Iranian army, [2] namely to the towns of Divan Darreh, Saqqez and Mahabad. [15] Many Kurdish leaders went into hiding, after Khomeini ordered their arrest and murders. [15] Iranian newspaper reports at this stage did put the number killed at about 600. [15]

Since April 1979 armed conflict broke out between Kurdish factions and the Iranian revolutionary government's security forces. The Kurdish forces included primarily the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (KDPI) and the leftist Komala (Revolutionary Organization of Kurdish Toilers). [16] By late April, sectarian fighting also broke out between Kurdish and Azeri factions in the area, resulting in hundreds of Kurds killed. One of the "Azeri" tribes massacring the Kurds was the Karapapak tribe. [2]

Fighting campaigns and politics

In mid-August, without sufficient preparations and regardless of army's advice, the Revolutionary Guard marched on the Kurd-held town of Paveh, falling into a major ambush. [2] The defeat prompted Khomeini to approach the heads of the army and the government. [2] The new Iranian Islamic leadership had little patience for Kurdish requests and opted for crushing unrest through military means. As a result, Khomeini, the new religious leader of Iran, declared a jihad (holy struggle) and a fatwa (religious edict) against the Iranian Kurds and key Kurdish nationalist figures were declared "enemies of the state", like Ghassemlou, [14] in his statement on August 17, 1979.[ citation needed ] The government then began a three-week campaign to clear out Kurdish strongholds, mainly Saqqez and Mahabad.

On August 20, 1979, the Iranian army started the Siege of Mahabad. By August 30 it was reported they had managed to completely surround the city and three days of negotiations started. After this failed, Iranian forces invaded the city on September 3 [17] backed by F-4 fighter jets and over 100 tanks. [18] Backed also by artillery power, they managed to seize control of the town after just several hours of fighting. The defeat in Mahabad was a major blow to the Iranian Kurds, and afterwards Iranian forces continued to march on the smaller town of Baneh. [17] Over 500 people were killed during the siege. [18]

The defenders were overwhelmed by the power of the Iranian offensive, using heavy artillery, tanks and air cover, but managed effective resistance. Despite the heavy casualties, the bulk of Kurdish Peshmerga evaded capture and death, so they retreated into the mountains. [2] The Kurds resumed their offensive six weeks later, returning to Mahabad and effectively fighting the armor forces of Iran with Molotov cocktails and RPGs. [2] In the end of November, Kurds also attacked Sanandaj, Saqqez and other Kurdish cities and towns. [2] Kurdish effective initiative continued, as Iranian government was distracted by other events in the country, such as the American Embassy hostage crisis in Tehran.

In a speech on 17 December 1979, Khomeini called the concept of ethnic minority contrary to Islamic doctrines. He also accused those who do not wish Muslim countries to be united in creating the issue of nationalism among minorities. His views were shared by many in the clerical leadership. [19]

The new Iranian administration of President Banisadr took office. In late January 1980, Revolutionary Guard units and government supporting Kurds unsuccessfully battled rebels in the region, resulting in a stalemate that lasted until spring. By May 1980, Kurds still controlled much of the regions' roads, rural areas and holding once again the city of Mahabad as their capital. The KDPI said that they control over 7,000 fighters at the time.

Spring 1980 Iranian offensive

In the spring of 1980, government forces under the command of President Abolhassan Banisadr brutally conquered most of the Kurdish cities through a huge military campaign, sending in mechanized military divisions to Kurdish cities including Sanandaj,[ citation needed ] Pawe, and Marivan. [20] Neighbourhoods of some villages and towns were destroyed as a result of the fighting between Kurdish rebels and Government forces . [21] Ayatollah Khalkhali, sentenced thousands of men to execution after summary trials.[ citation needed ] The Kurds however continued to hold Mahabad as the summer fighting diminished, while Iranian-Iraqi tensions grew. [2]

Autumn 1980 Iranian operations

In late August 1980, Iranian army failed to sack Mahabad, held by the Kurds for ten months. [2] They continued to hold it for five more months, as the Province of Kordistan became the theater of the Iran–Iraq War. Although President Banisadr ordered a cease-fire with the Kurds, following the Iraqi invasion, the Pasdaran ignored him, continuing their campaigns. [2]

The confrontation between Tehran and the Kurds intensified sharply when the Iran–Iraq War broke out, as Iran faced Iraqi support to the Kurdish insurgency in Iran, while waging its own campaign to encourage risings of various groups within Iraq. [14] It was initially assumed that Iraqi Kurds and their Iranian brothers would cooperate to exploit weaknesses on both sides. Not surprisingly, neither Baghdad nor Tehran was willing to accept that outcome. Rather, both sides insisted on organizing special loyalist Kurdish military units to participate in the war and to demonstrate allegiance to their respective states. Essentially, the Iraqi KDP and the KDPI were split, experiencing a series of internal conflicts. [14]

The Pasdaran units had not been effective against the Kurds, until Revolutionary Guard backed units engaged into fighting with Iraqis and Iraqi-backed Kurds in late December. [2]

Final stages

As the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps fought to reestablish government control in the Kurdish regions, more than 10,000 Kurds were killed during this process. [22] [ unreliable source? ]

Groups of KDPI soldiers continued to engage in low level campaigns up until 1983, [15] as the Iranian forces were diverted to the Iraqi front, with the escalation of the Iran–Iraq War.

Aftermath

While most of its military and political activity in Iran was greatly reduced after the 1979–1981 rebellion, the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran had continued its opposition activities through 1980s. In 1989, the KDPI renewed its military activities, among which most notable was the 1990 fighting, in which some 300 Iranian soldiers were allegedly killed.

Since 1996, following an effective political and military crackdown, the conflict of KDPI against the Iranian government shifted to the political opposition abroad.

Renewed insurgency in Iranian Kurdistan was undertaken since 2004 by another Kurdish militant organization—the PJAK, affiliated with the PKK.

Conflict parties

In media

Ettela'at newspaper publication

On 27 August 1979, in Sanandaj, Iran, 11 Kurdish prisoners were executed by a firing squad following a 30-minute trial under Shiite cleric Sadegh Khalkhali. [23] Jahangir Razmi, a photographer for Iran’s independent Ettela’at newspaper, captured the execution on film. [23]

Within hours an anonymous photo of the execution ran across 6 columns of the paper. On September 8, the newspaper was seized by the Foundation for the Disinherited, a state-owned holding company. [23] On April 14, 1980, the photo won a Pulitzer Prize. In 2006, Razmi made public 27 images from the execution that he had kept hidden. [23]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Denise, N. The Kurds And the State: Evolving National Identity in Iraq, Turkey, And Iran:p.145 2005. Syracuse University Press. "Instead of creating a cohesive Kurdish nationalist movement, some Kurdish leaders such as Husayni's brother Shaykh Jalal accepted Iraqi military assistance and formed a Sunni militia opposed to the Iranian government and Kurdish nationalist parties. Qasimlu differentiated his real Kurdish nationalist party from traitors within the KDPI. Others, such as the prominent Ghani Bolourian, tried to negotiate with the central government. After the revolution some Shi'a Kurds from Ilam, Kermanshah and West Azerbaijan turned away from Kurdish nationalists and towards non-Kurdish Shi'a communities. Sunni Kurdish leftists continued to direct the nationalist project in their enclave in Kurdistan Province, having marginal influence over Shi'a Kurds in other regions."
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Ward, R.S. Immortal: A Military History of Iran and its Armed Forces. 2009. pp.231–233.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Kurdistan - Iran".
  4. 1 2 Jeffrey S. Dixon; Meredith Reid Sarkees (2015). "INTRA-STATE WAR #816: Anti-Khomeini Coalition War of 1979 to 1983". A Guide to Intra-state Wars: An Examination of Civil, Regional, and Intercommunal Wars, 1816-2014. SAGE Publications. pp. 384–386. ISBN   978-1-5063-1798-4.
  5. Elik, Suleyman (2013). Iran-Turkey Relations, 1979-2011: Conceptualising the Dynamics of Politics, Religion and Security in Middle-Power States. Routledge. p. 83. ISBN   9781136630880.
  6. 1 2 Zabir, Sepehr (2012). Iran Since the Revolution (RLE Iran D). Taylor & Francis. pp. 108–110. ISBN   978-1136833007.
  7. Muhammad Kamal (1986). "Iranian Left In Political Dilemma". Pakistan Horizon. Karachi: Pakistan Institute of International Affairs. 39 (3): 39–51. JSTOR   41393782.
  8. "What Is Iran Doing in Syria?". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 2013-01-23. Retrieved 2012-09-23.
  9. Razoux, Pierre (2015). The Iran–Iraq War. Hrvard University Press. Appendix E: Armed Opposition. ISBN   9780674915718.
  10. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-19. Retrieved 2012-10-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. "Sending in Pasdaran (Revolutionary Guard) rather than regular army troops, and dispatching the Ayatollah Sadiq Khalkhali—the "Hanging Judge"—resulted in the deaths of nearly 10,000 Kurds in the 1979–82 period alone, many in mass executions ordered by Khalkhali."
  12. Denise, N. The Kurds And the State: Evolving National Identity in Iraq, Turkey, And Iran: p.144–45. 2005. Syracuse University Press. "Free to discuss its political views, the KDPI came out of thirty years of clandestine existence and made public claims for political autonomy"; "Despite its criticisms of the regime, in its early post-revolutionary public discourses the KDPI called itself an authentically national and Iranian party".
  13. Ali Reza Nourizadeh (Persian - Arabic - English)
  14. 1 2 3 4 Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East: p.390
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 "1979: Kurdish revolt grows in Iran". 1979-08-23.
  16. D. and in khorasan [Cultural & Civil society of Khorasani Kurds, www.cskk.org]. McDowall,A Modern History of the Kurds, 1996, Chapter 13, "Subjects of the Shi'i Republic," pp. 261-287.
  17. 1 2 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-06-02. Retrieved 2012-05-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. 1 2 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-09. Retrieved 2012-05-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. Ayatollah Khomeini's Speech, Radio Tehran, December 17, 1979. Quoted in David McDowall, A Modern History of the Kurds (London: I.B. Tauris, 1996, p. 271
  20. rev6 [ unreliable source? ] Archived November 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  21. Valli, Abbas (2014-10-07). Kurds and the State in Iran: The Making of Kurdish Identity. ISBN   9781780768236.
  22. Are Kurds a pariah minority? | Social Research | Find Articles at BNET.com
  23. 1 2 3 4

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