Prime Minister of Lebanon

Last updated
Prime Minister of Lebanon Fouad abdo of the
Lebanese Republic
Coat of Arms of Lebanon.svg
Hassan-Baha-Eddine-Diab.jpg
Incumbent
Hassan Diab

since 21 January 2020
Member of Council of Ministers
Residence Grand Serail, Beirut
Appointer President of Lebanon
Term length Duration of the parliamentary convocation (4 years) [nb 1]
Inaugural holder Riad Solh
25 September 1943
Formation Constitution of Lebanon
23 May 1926
Salary LL 212,844,000 annually [1]
Website Lebanese Government Website
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This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Lebanon

Flag of the Arab League.svg Member State of the Arab League


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The Prime Minister of Lebanon, officially the President of the Council of Ministers, is the head of government and the head of the Council of Ministers of Lebanon. The Prime Minister is appointed (and removed) by the President of Lebanon, with no confirmation needed from the Parliament of Lebanon. By convention, they are always a Sunni Muslim.

Contents

History

The office was created on 23 May 1926, when the constitution of the state of Greater Lebanon was promulgated. In the summer of 1943, when the National Pact was agreed, it was decided that the office of the Prime Minister would always be reserved for a Sunni Muslim. From the creation of the office in 1926 to the end of the Lebanese Civil War, the constitution made little mention of the roles and duties of the office, and most of the office's powers were exercised through informal means rather than through constitutional procedures. Following the end of the Civil War and the ratification of the Ta'if Accord, the responsibilities of the Prime Minister were codified and clearly listed in the Constitution.

Differences with French constitution

While the 1926 Constitution of Greater Lebanon was roughly modeled after the French constitution (Greater Lebanon being under French mandate), the office of the Prime Minister in Lebanon is notably significantly weaker in Lebanon than in France, for the President is the sole person who can dismiss him (at will), while in France the Prime Minister is appointed by the President, and can only be removed by the Parliament through a vote of no confidence. This means that the Prime Minister of Lebanon must be much more deferential to the President than his French counterpart.

Past irregularities in the office of the Prime Minister

Twice in the past, when the president resigned or shortly before his term expired, the president broke the National Pact and appointed a Maronite Christian with the justification that he would assume the powers of the presidency.

During the Lebanese Civil War, outgoing President Amine Gemayel dismissed incumbent Prime Minister Selim Hoss and appointed Army General-in-chief Michel Aoun as Prime Minister 15 minutes before the expiry of his term. Hoss refused his dismissal, and this led to the creation of a dual government; one, mainly civilian and Muslim in West Beirut, and the other, mainly military and Christian in East Beirut.

Responsibilities and powers

The Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers and the head of government. In addition, they are the deputy chair of the Supreme Defense Council.

Their responsibilities are the following [2] :

Symbolic duties

Following the ratification of the Ta'if Accord, the Constitution laid out a preamble for the three "key" executive posts: the President, the Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers. The preamble states the following:

In addition, the Prime Minister also holds these posts ex officio:

  1. Or until dismissal at the discretion of the President.

List of prime ministers

See also

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References

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from the Library of Congress website https://www.loc.gov/law/help/lebanon-constitutional-law.php .

  1. "Lebanese Politicians Reward Themselves - Al Akhbar English". web.archive.org. 19 October 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-10-19.
  2. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Lebanon_2004.pdf?lang=en