Oghul Qaimish (died 1251) was the principal wife of Güyük Khan and ruled as regent over the Mongol Empire after the death of her husband in 1248. She was a descendant of the Mergid tribe. However, H. H. Howorth believed that she was an Oirat.
She was given as wife to Güyük after Genghis Khan put down the rebellion of her clan in 1216–1219. Oghul Qaimish bore Güyük two sons, Khoja and Naqu. When her husband died in Qum-Sengir in Turkestan, she brought his ordo in the Ögedeids' appanage in Emil-Qobaq region in 1248. Güyük's chief officials, Chinqai, Qadaq and Bala, helped Oghul to serve as regent. She spent her time with the Mongol shamans and lacked her mother-in-law Töregene's political skills. While her sons, Naqu and Khoja, and Shiremun, the grandson of Ögedei, attempted to secure their claims on the throne, Chagatayid Khan and Yesü Möngke primarily supported Oghul Qaimish.
Before or during the regency of Oghul, her husband's general Eljigidei sent an embassy to Louis IX of France to offer an alliance against the Muslims. Louis sent his men headed by André de Longjumeau in reply, but after she received them at her ordo on Emil, Oghul Qaimish sent them back with presents and letters announcing the Mongol demand for submission.
In 1249, Batu arranged a kurultai where Möngke was chosen as Khagan at Ala Qamaq in the Ulus of Jochi. Oghul declined Batu's invitation and sent Bala to that assembly with a demand that Shiremun or one of the Ögedeids be elected khan.When the Toluids and the Golden Horde organized a second kurultai on the Kherlen River in 1251, which officially proclaimed Möngke Khan, Oghul Qaimish refused, with her son Khoja, to come. Most of the Ögedeid and Chagataid princes supported her.
After her opponent, Möngke, was elected in 1251, Oghul Qaimish's sons and Shiremun attempted to overthrow Möngke. When the plot was discovered, Khoja was exiled to the South China front and Shiremun was executed. Oghul Qaimish and Shiremun's mother Qadaqach were summoned to court and arrested. When Oghul Qaimish was stripped naked, she was angry with Sorghaghtani and other imperial women who questioned her in closed ger.After torture she was executed by being wrapped in felt and flung into a river.
André de Longjumeau was a 13th-century Dominican missionary and diplomat and one of the most active Occidental diplomats in the East in the 13th century. He led two embassies to the Mongols: the first carried letters from Pope Innocent IV and the second bore gifts and letters from Louis IX of France to Güyük Khan. Well acquainted with the Middle-East, he spoke Arabic and "Chaldean".
Batu Khan, also known as Sain Khan and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire. Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. His ulus was the chief state of the Golden Horde, which ruled Rus', Volga Bulgaria, Cumania, and the Caucasus for around 250 years, after also destroying the armies of Poland and Hungary. Batu or Bat literally means "firm" in the Mongolian language. After the deaths of Genghis Khan's sons, he became the most respected prince, called agha, in the Mongol Empire.
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The Mongol Empire existed during the 13th and 14th centuries, and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in Mongolia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Eastern Europe and parts of Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northward into parts of Siberia; eastward and southward into the Indian subcontinent, Mainland Southeast Asia and the Iranian Plateau; and westward as far as the Levant and the Carpathian Mountains.
Güyük was the third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, the eldest son of Ögedei Khan and a grandson of Genghis Khan. He reigned from 1246 to 1248.
Möngke was the fourth khagan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from July 1, 1251, to August 11, 1259. He was the first Khagan from the Toluid line, and made significant reforms to improve the administration of the Empire during his reign. Under Möngke, the Mongols conquered Iraq and Syria as well as the kingdom of Dali.
Töregene Khatun was the Great Khatun and regent of the Mongol Empire from the death of her husband Ögedei Khan in 1241 until the election of her eldest son Güyük Khan in 1246.
The Merkit was one of the five major tribal confederations (khanlig) of probably Mongol or Turkic origin later Mongolized in the 12th century Mongolian Plateau.
Sorghaghtani Beki or Bekhi, also written Sorkaktani, Sorkhokhtani, Sorkhogtani, Siyurkuktiti was a Keraite princess and daughter-in-law of Genghis Khan. Married to Tolui, Genghis' youngest son, Sorghaghtani Beki became one of the most powerful and competent people in the Mongol Empire. She made policy decisions at a pivotal moment that led to the transition of the Mongol Empire towards a more cosmopolitan and sophisticated style of administration. She raised her sons to be leaders, and maneuvered the family politics so that all four of her sons, Möngke Khan, Hulagu Khan, Ariq Böke, and Kublai Khan, went on to inherit the legacy of their grandfather.
Berke Khan was a grandson of Genghis Khan and a Mongolian military commander and ruler of the Golden Horde who effectively consolidated the power of the Blue Horde and White Horde from 1257 to 1266. He succeeded his brother Batu Khan of the Blue Horde (West) and was responsible for the first official establishment of Islam in a khanate of the Mongol Empire. He allied with the Egyptian Mamluks against another Mongol khanate based in Persia, the Ilkhanate. Berke supported Ariq Böke in the Toluid Civil War, but did not intervene militarily in the war because he was occupied in his own war.
Kadan was the son of the second Great Khan of the Mongols Ögedei and a concubine. He was the grandson of Genghis Khan and the brother of Güyük Khan. During the Mongol invasion of Europe, Kadan, along with Baidar and Orda Khan, led the Mongol diversionary force that attacked Poland, while the main Mongol force struck the Kingdom of Hungary.
Boroldai, also known as Burundai, was a notable Mongol general of the mid 13th century. He participated in the Mongol invasion of Russia and Europe in 1236-1242.
Büri was a son of Mutukan and a grandson of Chagatai Khan. According to Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Büri's mother was a wife of Chagatai Khan's one official. She was a beauty, and Mutukan was attracted by her while she served in the Khan's ger. Mutukan made her pregnant and instead of marrying her, he took her baby, Büri.
The Kankalis were a Turkic people of Eurasia. Kara-Khanid lexicographer Mahmud al-Kashgari stated thatsimply glossed Qanglı as "a wagon for carrying load". Supposedly, they might be identified as or closely related to Kipchaks; or formed part of the Pechenegs,, as Byzantine Emperor Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos mentions three Pecheneg tribes collectively known as Kangar in his De Administrando Imperio. Kangar is associated with the Kang territory and probably with the Kangaris people and the city of Kangu Tarban, mentioned in the Kul Tigin inscription of the Orkhon Turkic peoples. Still, the relationship between the Kanglys, the Kangars, and the Kangaris~Kengeres, if any, is still unclear.
Orghana was an Oirat princess of the Mongol Empire and Empress of the Chagatai Khanate. She was a daughter of Torolchi, chief of the Oirats and Checheyikhen, daughter of Genghis Khan.
The House of Ögedei, sometimes called the Ögedeids, were an influential family of Mongol Borjigin from the 12th to 14th centuries. They were descended from Ögedei Khan, a son of Genghis Khan who had become his father's successor, second Khagan of the Mongol Empire. Ögedei continued the expansion of the Mongol Empire.
The Legend of Kublai Khan, also known as Legend of Yuan Empire Founder, is a Chinese television series based on the life of Kublai Khan and the events leading to the founding of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty in China. The series started shooting in 2011. It premiered at the 2013 Shanghai Television Festival from 11–13 June 2013, and was first aired on HBS from 21–30 July 2013. The series was directed by Tsui Siu-ming and starred Hu Jun as Kublai Khan, Charmaine Sheh as Chabi in the main leads, with Cai Wenyan, Wu Yue, Tang Guoqiang, Gao Fa, Steven Ma and Ray Lui as part of the supporting cast.
Oljath was a Queen consort of Georgia as the wife of two successive kings, Vakhtang II and David VIII. She was a daughter of Abaqa Khan, the Mongol Ilkhan of Iran.
The Toluid Civil War was a war of succession fought between Kublai Khan and his younger brother, Ariq Böke, from 1260 to 1264. Möngke Khan died in 1259 with no declared successor, precipitating infighting between members of the Tolui family line for the title of Great Khan that escalated to a civil war. The Toluid Civil War, and the wars that followed it, weakened the authority of the Great Khan over the Mongol Empire and split the empire into autonomous khanates.
House of Merkit (1248-1251)
| Regent of the Mongol Empire |