1901 Australian federal election

Last updated
1901 Australian federal election
Flag of Australia (1901-1903).svg
29–30 March 1901 1903  

All 75 seats of the House of Representatives
38 seats were needed for a majority in the House
All 36 seats of the Senate
 First partySecond partyThird party
  Edmund Barton crop.PNG George Reid crop.jpg No image.png
Leader Edmund Barton George Reid None
Party Protectionist Free Trade Labour
Leader since19011901
Leader's seat Hunter (NSW) East Sydney (NSW)
Seats won31 seats28 seats14 seats
Popular vote185,943151,96079,736
Percentage36.75%30.03%15.76%

1901-australia.png

Prime Minister before election

Position established

Subsequent Prime Minister

Edmund Barton
Protectionist

The 1901 Australian federal election for the inaugural Parliament of Australia was held in Australia on Friday 29 March and Saturday 30 March 1901. The elections followed Federation and the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901. All 75 seats in the Australian House of Representatives, six of which were uncontested, as well as all 36 seats in the Australian Senate, were up for election.

Parliament of Australia legislative branch of the Commonwealth of Australia

The Parliament of Australia is the legislative branch of the government of Australia. It consists of three elements: the Crown, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The combination of two elected chambers, in which the members of the Senate represent the states and territories while the members of the House represent electoral divisions according to population, is modelled on the United States Congress. Through both chambers, however, there is a fused executive, drawn from the Westminster system.

Federation of Australia process by which six separate British self-governing colonies became the country of Australia

The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Australia, establishing a system of federalism in Australia. Fiji and New Zealand were originally part of this process, but they decided not to join the federation. Following federation, the six colonies that united to form the Commonwealth of Australia as states kept the systems of government that they had developed as separate colonies, but they also agreed to have a federal government that was responsible for matters concerning the whole nation. When the Constitution of Australia came into force, on 1 January 1901, the colonies collectively became states of the Commonwealth of Australia.

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

Contents

After the initial confusion of the Hopetoun Blunder, the first Prime Minister of Australia, Edmund Barton, went into the inaugural 1901 federal election as the appointed head of a Protectionist Party caretaker government. While the Protectionists came first on votes and seats, they fell short of a majority. The incumbent government remained in office with the parliamentary support of the Labour Party, who held the balance of power, while the Free Trade Party formed the opposition. A few months prior to the 1903 election, Barton resigned to become a founding member of the High Court of Australia, and was replaced by Alfred Deakin.

The Hopetoun Blunder was a political event immediately prior to the Federation of the British colonies in Australia.

Prime Minister of Australia executive head of the Government of Australia

The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of Australia. The individual who holds the office is the most senior Minister of State, the leader of the Federal Cabinet. The Prime Minister also has the responsibility of administering the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, and is the chair of the National Security Committee and the Council of Australian Governments. The office of Prime Minister is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia but exists through Westminster political convention. The individual who holds the office is commissioned by the Governor-General of Australia and at the Governor-General's pleasure subject to the Constitution of Australia and constitutional conventions.

Edmund Barton Australian politician, first Prime Minister of Australia and founding justice of the High Court of Australia

Sir Edmund "Toby" Barton, was an Australian politician and judge who served as the first Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1901 to 1903. He resigned to become a founding member of the High Court of Australia, where he served until his death.

Then Prime Minister Edmund Barton entered parliament at this election, as did six future Prime Ministers - Alfred Deakin, Chris Watson, George Reid, Joseph Cook, Andrew Fisher, and Billy Hughes - and future opposition leader Frank Tudor.

Alfred Deakin Australian politician, second Prime Minister of Australia

Alfred Deakin was an Australian politician who served as the second Prime Minister of Australia, in office for three separate terms – 1903 to 1904, 1905 to 1908, and 1909 to 1910. Before entering office, he was a leader of the movement for Australian federation.

Chris Watson Australian politician, third Prime Minister of Australia

John Christian Watson, commonly known as Chris Watson, was an Australian politician who served as the third Prime Minister of Australia. He was the first Prime Minister from the Australian Labour Party, and led the world's first Labour Party government, indeed the world's first socialist or social democratic government, at a national level. From paternal German and maternal British ancestry, he is the only Australian Prime Minister not born in a Commonwealth country.

George Reid Australian politician, 4th Prime Minister of Australia and 12th Premier of New South Wales

Sir George Houston Reid was an Australian politician who led the Reid Government as the fourth Prime Minister of Australia from 1904 to 1905, having previously been Premier of New South Wales from 1894 to 1899. He led the Free Trade Party from 1891 to 1908.

Background

The federation of the colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia came into effect on 1 January 1901 to form the Commonwealth of Australia. An election was held on Friday 29 March in Western Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania, and on Saturday 30 March 1901 in South Australia and Queensland, to elect the inaugural members of federal parliament. Floods in Queensland delayed polling in parts of the state until April.

New South Wales State of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In December 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

Queensland North-east state of Australia

Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland. The state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres (715,309 sq mi).

South Australia State of Australia

South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres (379,725 sq mi), it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, and fifth largest by population. It has a total of 1.7 million people, and its population is the second most highly centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are relatively small; Mount Gambier, the second largest centre, has a population of 28,684.

The 1901 election was the only one of two occasions in Australia's history that the entire country did not go to the polls on the same day in a general election, the second occasion being the 1993 "supplementary election" in the Division of Dickson. This election was also the only time that an election or any part thereof was held on a day other than a Saturday.

Division of Dickson Australian federal electoral division

The Division of Dickson is an Australian Electoral Division in Queensland, Australia.

In what would later be known as the Hopetoun Blunder, in December 1900 the Governor-General, the 7th Earl of Hopetoun commissioned William Lyne, the Premier of New South Wales, to form the first Commonwealth Government from 1 January 1901. The government was to conduct itself on a caretaker basis in the absence of a parliament. Lyne was unpopular and was unable to gain support, so he returned his commission. Edmund Barton was then called upon to form the interim government. Barton was sworn in as the inaugural Prime Minister, and his cabinet contested the poll as the incumbent government.

Governor-General of Australia Representative of the monarch of Australia

The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of the Australian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. As the Queen is concurrently the monarch of 15 other Commonwealth realms, and resides in the United Kingdom, she, on the advice of her prime minister, appoints a governor-general to carry out constitutional duties within the Commonwealth of Australia. The governor-general has formal presidency over the Federal Executive Council and is commander-in-chief of the Australian Defence Force. The functions of the governor-general include appointing ministers, judges, and ambassadors; giving royal assent to legislation passed by parliament; issuing writs for election; and bestowing Australian honours.

John Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun British colonial governor

John Adrian Louis Hope, 1st Marquess of Linlithgow, 7th Earl of Hopetoun, was a British aristocrat and statesman who served as the first Governor-General of Australia, in office from 1901 to 1902. He was previously Governor of Victoria from 1889 to 1895.

William Lyne Australian politician

Sir William John Lyne KCMG was an Australian politician who served as Premier of New South Wales from 1899 to 1901, and later as a federal cabinet minister under Edmund Barton and Alfred Deakin. He is best known as the subject of the "Hopetoun Blunder", unexpectedly being asked to serve as the first Prime Minister of Australia but failing to form a government.

Some candidates were still sitting members of a state parliament. William Lyne was a minister in Barton's interim government and a candidate for the Division of Hume while still Premier of New South Wales, and used his official premier's car during the campaign, resigning on 27 March.

Parties contesting the election

Chris Watson, first federal Labour Party leader as of two months after the election, and would later be Prime Minister in 1904. ChrisWatsonBW crop.jpg
Chris Watson, first federal Labour Party leader as of two months after the election, and would later be Prime Minister in 1904.

The parties contesting the election were the Protectionist Party, led by Prime Minister of Australia Edmund Barton, and the Free Trade Party, unofficially led by former New South Wales Premier George Reid. There would not be a federal Labour Party until two months after the election, but in five of the six states local Labour parties contested the elections - in Tasmania, where there was no Labour party, King O'Malley was elected as an independent labour candidate. There were also a number of independents of various political leanings and a New South Wales Senate ticket called the "Socialist Six", comprising Labour members in conflict with the official party.

The Protectionists advocated the protection of local industries through the imposition of tariffs on imported goods, the construction of a transcontinental railway, a uniform railway gauge, uniform suffrage, aged pensions and defending the Australian constitution from radicals. The party used the colour red throughout the campaign. In addition to Barton, Protectionist candidates included many of the leading political figures from colonial Australia, including Charles Kingston, Sir John Forrest, and future Prime Minister Alfred Deakin.

The Free Traders (their official title was "Australian Free Trade and Liberal Association") advocated the dismantling of the tariff system, a transcontinental railway, and believed that aged pensions should be left to the states. As many of the policies of the Protectionists and Free Traders were similar, the Free Traders campaigned heavily on tariffs, with Reid stating that he wanted the election to be a plebiscite on tariffs. The party used the colour blue throughout the campaign. In addition to Reid, who believed he should have been appointed Prime Minister [1] instead of Barton as he considered himself the bigger political figure, Free Trade candidates included Reid's unofficial deputy Paddy Glynn, William Irvine, and former state Labour leader and future Commonwealth Liberal Party Prime Minister Joseph Cook.

Labour advocated old age pensions, electoral reform, a national army, compulsory arbitration of industrial disputes and a national referendum to decide issues that would otherwise lead to a double dissolution of parliament. Senior Labour candidates included future Prime Ministers Chris Watson, Andrew Fisher and Billy Hughes. Labour candidates were elected as individual state-based candidates - they met before the first sitting of Parliament on 8 May 1901 and agreed to form a federal Labour Party. Chris Watson, a Sydney printer and former member of the New South Wales Parliament, was elected the first leader of the Party.

All parties were in support of a White Australia as was the norm at the time, with only a single parliamentarian, Free Trader Bruce Smith, fully opposing the legislation. [2]

Results

House of Representatives

House of Representatives 1901–1903 (FPTP) — Turnout 56.68% (Non-CV) — Informal 1.65%
Australia House of Representatives 1901.svg
PartyVotes%SwingSeatsChange
  Protectionist 185,94336.75*31*
  Free Trade 151,96030.03*28*
  Labour (state-based)79,73615.76*14*
  Independents 8,3841.66*2*
 Other79,94915.80*0*
 Total505,972  75
 Protectionist/LabourWIN45
 Free Trade Party28

Notes
Popular Vote
Protectionist
36.75%
Free Trade
30.03%
Labour
15.76%
Independents
1.66%
Others
15.80%
Parliament Seats
Protectionist
41.33%
Free Trade
37.33%
Labour
18.67%
Independents
2.67%

Senate

Senate 1901–1903 (FPTP BV) — Turnout N/A — Informal N/A
Australian Senate 1901.svg
PartyVotes%SwingSeats wonSeats held
  Protectionist 1,197,72344.86*1111
  Free Trade 1,053,01239.44*1717
  Labour (state-based)360,49413.50*88
  Independents 43,5971.63*00
  Socialist Labor 27,3471.02*00
 Total2,669,908  3636

Voting and enrolment

Voting franchise was according to each state's specific electoral laws. South Australian and Western Australian women were enfranchised, but in the other states, they could not vote. Tasmania retained a small property qualification for voting, but in the other states, all males over 21 were eligible to vote. In several states indigenous Australians were technically allowed to vote, however, they faced voter suppression. In New South Wales for instance, Aboriginal men who voted were arrested by police for "double voting" with very little evidence to back up the case. [3]

Voting was voluntary throughout Australia and in most states candidates were elected by a "first past the post" voting system. In South Australia, voters were required to mark the box opposite their preferred candidates, while in other states voters were required to cross out the names of non-preferred candidates.

The following table describes the varying electoral systems. [3]

StateDivided electoratesVoting system Women franchise Chinese franchise Aboriginal franchiseNon-white franchiseOther
New South Wales Green check.svg First past the post Dark Red x.svgDark Red x.svgGreen check.svgGreen check.svg
Victoria Green check.svg First past the post Dark Red x.svgDark Red x.svgGreen check.svgGreen check.svg
Queensland Green check.svg Contingent vote Dark Red x.svgDark Red x.svgDark Red x.svgDark Red x.svgIf no candidate gained majority, contingent vote was applied. [4]
South Australia Dark Red x.svg First past the post Green check.svgGreen check.svgGreen check.svgGreen check.svgIn Northern Territory (managed by South Australia), Indians could not vote.
Western Australia Green check.svg First past the post Green check.svgDark Red x.svgDark Red x.svgDark Red x.svg
Tasmania Dark Red x.svg Hare-clark Dark Red x.svgGreen check.svgGreen check.svgGreen check.svg

Electorates

All seats were to be filled − 75 in the House of Representatives and 36 in the Senate. Six House seats were uncontested.

There were 75 House of Representative seats to be filled. The initial number of seats for each state were set out in the Australian Constitution. New South Wales was allocated 26, Victoria 23, Queensland 9, South Australia 7, Western Australia 5 and Tasmania 5. The South Australian and Tasmanian colonial parliaments had not legislated for single member electorates, so their House of Representative members were elected from a single statewide electorate. In South Australia, each elector cast seven votes, while in Tasmania, each elector cast one vote.

Each state elected six Senators, in accordance with the Constitution. Senators in each state were elected on a statewide electorate basis by bloc voting rather than the current proportional representation or single transferable vote system.

Campaign

The campaign period officially commenced on 17 January 1901, although some candidates, particularly Reid, had been unofficially campaigning since December the previous year. The campaign was delayed due to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January, but soon got into full swing again as candidates travelled widely to address lively public meetings. Reid drew the biggest crowds, including 8,000 to a rally in Newcastle and he campaigned widely, travelling to Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania, while Paddy Glynn organised the Free Trade campaign in South Australia. [1]

The Protectionists were forced to modify their immigration policy following an outcry from Queensland Protectionist candidates who feared that a White Australia policy would impinge on the importation of Kanakas to work on Queensland sugar plantations. Their policy was revised to read that Kanakas would be only be sent back to their country of origin when they were no longer of any use to the sugar industry. On the whole, however, a white Australia was extremely popular with the electorate and most candidates outdid themselves to prove how much they supported it. It was left to Free Trade candidate for Parkes, Bruce Smith (a leading representative of the employers), to oppose anti-immigration measures. Andrew Fisher argued that any Kanaka who had converted to Christianity and married should be allowed to remain in Australia. Both were elected comfortably.

The Free Traders also had to modify part of their election platform when they realised that to advocate for the removal of all tariffs protecting Australian industries would be political suicide. Many employees in these industries considered the removal of tariffs as likely to mean the end of their jobs.

The Protectionists enjoyed the support of the powerful Australian Natives' Association (ANA) throughout the campaign as well as the endorsements of The Age and The Sydney Bulletin , while Free Trade received support from business interests and the endorsements of The Sydney Morning Herald , The Daily Telegraph , The Brisbane Courier , Melbourne's The Argus and The Adelaide Register. Labour could only rely on union-owned newspapers, although some of these enjoyed a great level of influence in some electorates (the Gympie Truth for example is considered to have played an important role in the election of its part-owner, Andrew Fisher, in Wide Bay).

There were only two cars used in the 1901 election campaign; William Lyne, who was a candidate for the Division of Hume while still Premier of New South Wales, used his official Premier's car to great advantage; the shipping magnate and candidate for Melbourne Sir Malcolm McEacharn, enjoyed the use of his car while travelling around his electorate.

Election day

Complaints were received by polling officials about the earlier than advertised closing of polling booths in some electorates, the poor quality pencils supplied to fill in ballot papers (they apparently blunted easily, leaving many votes incomprehensible to officials) and the Senate ballot paper in New South Wales which listed 50 candidates, confusing many voters and leading to a significant number of informal votes. [5]

These complaints aside, the administering of the first federal election was seen as a great success and a credit to the polling officials who, in some cases, were responsible for electorates larger than some European countries.

Analysis

Group photograph of all Federal Labour Party MPs elected at the inaugural 1901 election, including Chris Watson, Andrew Fisher, Billy Hughes, and Frank Tudor. Labor 1901b.jpg
Group photograph of all Federal Labour Party MPs elected at the inaugural 1901 election, including Chris Watson, Andrew Fisher, Billy Hughes, and Frank Tudor.
Edmund Barton is seated second from the left, surrounded by the Federal Executive Council, comprising his Cabinet ministers and the Governor-General, Lord Tennyson. Standing at the rear, left to right are James Drake, Senator Richard O'Connor, Sir Philip Fysh, Charles Kingston, and Sir John Forrest. Seated at the front, left to right are Sir William Lyne, Edmund Barton, Lord Tennyson, Alfred Deakin, and Sir George Turner. FirstMinistry.jpg
Edmund Barton is seated second from the left, surrounded by the Federal Executive Council, comprising his Cabinet ministers and the Governor-General, Lord Tennyson. Standing at the rear, left to right are James Drake, Senator Richard O'Connor, Sir Philip Fysh, Charles Kingston, and Sir John Forrest. Seated at the front, left to right are Sir William Lyne, Edmund Barton, Lord Tennyson, Alfred Deakin, and Sir George Turner.
Australian House of Representatives, 1901 Svgfiles-2017-01-23-13-46-12-412028-8886278033757380130 (1).svg
Australian House of Representatives, 1901

The Free Traders won most of the seats in New South Wales, apart from the border areas where the Protectionists were strong. The Protectionists won most of the seats in their stronghold, Victoria. Labour won some inner urban seats but most of their members represented pastoral and mining areas. In the smaller states many members had no fixed party loyalty and saw themselves as representing the interests of their states. Seven Prime Ministers of Australia (Barton, Deakin, Watson, Reid, Fisher, Joseph Cook and Hughes) were elected at this election, as were a number of influential former state Premiers (Sir John Forrest, Lyne, George Turner, Anderson Dawson, Philip Fysh and Charles Kingston among them).

With no past to live down, Barton's Protectionist ministry had all the advantages of incumbency with none of the problems, which meant that a Protectionist victory was almost a certainty, and Barton had been confident of obtaining a comfortable majority in parliament. [6] However, while Barton and his ministry were returned, they had to rely on Labour support to pass legislation. Although the Protectionists remained in government, however, many observers saw the result as a moral victory for Free Trade (who won more seats than the Protectionists in the three smallest states of South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia). Labour also performed better than expected, particularly after the post-election recruitment of O'Malley. Labour was the smallest of the three parties in the House but held the balance of power. Chris Watson pursued the same policy as Labour had done in the colonial parliaments. He kept the Protectionist governments of Edmund Barton and Alfred Deakin in office, in exchange for legislative concessions including the immensely popular White Australia policy. Such was the overwhelming support for a White Australia by the electorate and the three political parties that the Immigration Restriction Act 1901 was the seventeenth piece of legislation passed by the nascent parliament. [7] [8]

The average national voting turnout was 60% of enrolled voters, with the Division of Newcastle gaining the highest turnout on 97%, while the Division of Fremantle recorded the lowest turnout on 30%.

Of the two elected independents, both were from Queensland. James Wilkinson, elected to the seat of Moreton, was a former member of the Labour Party, and rejoined the party in 1903. Alexander Paterson, representing Capricornia, had no political affiliation, and retired in 1903.

Pendulum

South Australia and Tasmania went to the election as single multi-member constituencies. South Australia elected seven members, each elector casting seven votes: four Free Traders (Paddy Glynn, 59.5%; Frederick Holder, 59.5%; Alexander Poynton, 41.1%; and Vaiben Louis Solomon, 43.0%), two Protectionists (Charles Kingston, 65.9%; Langdon Bonython, 62.7%) and one Labour member (Lee Batchelor, 50.3%). Tasmania elected five members, each elector casting one vote: three Free Traders (Edward Braddon, 26.2%; Norman Cameron, 11.6%; Frederick Piesse, 10.1%), one Protectionist (Philip Fysh, 9.9%) and one Labour member (King O'Malley, 21.9%).

COALITION SEATS
Protectionist/Labour Coalition
Marginal
New England (NSW) William Sawers PROT00.6 vs FT
Herbert (Qld) Fred Bamford LAB01.6 vs PROT
Laanecoorie (Vic) Carty Salmon PROT02.1 vs IND
Yarra (Vic) Frank Tudor LAB02.3 vs PROT
Cowper (NSW) Francis Clarke PROT02.4 vs FT
Coolgardie (WA) Hugh Mahon LAB02.8 vs FT
Oxley (Qld) Richard Edwards PROT03.2 vs LAB
Maranoa (Qld) Jim Page LAB03.3 vs FT
Riverina (NSW) John Chanter PROT03.5 vs FT
Mernda (Vic) Robert Harper PROT03.8 vs IND
Bourke (Vic) James Hume Cook PROT03.9 vs FT
Echuca (Vic) James McColl PROT04.0 vs FT
Hume (NSW) William Lyne PROT04.1 vs FT
Richmond (NSW) Thomas Ewing PROT05.3 vs IND
Wide Bay (Qld) Andrew Fisher LAB05.4 vs PROT
Canobolas (NSW) Thomas Brown LAB05.6 vs PROT
Wimmera (Vic) Pharez Phillips PROT05.6 vs FT
Fairly safe
Southern Melbourne (Vic) James Ronald LAB06.1 vs PROT
Moira (Vic) Thomas Kennedy PROT06.2 vs FT
Darling (NSW) William Spence LAB06.7 vs FT
Brisbane (Qld) Thomas Macdonald-Paterson PROT07.6 vs LAB
Corinella (Vic) James McCay PROT08.5 vs FT
Corio (Vic) Richard Crouch PROT08.7 vs IND
Perth (WA) James Fowler LAB09.1 vs PROT
Safe
Melbourne (Vic) Malcolm McEacharn PROT10.8 vs LAB
Bland (NSW) Chris Watson LAB12.9 vs IND
Gwydir (NSW) George Cruickshank PROT12.9 vs LAB
Kennedy (Qld) Charles McDonald LAB12.9 vs FT
Eden-Monaro Austin Chapman PROT14.2 vs IND
Newcastle (NSW) David Watkins LAB14.7 vs FT
Indi (Vic) Isaac Isaacs PROT15.1 vs FT
Very safe
Corangamite (Vic) Chester Manifold PROT22.2 vs IND
Ballaarat (Vic) Alfred Deakin PROT24.5 vs IND
West Sydney (NSW) Billy Hughes LAB25.4 vs PROT
Darling Downs (Qld) William Henry Groom PROT28.5 vs IND
Barrier (NSW) Josiah Thomas LAB37.4 vs IND
Balaclava (Vic) George Turner PROTunopposed
Bendigo (Vic) John Quick PROTunopposed
Gippsland (Vic) Allan McLean PROTunopposed
Hunter (NSW) Edmund Barton PROTunopposed
Melbourne Ports (Vic) Samuel Mauger PROTunopposed
Swan (WA) John Forrest PROTunopposed
NON-COALITION SEATS
Free Trade Party
Marginal
South Sydney (NSW) George Edwards FT01.7 vs LAB
Werriwa (NSW) Alfred Conroy FT01.9 vs PROT
Flinders (Vic) Arthur Groom FT03.0 vs PROT
Robertson (NSW) Henry Willis FT03.0 vs PROT
Macquarie (NSW) Sydney Smith FT03.9 vs PROT
Fairly safe
Grampians (Vic) Thomas Skene FT06.1 vs PROT
Wannon (Vic) Samuel Cooke FT08.5 vs PROT
Safe
Illawarra (NSW) George Fuller FT10.3 vs PROT
North Sydney (NSW) Dugald Thomson FT10.4 vs IND
Dalley (NSW) William Wilks FT11.2 vs PROT
Parramatta (NSW) Joseph Cook FT11.3 vs PROT
Kooyong (Vic) William Knox FT12.0 vs PROT
Kalgoorlie (WA) John Kirwan FT14.1 vs IND
Wentworth (NSW) William McMillan FT18.4 vs PROT
Very safe
East Sydney (NSW) George Reid FT22.3 vs IND
Parkes (NSW) Bruce Smith FT25.2 vs PROT
Lang (NSW) Francis McLean FT28.3 vs PROT
Independents
Capricornia (Qld) Alexander Paterson IND FT01.0 vs LAB
Moreton (Qld) James Wilkinson IND03.5 vs PROT
Northern Melbourne (Vic) H. B. Higgins IND PROT19.0 vs PROT

See also

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The Barton Government was the first federal Executive Government of the Commonwealth of Australia. It was led by Prime Minister Sir Edmund Barton, from 1 January 1901 until 24 September 1903, when Barton resigned to become one of the three founding judges of the High Court of Australia.

The following tables show state-by-state results in the Australian Senate at the 1901 federal election. Senators total 17 Free Trade, 11 Protectionist, and eight Labour. The terms were deemed to start on 1 January 1901. In each state, the first three elected received full six-year terms, and the three senators elected with the lowest number of votes retire after three years.

The history of the Australian Labor Party has its origins in the Labour parties founded in the 1890s in the Australian colonies prior to federation. Labor tradition ascribes the founding of Queensland Labour to a meeting of striking pastoral workers under a ghost gum tree in Barcaldine, Queensland in 1891. The Balmain, New South Wales branch of the party claims to be the oldest in Australia. Labour as a parliamentary party dates from 1891 in New South Wales and South Australia, 1893 in Queensland, and later in the other colonies.

Watson Government

The Watson Government was the third federal executive government of the Commonwealth of Australia. It was led by Prime Minister Chris Watson of the Australian Labor Party from 27 April 1904 to 18 August 1904. The Watson Government was the first Labor Party national government in both Australia and in the world. Watson was aged just 37 when he became Prime Minister of Australia, and remains the youngest person to have held the post.

Reid Government

The Reid Government refers to the period of federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister George Reid. It lasted from 18 August 1904 - 5 July 1905. Reid was the one and only Prime Minister of Australia to belong to the Free Trade Party. Allan McLean of the Protectionist Party served as deputy.

References

  1. 1 2 McGinn, W.G. (1989). George Reid. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne. ISBN   0-522-84373-5.
  2. Rutledge, M. (1988) Smith, Arthur Bruce (1851 - 1937), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 11, Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
  3. 1 2 Jones, Benjamin; Bongiorno, Frank; Uhr, John (eds.). Elections Matter: Ten Federal Elections that Shaped Australia. Monash University Publishing. p. 7.
  4. "Conducting the first federal election". Parliament of Australia.
  5. Simms, M., ed. (2001). 1901: The forgotten election. University of Queensland Press, Brisbane. ISBN   0-7022-3302-1.
  6. Bastian, p. 82.
  7. "Immigration Restriction Act No. 17 of 1901 (Cth)". Federal Register of Legislation.
  8. "Immigration Restriction Act 1901 (Cth)". Documenting a Democracy. Museum of Australian Democracy . Retrieved 7 November 2016.

Sources

  • Bastian, P. (2009). Andrew Fisher: An underestimated man. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
  • State and federal election results in Australia since 1890
  • McMullin, R. (1991). The Light on the Hill; the Australian Labor Party 1891-1991. Oxford University Press, South Melbourne. ISBN   0-19-554966-X.
  • Reynolds, J. (1999). Edmund Barton. Bookman Press, Sydney. ISBN   1-86395-377-9.