All 75 seats in the House of Representatives
38 seats were needed for a majority in the House
18 (of the 36) seats in the Senate
The 1906 Australian federal election was held in Australia on 12 December 1906. All 75 seats in the House of Representatives, and 18 of the 36 seats in the Senate were up for election. The incumbent Protectionist Party minority government led by Prime Minister Alfred Deakin retained government, despite winning the fewest House of Representatives votes and seats of the three parties. Parliamentary support was provided by the Labour Party led by Chris Watson, while the Anti-Socialist Party (renamed from the Free Trade Party), led by George Reid, remained in opposition.
Watson resigned as Labour leader in October 1907 and was replaced by Andrew Fisher. The Protectionist minority government fell in November 1908 to Labour, a few days before Reid resigned as Anti-Socialist leader, who was replaced by Joseph Cook. The Labour minority government fell in June 1909 to the newly formed Commonwealth Liberal Party led by Deakin. The party was formed on a shared anti-Labour platform as a merger between Deakin, leader of the Protectionists, and Cook, leader of the Anti-Socialists, in order to counter Labour's growing popularity. The merger didn't sit well with several of the more progressive Protectionists, who defected to Labour or sat as independents.
The merger would allow the Deakin Commonwealth Liberals to construct a mid-term parliamentary majority, however less than a year later at the 1910 election, Labour won both majority government and a Senate majority, representing a number of firsts: it was Australia's first elected federal majority government, Australia's first elected Senate majority, the world's first Labour Party majority government at a national level, and after the 1904 Watson minority government the world's second Labour Party government at a national level.
|Party||Votes||%||Swing||Seats Won||Seats Held||Change|
It was the third federal election in Australia following the adoption of the federal government. The election was largely important as it would demonstrate which of the parties (if any) could hold together a stable government after the unstable second term of the previous one, which saw four different governments in power. It would also see if all parties could survive the implementation of protectionist policies which differentiated the two. This was also the first election where all seats for the House of Representatives were voted for via a First-past-the-post system (at previous elections some states voted as one electorate, using a bloc vote), and the first time that Tasmania was divided into separate electorates. The election result was the continuation of a Protectionist government led by Deakin and supported by Labour, which remained in power largely due to the unwillingness of the Anti-Socialist Party to support a vote of no confidence against it.
George Reid adopted a strategy of trying to reorient the party system along Labour vs non-Labour lines – before the election, he renamed his Free Trade Party to the Anti-Socialist Party. Reid envisaged a spectrum running from socialist to anti-socialist, with the Protectionist Party in the middle. This attempt struck a chord with politicians who were steeped in the Westminster tradition and regarded a two-party system as very much the norm.
Since the Protectionist primary platform of government tariffs had been dealt with by previous governments, the party had become somewhat redundant. Those who remained were largely supporting the Party's leader, Alfred Deakin, rather than its policies. Of the three, the Labour Party, led by Chris Watson, now had the most realistic chance of becoming the dominant party after their gains in the 1903 election and after their leading status in the four minor states they were looking to make the same type of gains in Victoria and New South Wales.
The first federal referendum in Australia's history was held in conjunction with the election. The proposed alteration to the Constitution, to change the start date of Senators' terms from 1 January to 1 July, passed in all states and was carried.
|Balaclava, Vic||Protectionist||George Turner||100.0||41.8||4.0||Agar Wynne||Ind. Protectionist|
|Barker, SA||Protectionist||Langdon Bonython||100.0||58.1||8.1||John Livingston||Anti-Socialist|
|Batman, Vic||new division||1.7||Jabez Coon||Protectionist|
|Bendigo, Vic||Protectionist||John Quick||1.1||51.7||1.7||John Quick||Ind. Protectionist|
|Brisbane, Qld||Labour||Millice Culpin||2.1||13.4||11.3||Justin Foxton||Anti-Socialist|
|Capricornia, Qld||Labour||David Thomson||9.6||15.2||5.6||Edward Archer||Anti-Socialist|
|Cowper, NSW||Anti-Socialist||Henry Lee||13.0||13.9||0.9||John Thomson||Protectionist|
|Denison, Tas||Protectionist||Philip Fysh||0.2||15.1||10.5||Philip Fysh||Anti-Socialist|
|Fawkner, Vic||new division||13.9||George Fairbairn||Ind. Protectionist|
|Franklin, Tas||Revenue Tariff||William McWilliams||4.6||100.0||100.0||William McWilliams||Anti-Socialist|
|Fremantle, WA||Labour||William Carpenter||11.3||12.2||0.9||William Hedges||Western Australian|
|Indi, Vic||Protectionist||Isaac Isaacs||100.0||44.4||2.7||Joseph Brown||Anti-Socialist|
|Macquarie, NSW||Anti-Socialist||Sydney Smith||4.0||51.3||1.3||Ernest Carr||Labour|
|Maribyrnong, Vic||new division||6.9||Samuel Mauger||Protectionist|
|Melbourne Ports, Vic||Protectionist||Samuel Mauger||6.8||9.4||2.6||James Mathews||Labour|
|Moreton, Qld||Ind / Labour||James Wilkinson||5.8||18.3||12.5||Hugh Sinclair||Anti-Socialist|
|New England, NSW||Anti-Socialist||Edmund Lonsdale||1.9||51.8||1.8||Frank Foster||Labour|
|Oxley, Qld||Protectionist||Richard Edwards||2.3||14.3||16.6||Richard Edwards||Anti-Socialist|
|South Sydney, NSW||Anti-Socialist||George Edwards||6.0||12.4||6.4||Chris Watson||Labour|
|Wannon, Vic||Anti-Socialist||Arthur Robinson||2.9||5.7||2.8||John McDougall||Labour|
|Werriwa, NSW||Anti-Socialist||Alfred Conroy||18.7||20.5||1.8||David Hall||Labour|
|Wimmera, Vic||Protectionist||Pharez Phillips||0.1||14.6||14.2||Sydney Sampson||Ind. Protectionist|
|Gippsland (Vic)||George Wise||PROT||00.3 vs AS|
|Calare (NSW)||Thomas Brown||LAB||00.7 vs AS|
|Cowper (NSW)||John Thomson||PROT||00.9 vs AS|
|Macquarie (NSW)||Ernest Carr||LAB||01.3 vs AS|
|Batman (Vic)||Jabez Coon||PROT||01.7 vs LAB|
|New England (NSW)||Frank Foster||LAB||01.8 vs AS|
|Werriwa (NSW)||David Hall||LAB||01.8 vs AS|
|Melbourne Ports (Vic)||James Mathews||LAB||02.6 vs PROT|
|Laanecoorie (Vic)||Carty Salmon||PROT||02.7 vs LAB|
|Perth (WA)||James Fowler||LAB||02.7 vs WAP|
|Wannon (Vic)||John McDougall||LAB||02.8 vs AS|
|Herbert (Qld)||Fred Bamford||LAB||02.9 vs AS|
|Cook (NSW)||James Catts||LAB||03.0 vs AS|
|Gwydir (NSW)||William Webster||LAB||03.3 vs AS|
|Riverina (NSW)||John Chanter||PROT||04.1 vs AS|
|Wide Bay (Qld)||Andrew Fisher||LAB||04.5 vs AS|
|Mernda (Vic)||Robert Harper||PROT||04.7 vs LAB|
|Corio (Vic)||Richard Crouch||PROT||05.0 vs AS|
|West Sydney (NSW)||Billy Hughes||LAB||05.5 vs AS|
|South Sydney (NSW)||Chris Watson||LAB||06.4 vs AS|
|Bourke (Vic)||James Hume Cook||PROT||06.7 vs LAB|
|Maribyrnong (Vic)||Samuel Mauger||PROT||06.9 vs LAB|
|Kennedy (Qld)||Charles McDonald||LAB||07.8 vs AS|
|Darling (NSW)||William Spence||LAB||07.9 vs AS|
|Darwin (Tas)||King O'Malley||LAB||09.5 vs AS|
|Yarra (Vic)||Frank Tudor||LAB||09.6 vs IND|
|Melbourne (Vic)||William Maloney||LAB||10.4 vs AS|
|Hume (NSW)||William Lyne||PROT||11.7 vs AS|
|Bass (Tas)||David Storrer||PROT||12.3 vs AS|
|Darling Downs (Qld)||Littleton Groom||PROT||15.1 vs LAB|
|Ballaarat (Vic)||Alfred Deakin||PROT||16.2 vs LAB|
|Newcastle (NSW)||David Watkins||LAB||17.2 vs PAS|
|Eden-Monaro (NSW)||Austin Chapman||PROT||17.8 vs AS|
|Maranoa (Qld)||Jim Page||LAB||18.8 vs AS|
|Coolgardie (WA)||Hugh Mahon||LAB||23.1 vs WAP|
|Barrier (NSW)||Josiah Thomas||LAB||24.5 vs AS|
|Richmond (NSW)||Thomas Ewing||PROT||26.4 vs AS|
|Kalgoorlie (WA)||Charlie Frazer||LAB||29.0 vs WAP|
|Adelaide (SA)||Charles Kingston||PROT||unopposed|
|Boothby (SA)||Lee Batchelor||LAB||unopposed|
|Grey (SA)||Alexander Poynton||LAB||unopposed|
|Hindmarsh (SA)||James Hutchison||LAB||unopposed|
|Echuca (Vic)||Albert Palmer||AS||00.0 vs PROT|
|Hunter (NSW)||Frank Liddell||AS||00.8 vs LAB|
|Flinders (Vic)||William Irvine||AS||01.5 vs PROT|
|Dalley (NSW)||William Wilks||AS||02.7 vs LAB|
|Indi (Vic)||Joseph Brown||AS||02.7 vs LAB|
|Wilmot (Tas)||Llewellyn Atkinson||AS||04.2 vs LAB|
|East Sydney (NSW)||George Reid||AS||04.9 vs LAB|
|Capricornia (Qld)||Edward Archer||AS||05.6 vs LAB|
|Grampians (Vic)||Hans Irvine||AS||05.8 vs LAB|
|Corangamite (Vic)||Gratton Wilson||AS||06.6 vs PROT|
|Robertson (NSW)||Henry Willis||AS||07.0 vs LAB|
|Barker (SA)||John Livingston||AS||08.1 vs LAB|
|Denison (Tas)||Philip Fysh||AS||10.5 vs LAB|
|Brisbane (Qld)||Justin Foxton||AS||11.3 vs LAB|
|Kooyong (Vic)||William Knox||AS||12.0 vs PROT|
|Moreton (Qld)||Hugh Sinclair||AS||12.5 vs LAB|
|Nepean (NSW)||Eric Bowden||AS||13.3 vs LAB|
|Angas (SA)||Paddy Glynn||AS||13.6 vs LAB|
|Illawarra (NSW)||George Fuller||AS||13.8 vs LAB|
|Oxley (Qld)||Richard Edwards||AS||13.8 vs LAB|
|Wakefield (SA)||Frederick Holder||AS||13.8 vs LAB|
|Lang (NSW)||Elliot Johnson||AS||20.4 vs LAB|
|Wentworth (NSW)||Willie Kelly||AS||23.2 vs LAB|
|Parkes (NSW)||Bruce Smith||AS||28.2 vs IND|
|Franklin (Tas)||William McWilliams||AS||unopposed|
|North Sydney (NSW)||Dugald Thomson||AS||unopposed|
|Parramatta (NSW)||Joseph Cook||AS||unopposed|
|Fremantle (WA)||William Hedges||WAP||00.9 vs LAB|
|Bendigo (Vic)||John Quick||IND PROT||01.7 vs LAB|
|Balaclava (Vic)||Agar Wynne||IND PROT||04.0 vs IND|
|Fawkner (Vic)||George Fairbairn||IND PROT||13.9 vs LAB|
|Wimmera (Vic)||Sydney Sampson||IND PROT||14.2 vs LAB|
|Swan (WA)||John Forrest||WAP||16.2 vs LAB|
The Australian Labor Party (ALP), also simply known as Labor and historically spelt Labour, is a major centre-left political party in Australia. The party has been in opposition at the federal level since the 2013 federal election. The party is a federal party with branches in each state and territory. Labor is in government in the states of Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, and in both the Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory. The party competes against the Liberal/National Coalition for political office at the federal, state and sometimes local levels. It is the oldest political party in Australia.
Andrew Fisher was an Australian politician who served three separate terms as Prime Minister of Australia – from 1908 to 1909, from 1910 to 1913, and from 1914 to 1915. He was the leader of the Australian Labor Party from 1907 to 1915.
John Christian Watson, commonly known as Chris Watson, was an Australian politician who served as the third Prime Minister of Australia. He was the first Prime Minister from the Australian Labour Party, and led the world's first Labour Party government, indeed the world's first socialist or social democratic government, at a national level. From paternal German and maternal British ancestry, he is the only Australian Prime Minister not born in a Commonwealth country.
Sir George Houston Reid was an Australian politician who led the Reid Government as the fourth Prime Minister of Australia from 1904 to 1905, having previously been Premier of New South Wales from 1894 to 1899. He led the Free Trade Party from 1891 to 1908.
The Free Trade Party which was officially known as the Australian Free Trade and Liberal Association, also referred to as the Revenue Tariff Party in some states, was an Australian political party, formally organised in 1887 in New South Wales, in time for the 1887 colony election, which the party won. It advocated the abolition of protectionism, especially protective tariffs and other restrictions on trade, arguing that this would create greater prosperity for all. However, many members also advocated use of minimal tariffs for government revenue purposes only. Its most prominent leader was George Reid, who led the Reid Government as the fourth Prime Minister of Australia (1904–05). In New South Wales it was succeeded by the Liberal and Reform Association in 1902, and federally by the Anti-Socialist Party in 1906. In 1909, the Anti-Socialist Party merged with the Protectionist Party to form the Commonwealth Liberal Party.
The Protectionist Party or Liberal Protectionist Party was an Australian political party, formally organised from 1887 until 1909, with policies centred on protectionism. The party advocated protective tariffs, arguing it would allow Australian industry to grow and provide employment. It had its greatest strength in Victoria and in the rural areas of New South Wales. Its most prominent leaders were Sir Edmund Barton and Alfred Deakin, who were the first and second prime ministers of Australia.
The Commonwealth Liberal Party was a political movement active in Australia from 1909 to 1917, shortly after Federation. The CLP came about as a result of a merger between the two non-Labor parties, the Protectionist Party and the Anti-Socialist Party which most of their MPs accepted. The CLP is the earliest direct ancestor of the current Liberal Party of Australia.
Sir Littleton Ernest Groom KCMG KC was an Australian politician. He held ministerial office under four prime ministers between 1905 and 1925, and subsequently served as Speaker of the House of Representatives from 1926 to 1929.
Allan McLean was an Australian politician who served as the 19th Premier of Victoria, in office from 1899 to 1900. He was later elected to federal parliament, where he served as a government minister under George Reid.
The 1901 Australian federal election for the inaugural Parliament of Australia was held in Australia on Friday 29 March and Saturday 30 March 1901. The elections followed Federation and the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901. All 75 seats in the Australian House of Representatives, six of which were uncontested, as well as all 36 seats in the Australian Senate, were up for election.
The 1903 Australian federal election was held in Australia on 16 December 1903. All 75 seats in the House of Representatives, and 19 of the 36 seats in the Senate were up for election. The incumbent Protectionist Party minority government led by Prime Minister Alfred Deakin retained the most House of Representatives seats of the three parties and retained government with the parliamentary support of the Labour Party led by Chris Watson. The Free Trade Party led by George Reid remained in opposition.
The 1910 Australian federal election was held in Australia on 13 April 1910. All 75 seats in the House of Representatives, and 18 of the 36 seats in the Senate were up for election. The incumbent Commonwealth Liberal Party led by Prime Minister Alfred Deakin was defeated by the opposition Labour Party, led by Andrew Fisher.
Albert Clayton Palmer was an Australian politician. He was a member of the Australian House of Representatives from 1906 to 1907 and from 1907 until his death, representing the electorate of Echuca for the Anti-Socialist Party and its successors the Commonwealth Liberal Party and Nationalist Party.
This article provides information on candidates who stood for the 1906 Australian federal election. The election was held on 12 December 1906.
This article provides information on candidates who stood for the 1910 Australian federal election. The election was held on 13 April 1910.
This is a list of members of the Australian Senate from 1907 to 1910. Half of its members were elected at the 16 December 1903 election and had terms starting on 1 January 1904 and finishing on 30 June 1910; the other half were elected at the 12 December 1906 election and had terms starting on 1 January 1907 and finishing on 30 June 1913. They had an extended term as a result of the 1906 referendum, which changed Senate terms to finish on 30 June, rather than 31 December.
The history of the Australian Labor Party has its origins in the Labour parties founded in the 1890s in the Australian colonies prior to federation. Labor tradition ascribes the founding of Queensland Labour to a meeting of striking pastoral workers under a ghost gum tree in Barcaldine, Queensland in 1891. The Balmain, New South Wales branch of the party claims to be the oldest in Australia. Labour as a parliamentary party dates from 1891 in New South Wales and South Australia, 1893 in Queensland, and later in the other colonies.
The Watson Government was the third federal executive government of the Commonwealth of Australia. It was led by Prime Minister Chris Watson of the Australian Labor Party from 27 April 1904 to 18 August 1904. The Watson Government was the first Labor Party national government in both Australia and in the world. Watson was aged just 37 when he became Prime Minister of Australia, and remains the youngest person to have held the post.
Blundell v Vardon, was the first of three decisions of the High Court of Australia concerning the 1906 Election for Senators for South Australia. Sitting as the Court of Disputed Returns, Barton J held that the election of Anti-Socialist Party candidate Joseph Vardon as the third senator for South Australia was void due to irregularities in the way the returning officers marked some votes. The Parliament of South Australia appointed James O'Loghlin. Vardon sought to have the High Court compel the Governor of South Australia to hold a supplementary election, however the High Court held in R v Governor of South Australia; Ex parte Vardon that it had no power to do so. Vardon then petitioned the Senate seeking to remove O'Loghlin and rather than decide the issue, the Senate referred the matter to the High Court. The High Court held in Vardon v O'Loghlin that O'Loghlin had been invalidly appointed and ordered a supplementary election. Vardon and O'Loghlin both contested the supplementary election, with Vardon winning with 54% of the vote.
The Reid Government refers to the period of federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister George Reid. It lasted from 18 August 1904 - 5 July 1905. Reid was the one and only Prime Minister of Australia to belong to the Free Trade Party. Allan McLean of the Protectionist Party served as deputy.