All 75 seats of the House of Representatives
38 seats were needed for a majority in the House
18 (of the 36) seats of the Senate
Popular vote by state with graphs indicating the number of seats won. As this is an IRV election, seat totals are not determined by popular vote by state but instead via results in each electorate.
The 1931 Australian federal election was held in Australia on 19 December 1931. All 75 seats in the House of Representatives and 18 of the 36 seats in the Senate were up for election.
The incumbent first-term Australian Labor Party (ALP) government led by Prime Minister James Scullin was defeated in a landslide by the United Australia Party (UAP) led by Joseph Lyons. To date, this is the last time that a sitting government at federal level has been defeated after a single term.
The election was held at a time of great social and political upheaval, coming at the peak of the Great Depression in Australia. The UAP had only been formed a few months before the election, when Lyons and a few ALP dissidents joined forces with the Nationalist Party and the Australian Party. Although it was dominated by former Nationalists, Lyons became the merged party's leader, with Nationalist leader John Latham as his deputy.
Scullin's position eroded further when five left-wing Labor MPs from New South Wales who supported NSW Premier Jack Lang broke away and moved to the crossbenches in protest of Scullin's economic policy, reducing Scullin to a minority government. Late in 1931, they supported a UAP no-confidence motion and brought down the government. The two Labor factions were decimated; massive vote-splitting left them with only 18 seats between them (14 for the official ALP and four for the Langites).
Prior to the election, it was assumed that the Country Party, led by Earle Page, would hold the balance of power, and Page tentatively agreed to support the UAP if that were the case. The two parties campaigned separately and stood candidates against each other in the House of Representatives, but ran joint tickets in Senate. However, the UAP came up four seats short of a majority. The five MPs from the Emergency Committee of South Australia, which contested the election in that state in place of the UAP and Country Party, joined the UAP party room, giving the UAP enough numbers to form a majority government by two seats. Page was still willing to form a coalition with the Country Party, but negotiations broke down and Lyons decided the UAP would govern by itself. As a result, the First Lyons Ministry was composed solely of UAP members.
Labor would spend the next 10 years in opposition; it would not return to power until 1941.
|United Australia Party||1,145,083||36.10||+2.20||34||+20||(1 elected|
|Australian Labor Party||859,513||27.10||−21.74||14||−32|
|Country Party||388,544||12.25||+1.98||16||+6||(3 elected|
|Australian Labor Party (NSW)||335,309||10.57||*||4||+4|
|Emergency Committee (SA)||174,288||5.49||*||6||+6|
|United Australia Party||WIN||58.50||+15.20||39||+15|
|Australian Labor Party||41.50||−15.20||14||−32|
|Party||Votes||%||Swing||Seats Won||Seats Held||Change|
|UAP/Country (Joint Ticket)||945,741||30.16||*||6|
|Australian Labor Party||917,218||29.25||−19.70||3||10||+3|
|United Australia Party||791,870||25.26||−14.02||9||21||−3|
|Australian Labor Party (NSW)||379,870||12.12||*||0||0||0|
|Communist Party of Australia||29,443||0.94||*||0||0||0|
|Adelaide, SA||Labor||George Edwin Yates||11.4||21.0||9.6||Fred Stacey||Emergency Committee|
|Angas, SA||Labor||Moses Gabb||4.7||31.5||26.8||Moses Gabb||Ind. Emergency Committee|
|Ballaarat, Vic||Labor||Charles McGrath||7.4||20.7||13.3||Charles McGrath||United Australia|
|Barton, NSW||Labor||James Tully||17.6||20.8||3.2||Albert Lane||United Australia|
|Bass, Tas||Labor||Allan Guy||10.4||24.9||14.5||Allan Guy||United Australia|
|Batman, Vic||Labor||Frank Brennan||25.8||26.6||0.8||Samuel Dennis||United Australia|
|Bendigo, Vic||Labor||Richard Keane||5.1||14.6||9.5||Eric Harrison||United Australia|
|Boothby, SA||Labor||John Price||5.6||29.6||24.0||John Price||Emergency Committee|
|Brisbane, Qld||United Australia||Donald Charles Cameron||2.4||3.1||0.7||George Lawson||Labor|
|Calare, NSW||Labor||George Gibbons||1.6||11.7||10.1||Harold Thorby||Country|
|Corangamite, Vic||Labor||Richard Crouch||2.1||15.0||12.9||William Gibson||Country|
|Corio, Vic||Labor||Arthur Lewis||6.0||16.6||10.6||Richard Casey||United Australia|
|Dalley, NSW||Labor||Ted Theodore||N/A||8.9||14.0||Sol Rosevear||Labor (NSW)|
|Darling Downs, Qld||United Australia||Arthur Morgan||N/A||17.7||9.8||Littleton Groom||Independent|
|Denison, Tas||Labor||Charles Culley||9.2||14.2||5.0||Arthur Hutchin||United Australia|
|East Sydney, NSW||Labor (NSW)||Eddie Ward||5.7||11.7||1.7||John Clasby||United Australia|
|Eden-Monaro, NSW||Labor||John Cusack||0.1||13.7||13.6||John Perkins||United Australia|
|Fawkner, Vic||Independent Nationalist||George Maxwell||N/A||21.7||20.3||George Maxwell||United Australia|
|Flinders, Vic||Labor||Jack Holloway||0.2||18.5||18.3||Stanley Bruce||United Australia|
|Franklin, Tas||Labor||Charles Frost||1.9||13.0||17.9||Archibald Blacklow||United Australia|
|Fremantle, WA||Labor||John Curtin||7.0||13.5||5.5||William Watson||United Australia|
|Grey, SA||Labor||Andrew Lacey||9.6||17.1||7.5||Philip McBride||Emergency Committee|
|Gwydir, NSW||Labor||Lou Cunningham||3.7||13.5||9.8||Aubrey Abbott||Country|
|Hume, NSW||Labor||Parker Moloney||6.6||14.1||7.5||Thomas Collins||Country|
|Hunter, NSW||Labor||Rowley James||100.0||57.2||7.2||Rowley James||Labor (NSW)|
|Indi, Vic||Labor||Paul Jones||1.4||14.4||13.0||William Hutchinson||United Australia|
|Lang, NSW||Labor||William Long||16.2||20.4||4.2||Dick Dein||United Australia|
|Macquarie, NSW||Labor||Ben Chifley||15.6||16.2||0.6||John Lawson||United Australia|
|Maribyrnong, Vic||Labor||James Fenton||23.2||23.6||0.4||James Fenton||United Australia|
|Martin, NSW||Labor||John Eldridge||6.4||22.7||16.3||William Holman||United Australia|
|North Sydney, NSW||Independent Nationalist||Billy Hughes||16.1||23.6||7.5||Billy Hughes||United Australia|
|Oxley, Qld||United Australia||James Bayley||0.1||5.9||5.8||Francis Baker||Labor|
|Parramatta, NSW||Labor||Albert Rowe||3.3||19.5||16.2||Frederick Stewart||United Australia|
|Reid, NSW||Labor||Percy Coleman||N/A||55.3||5.3||Joe Gander||Labor (NSW)|
|South Sydney, NSW||Labor||Edward Riley||16.3||21.4||5.1||John Jennings||United Australia|
|Wannon, Vic||Labor||John McNeill||2.0||14.3||12.3||Thomas Scholfield||United Australia|
|Wentworth, NSW||Independent Nationalist||Walter Marks||8.3||58.3||15.8||Eric Harrison||United Australia|
|Werriwa, NSW||Labor||Bert Lazzarini||15.4||17.1||1.7||Walter McNicoll||Country|
|West Sydney, NSW||Labor||Jack Beasley||36.5||11.4||15.1||Jack Beasley||Labor (NSW)|
|Wimmera, Vic||Country Progressive||Percy Stewart||N/A||21.8||11.8||Hugh McClelland||Country|
|Wilmot, Tas||Labor||Joseph Lyons||2.9||25.0||22.1||Joseph Lyons||United Australia|
The election was dominated by the Great Depression in Australia, which was at its height. As the Labor Government had come to office two days before the Wall Street Crash of 1929, it was seen as being responsible for many of the economic and social problems Australia faced, which sparked the historic Australian Labor Party split of 1931 in which Lyons and four other Labor dissidents crossed the floor to the opposition, and ultimately merged into the UAP. Although the UAP was basically an upper- and middle-class conservative party, the presence of ex-Labor MPs allowed the party to project an image of national unity.
By the time the writs were issued, official Labor and Lang Labor were in open warfare, making a UAP victory all but certain. Due to massive vote splitting brought on by a large number of three-cornered contests, Labor tallied its lowest primary vote since Federation. The two Labor factions, official Labor and Lang Labor, won only 18 seats between them. The two Labor factions would not reunite until 1936.
The United Australia Party (UAP) was an Australian political party that was founded in 1931 and dissolved in 1945. The party won four federal elections in that time, usually governing in coalition with the Country Party. It provided two Prime Ministers of Australia – Joseph Lyons (1932–1939) and Robert Menzies (1939–1941).
Joseph Aloysius Lyons was an Australian politician who served as the 10th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1932 until his death in 1939. He began his career in the Labor Party, but became the founding leader of the United Australia Party (UAP) after the 1931 party split. He had earlier served as Premier of Tasmania from 1923 to 1928.
James Henry Scullin was an Australian Labor Party politician and the ninth Prime Minister of Australia. Scullin led Labor to government at the 1929 election. The Wall Street Crash of 1929 transpired just two days after his swearing in, which would herald the beginning of the Great Depression in Australia. Scullin's administration would soon be overwhelmed by the economic crisis, with interpersonal and policy disagreements causing a three-way split of his party that would bring down the government in late 1931. Despite his chaotic term of office, Scullin remained a leading figure in the Labor movement throughout his lifetime, and served as an éminence grise in various capacities for the party until his retirement in 1949.
The Liberal–National Coalition, commonly known simply as The Coalition, is an alliance of centre-right political parties that forms one of the two major groupings in Australian federal politics. Its main opponent is the Australian Labor Party (ALP); the two forces are often regarded as operating in a two-party system. The Coalition has been in government since the 2013 federal election, most recently being re-elected in the 2019 Australian federal election. The group is led by Scott Morrison as Prime Minister of Australia since August 2018.
Edward John Ward was an Australian politician who represented the Australian Labor Party (ALP) in federal parliament for over 30 years. He was the member for East Sydney for all but six-and-a-half weeks from 1931 until his death in 1963. He served as a minister in the Curtin and Chifley Governments from 1941 to 1949, and was also known for his role in the ALP split of 1931.
The Division of Angas was an Australian Electoral Division in South Australia. The division was created in 1903 and abolished in 1934. It was named for George Fife Angas, a South Australian pioneer, and was based in various rural areas to the east, south-east, north-east and north-west of Adelaide at different times including Angaston, Cadell, Eudunda, Gawler, Kapunda, Nuriootpa, Mallala, Murray Bridge, Tanunda and Walker Flat and from 1922 stretched further eastward as far as the South Australian border. It was a generally marginal seat which was won at various times by the Australian Labor Party and the Nationalist Party.
The Australian Party was a political party founded and led by Billy Hughes after his expulsion from the Nationalist Party. The party was formed in 1929, and at its peak had four members of federal parliament. It was merged into the new United Australia Party in 1931, having never contested a federal election.
Lang Labor was a faction of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) consisting of the supporters of Jack Lang, who served two terms as Premier of New South Wales and was the party's state leader from 1923 to 1939.
James Edward Fenton was an Australian politician. He is notable for having been appointed a cabinet minister by two governments of different political complexions, but resigning from both governments on matters of principle. His first resignation looms largely in history as that came with his political defection, whereas there was no defection with his second resignation.
The 1934 Australian federal election was held in Australia on 15 September 1934. All 74 seats in the House of Representatives, and 18 of the 36 seats in the Senate were up for election. The incumbent United Australia Party led by Prime Minister of Australia Joseph Lyons formed a minority government, with 33 out of 74 seats in the House.
The Emergency Committee of South Australia was the major anti-Labor grouping in South Australia at the 1931 federal election.
Joel Moses Gabb was an Australian politician. He was a member of the Australian House of Representatives from 1919 to 1934, representing the electorate of Angas. He represented the Australian Labor Party until resigning during the 1931 Labor split; however, he did not join the United Australia Party along with the other dissident MPs, and instead remained in parliament as an independent.
This is a list of the members of the Australian House of Representatives in the 14th Australian Parliament, which was elected at the 1934 election on 15 September 1934. The incumbent United Australia Party led by Prime Minister of Australia Joseph Lyons with coalition partner the Country Party led by Earle Page defeated the opposition Australian Labor Party led by James Scullin. Labor's share of the primary vote fell to an even lower number than in the 1931 election due to the Lang Labor split, but it was able to pick up an extra four seats on preferences and therefore improve on its position.
This article provides information on candidates who stood for the 1931 Australian federal election. The election was held on 19 December 1931.
This is a list of members of the Australian Senate from 1929 to 1932. Half of its members were elected at the 14 November 1925 election and had terms starting on 1 July 1926 and finishing on 30 June 1932; the other half were elected at the 17 November 1928 election and had terms starting on 1 July 1929 and finishing on 30 June 1935. The process for filling casual vacancies was complex. While senators were elected for a six-year term, people appointed to a casual vacancy only held office until the earlier of the next election for the House of Representatives or the Senate.
State elections were held in South Australia on 8 April 1933. All 46 seats in the South Australian House of Assembly were up for election. The incumbent Parliamentary Labor Party government led by Premier Robert Richards was defeated by the opposition Liberal and Country League led by Leader of the Opposition Richard L. Butler. Each district elected multiple members.
The Australian Labor Party , also known as NSW Labor and Country Labor in regional areas, is the New South Wales branch of the Australian Labor Party. The parliamentary leader is elected from and by the members of the party caucus, comprising all party members in the Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council. The party factions have a strong influence on the election of the leader. The leader's position is dependent on the continuing support of the caucus and the leader may be deposed by failing to win a vote of confidence of parliamentary members. By convention, the premier sits in the Legislative Assembly, and is the leader of the party controlling a majority in that house. The party leader also typically is a member of the Assembly, though this is not a strict party constitutional requirement. Barrie Unsworth, for example, was elected party leader while a member of the Legislative Council. He then transferred to the Assembly by winning a seat at a by-election.
The Lyons Government was the federal Executive Government of Australia led by Prime Minister Joseph Lyons. It was made up of members of the United Australia Party in the Australian Parliament from January 1932 until the death of Joseph Lyons in 1939. Lyons negotiated a coalition with the Country Party after the 1934 Australian Federal election. The Lyons government stewarded Australia's recovery from the Great Depression, and established the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
The Australian Labor Party split of 1931 was caused by severe divisions within the Australian Labor Party over their economic response to the Great Depression in Australia. Amidst intense disagreement between economically conservative and radical elements of the party, two senior ministers in the Scullin Labor government, Joseph Lyons and James Fenton, resigned from Cabinet in January 1931. Lyons, Fenton and their supporters would subsequently merge with the conservative opposition Nationalist Party of Australia to form the new United Australia Party, led by Lyons with the last Nationalist leader, John Latham, as his deputy.
The Federal Labor Party were the members of the Australian Labor Party in the state of New South Wales who supported the federal party leadership in the split with the state Labor party which broke away in 1931. Federal Labor retained some seats in the Parliament of Australia but was a minor party in state elections. The dispute was healed in 1936.