All 151 seats in the House of Representatives
76 seats are needed for a majority
40 (of the 76) seats in the Senate
The next Australian federal election will be held in or before 2022 to elect members of the 47th Parliament of Australia.
All 151 seats in the lower house, the House of Representatives, and 40 or 76 (depending on whether a double dissolution is called) of the 76 seats in the upper house, the Senate, will be up for election.
The incumbent Liberal/National coalition government, currently led by Prime Minister Scott Morrison, will be seeking a fourth three-year term. The Labor opposition is currently led by Anthony Albanese. Several other parties will also contest the election; the Greens being the third-largest party by vote.
The Australian Electoral Commission is required, one year after the first sitting day for a new House of Representatives, to determine the number of members to which each State and Territory is entitled. If the number in any state changes, a redistribution will be required in those states. A redistribution will be postponed if it would begin within one year of the expiration of the House of Representatives.
Demographic statistics for December 2019 released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics on 18 June 2020 were used to calculate the determination. The population counts confirmed that the number of seats in the House of Representatives was to return to 150, with Victoria gaining a seat (39) and Western Australia (15) and the Northern Territory (1) losing a seat each.
|June 2020 determination (set aside)|
|New South Wales||47|
|Australian Capital Territory||3|
The abolition of the Northern Territory's second seat in the determination was controversial.Labor Party Senators Malarndirri McCarthy and Don Farrell put forward a private senator's bill which would guarantee the Northern Territory a minimum two seats in the House of Representatives, with the bill referred to the Joint Standing Committee on Electoral Matters. In July 2020, election analyst Antony Green proposed to the Joint Standing Committee on Electoral Matters that the "harmonic mean method" be used to calculate the electoral representation entitlements for the territories. Green also blogged on the history of representation and its applications to states and territories in light of the 2020 redistribution and his advocacy proved persuasive. In October 2020, deputy prime minister Michael McCormack gave an assurance that the government and opposition would combine to overrule the AEC and maintain the Northern Territory's level of representation. The mechanism by which this would be used to achieved was unclear, however, with Senator Mathias Cormann stating that a two seat minimum for the territories would be legislated. Mandating a minimum number of seats for the Northern Territory but not the Australian Capital Territory was seen as potentially inequitable, though the ACT's level of representation was not under threat. A 2003 report had also recommended against adopting mandatory minimum entitlements to seats in the House of Representatives for either of the territories.
Ultimately, the Joint Standing Committee recommended "enacting a harmonic mean for allocating seats between States and Territories, with appropriate public explanation to build understanding for the reform."The Parliament passed the Electoral Amendment (Territory Representation) Act on 9 December 2020, amending the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 to utilise the harmonic mean method for determining representative entitlements for territories relative to states. Consequently, the Northern Territory will retain two seats in the House of Representatives at the next election, an outcome achieved without legislating any mandatory minimum level of representation.
|December 2020 determination|
|New South Wales||47|
|Australian Capital Territory||3|
In March 2021, the AEC published its proposal for this redistribution, involving the abolition of the Division of Stirling in Western Australia,the creation of the new Division of Hawke in Victoria (named for former Prime Minister Bob Hawke), and the renaming of the existing Division of Corangamite to the Division of Tucker (in honour of Margaret Tucker, "a Yorta Yorta woman, for her significant work to create a more equal and understanding society for Aboriginal people"). When the AEC published its final determinations in June 2021, the abolition of Stirling and creation of Hawke were confirmed, but Corangamite would not be renamed to Tucker.
Enrolment of eligible voters is compulsory. Voters must notify the AEC within 8 weeks of a change of address or after turning 18. The electoral rolls are closed for new enrolments or update of details about a week after the issue of writs for election.
Enrolment is optional for 16- or 17-year-olds, but they cannot vote until they turn 18,and persons who have applied for Australian citizenship may also apply for provisional enrolment which takes effect on the granting of citizenship.
|Election type||Latest Saturday|
|Representatives only||3 September 2022|
|Half-senate only||21 May 2022|
|Representatives + half-senate||21 May 2022|
|5 March 2022|
Though federal elections must be conducted on a Saturday,the date and type of federal election is determined by the Prime Minister – after a consideration of constitutional requirements, legal requirements, as well as political considerations – who advises the Governor-General to set the process in motion by dissolving the lower or both houses and issuing writs for election. The Constitution of Australia does not require simultaneous elections for the Senate and the House of Representatives, though simultaneous elections are held if an election for the House is called and a Senate half-election is due. When Prime Minister Robert Menzies called the November 1963 election, only the seats in the House of Representatives were vacated as it was too early to hold a half-senate election. Separate House of Representatives and Senate elections were then held until the electoral timetables were brought together again at the May 1974 election. According to the Parliament of Australia's website, the "conventional wisdom now is that separate Senate elections result in poor Senate results for governments and should be avoided if governments wish not to have unfriendly Senates." The most recent House-only election took place in 1972, and the most recent Senate-only election took place in 1970. Simultaneous elections are required in the case of a double dissolution election that is called under section 57 of the Australian Constitution when the Senate twice refuses to pass legislation sent to it by the House of Representatives. This happened most recently in 2016 when then-Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull utilised three double dissolution triggers to call an election for the full Senate as well as for the House of Representatives. However, the existence of a double dissolution trigger does not mandate that the Prime Minister must advise that an election be called.
An election for the House of Representatives can be called at any time before the expiration of the three-year term of the House of Representativesor up to ten days thereafter. The term of the House of Representatives started on the first sitting day of the House following its election, which in the case of the 46th Parliament was 2 July 2019. This meant that the term of the House of Representatives will expire on 1 July 2022 and a House of Representatives election must be called by 11 July 2022. The Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 (CEA) sets certain requirements. Up to 27 days must be allowed for nominations, and the actual election can be set for a maximum of 31 days after close of nominations. This will result in the latest election date for the House of Representatives to be before 7 September 2022, with the latest Saturday being 3 September 2022.
The election of senators must take place within one year before the terms expire for half-Senate elections,so that the writs for a half-Senate election cannot be issued earlier than 1 July 2021. Since campaigns are for a minimum of 33 days, the earliest possible date for a simultaneous House/half-Senate election is Saturday, 7 August 2021. The latest that a half-Senate election could be held must allow time for the votes to be counted and the writs to be returned before the newly elected senators take office on 1 July 2022. This took 41 days in 2019, and were returned on the last possible date available given the impending commencement of the new senators. Using this approximate time frame, the last possible date for a half-Senate election to take place is Saturday 21 May 2022.
A double dissolution (a deadlock-breaking provision to dissolve both houses of parliament) cannot take place within six months before the date of the expiry of the House of Representatives.That means that any double dissolution of the 46th Parliament will have to be granted by 1 January 2022. Allowing for the same stages indicated above, the last possible date for a double dissolution election would be 5 March 2022. This can only occur if a bill that passes the House of Representatives is rejected by the Senate twice, at least three months apart.
The constitutional and legal provisions which impact on the choice of election dates include:
Other events such as elections and holidays may also be taken into account and influence on when the election will be called:
Candidates for either house must be formally nominated with the Electoral Commission. The nomination for a party-endorsed candidate must be signed by the Registered Officer of a party registered under the Electoral Act. Fifty signatures of eligible voters are required for an independent candidate. A candidate can nominate for only one electorate, and must pass a number of qualifications.
A deposit of $2,000 will be required for a candidate for the House of Representatives or the Senate, which is refunded if the candidate is elected or gains at least 4% of the first preference vote.Between 10 and 27 days must be allowed after the issue of writs before the close of nominations.
|2019 result||Current seats|
|Coalition||Liberal Party||Liberal conservatism||Scott Morrison||41.44%|
77 / 151
76 / 151
|National Party||Agrarianism||Barnaby Joyce|
|Australian Labor Party (ALP)||Social democracy||Anthony Albanese||33.34%|
68 / 151
68 / 151
|Australian Greens||Green politics||Adam Bandt||10.40%|
1 / 151
1 / 151
|Katter's Australian Party (KAP)||Conservatism||Bob Katter||0.49%|
1 / 151
1 / 151
|Centre Alliance||Centrism||No leader||0.33%|
1 / 151
1 / 151
|United Australia Party||Right-wing populism||Craig Kelly||3.43%|
0 / 151
1 / 151
3 / 151
3 / 151
Members of Parliament and Senators who have announced they will not renominate for the upcoming election are as follows:
These members have lost preselection to re-contest their seats for their parties, but have made no public statement of their intentions in relation to the next election:
This Mackerras pendulum includes new notional margin estimates in Victoria and Western Australia due to boundary redistributions.
|Wentworth||NSW||Dave Sharma||LIB vs. IND||1.3|
|La Trobe||Vic||Jason Wood||LIB||5.5|
|Kooyong||Vic||Josh Frydenberg||LIB vs. GRN||5.6|
|Cowper||NSW||Pat Conaghan||NAT vs. IND||6.8|
|Forde||Qld||Bert Van Manen||LNP||8.6|
|North Sydney||NSW||Trent Zimmerman||LIB||9.3|
|Farrer||NSW||Sussan Ley||LIB vs. IND||10.9|
|Wide Bay||Qld||Llew O'Brien||LNP||13.1|
|New England||NSW||Barnaby Joyce||NAT vs. IND||14.4|
|Groom||Qld||Garth Hamilton||LNP (b/e)||17.2|
|Maranoa||Qld||David Littleproud||LNP vs PHON||22.5|
|Eden-Monaro||NSW||Kristy McBain||ALP (b/e)||0.4|
|Hunter||NSW||Joel Fitzgibbon||ALP vs NAT||3.0|
|Richmond||NSW||Justine Elliot||ALP vs NAT||4.1|
|Wills||Vic||Peter Khalil||ALP vs. GRN||8.2|
|Kingsford Smith||NSW||Matt Thistlethwaite||ALP||8.8|
|Cooper||Vic||Ged Kearney||ALP vs. GRN||14.6|
|Grayndler||NSW||Anthony Albanese||ALP vs. GRN||16.3|
|CROSS BENCH SEATS|
|Indi||Vic||Helen Haines||IND vs. LIB||1.4|
|Mayo||SA||Rebekha Sharkie||CA vs. LIB||5.1|
|Warringah||NSW||Zali Steggall||IND vs. LIB||7.2|
|Kennedy||Qld||Bob Katter||KAP vs. LNP||13.3|
|Melbourne||Vic||Adam Bandt||GRN vs. LIB||21.8|
|Clark||Tas||Andrew Wilkie||IND vs. ALP||22.1|
The House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the upper house being the Senate. Its composition and powers are established in Chapter I of the Constitution of Australia.
The Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Chapter I of the Constitution of Australia. There are a total of 76 senators: 12 are elected from each of the six Australian states regardless of population and 2 from each of the two autonomous internal Australian territories. Senators are popularly elected under the single transferable vote system of proportional representation.
The Parliament of Australia is the legislative branch of the government of Australia. It consists of three elements: the Crown, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The combination of two elected chambers, in which the members of the Senate represent the states and territories while the members of the House represent electoral divisions according to population, is modelled on the United States Congress. Through both chambers, however, there is a fused executive, drawn from the Westminster system.
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