All 75 seats in the House of Representatives
38 seats were needed for a majority in the House
19 (of the 36) seats in the Senate
The 1903 Australian federal election was held in Australia on 16 December 1903. All 75 seats in the House of Representatives, and 19 of the 36 seats in the Senate were up for election. The incumbent Protectionist Party minority government led by Prime Minister Alfred Deakin retained the most House of Representatives seats of the three parties and retained government with the parliamentary support of the Labour Party led by Chris Watson. The Free Trade Party led by George Reid remained in opposition.
The election outcome saw a finely balanced House of Representatives, with the three parties each holding around a third of seats − the Protectionists on 26 (−5), the Free Traders on 24 (−4) and Labour on 22 (+7). This term of parliament saw no changes in any party leadership but did see very significant and prolonged debates on contentious issues − the Protectionist minority government fell in April 1904 to Labour, while the Labour minority government fell in August 1904 to the Free Traders, while the Free Trader minority government fell in July 1905 back to the Protectionists, which continued until the 1906 election and beyond. The Free Traders remained in opposition throughout this eventful period with the exception of Labour forming the opposition for the first time during the period of the Free Trader minority government. Additionally, the Watson government was the world's first Labour Party government at a national level.
Despite a break in prime ministerships in 1904-05 and 1908–09, this is the first of three consecutive elections in which Deakin was the sitting prime minister.
The wreck of SS Petriana outside Port Phillip Bay in late November prompted the government's handling of the White Australia policy to become a campaign issue. Shipwrecked Asian sailors were denied entry to Australia and forced to stay on a crowded tugboat for several days, leading The Argus , Daily Telegraph and The Sydney Morning Herald to accuse the government of cruelty and harming Australia's international reputation. The Age and The Bulletin sided with the government. The issue was "constantly raised" at election meetings, particularly in Victoria and Tasmania.
|Free Trade Party||24||−4|
|Party||Votes||%||Swing||Seats won||Seats held||Change|
The election saw the Labour party make significant gains outside New South Wales and Victoria. As a result of Labour's gains, the numbers of the three parties in Parliament were very close to equal, leading to unstable governments. Alfred Deakin would describe it as a parliament of "three elevens" (three cricket teams). Although the Protectionists were able to retain their minority government with the qualified support of the Labour Party, the equal numbers would see a record three changes of government over the course of the Parliamentary term, with each of the three parties holding office at least once during the term of the Parliament.
The three parties that contested the 1901 election also contested the 1903 election, with only the Protectionists changing leaders to Alfred Deakin as a result of Edmund Barton's appointment as an inaugural judge of the newly constituted High Court of Australia. The Free Trade Party was again led by George Reid. The only significant difference in policy between these parties was on trade issues.[ dubious ] The Protectionists sought to protect Australian industry and agriculture by placing tariffs on imports. The Free Traders downgraded the view they had last election of having no tariffs to campaigning on minimal tariffs. The other major party contesting the election was the Labour Party.
This election also saw a minor party, the Tasmanian Revenue Tariff Party gain an MHR and one Senator. Prior to the 1901 election, the Free Trade Party had been known as the Revenue Tariff Party in some states. However, in 1903 a separate Revenue Tariff Party competed against the FTP in Tasmania. Nevertheless, both of the Revenue Tariff Party members elected joined the Free Trade Party, when the new parliament began sitting.
Like the 1901 election, voting was voluntary and candidates were elected by the first-past-the-post system. The Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902 gave women the vote and the right to stand for federal Parliament, leading to a significant increase in the number of votes cast in the 1903 federal election. Four women stood at the 1903 election – Selina Anderson (Dalley) in the House of Representatives and Vida Goldstein (Victoria), Nellie Martel (New South Wales), and Mary Moore-Bentley (New South Wales) in the Senate.All four stood as independents and all were unsuccessful.
Candidates were contesting all 75 House of Representatives and 19 of the 36 Senate seats, a number unchanged from the 1901 election. The House of Representative seats were determined by the population of each state, giving 26 seats to New South Wales, 23 to Victoria, nine to Queensland, seven to South Australia and five to both Western Australia and Tasmania. In 1901, the South Australian and Tasmanian colonial parliaments had not legislated for single member electorates, so their House of Representative members were elected from a single statewide electorate. This had since changed and there were now single member electorates in both states. The newly created seats were Adelaide, Angas, Barker, Boothby, Grey, Hindmarsh and Wakefield (South Australia) and Bass, Darwin, Denison, Franklin and Wilmot (Tasmania).
Each state elected six Senators regardless of population. The Senate was elected by bloc voting rather than the current single transferable vote system. Half the Senators retired as their terms expired, and there was one casual vacancy.
|Adelaide, SA||new division||100.0||Charles Kingston||Protectionist|
|Angas, SA||new division||100.0||Paddy Glynn||Free Trade|
|Barker, SA||new division||100.0||Langdon Bonython||Protectionist|
|Bass, Tas||new division||6.7||David Storrer||Protectionist|
|Boothby, SA||new division||100.0||Lee Batchelor||Labour|
|Brisbane, Qld||Protectionist||Thomas Macdonald-Paterson||7.6||9.7||2.1||Millice Culpin||Labour|
|Capricornia, Qld||Independent||Alexander Paterson||1.0||8.6||9.6||David Thomson||Labour|
|Corangamite, VIC||Protectionist||Chester Manifold||22.2||35.2||2.2||Gratton Wilson||Free Trade|
|Cowper, NSW||Protectionist||Francis Clarke||2.4||15.4||13.0||Henry Lee||Free Trade|
|Darwin, Tas||new division||0.7||King O'Malley||Labour|
|Denison, Tas||new division||0.2||Philip Fysh||Protectionist|
|Franklin, Tas||new division||4.6||William McWilliams||Revenue Tariff|
|Fremantle, WA||Free Trade||Elias Solomon||10.3||21.6||11.3||William Carpenter||Labour|
|Grey, SA||new division||100.0||Alexander Poynton||Labour|
|Gwydir, NSW||Protectionist||George Cruickshank||12,9||24.3||11.4||William Webster||Labour|
|Hindmarsh, SA||new division||16.7||James Hutchison||Labour|
|Hunter, NSW||Protectionist||Edmund Barton||100.0||59.3||13.3||Frank Liddell||Free Trade|
|Kalgoorlie, WA||Free Trade||John Kirwan||14.1||30.7||26.6||Charlie Frazer||Labour|
|New England, NSW||Protectionist||William Sawers||0.6||2.5||1.9||Edmund Lonsdale||Free Trade|
|Riverina, NSW||Protectionist||John Chanter||3.5||3.5||0.0||Robert Blackwood||Free Trade|
|Wakefield, SA||new division||100.0||Frederick Holder||Free Trade|
|Wilmot, Tas||new division||4.9||Edward Braddon||Free Trade|
|Denison (Tas)||Philip Fysh||PROT||00.2 vs FT|
|Melbourne (Vic)||Malcolm McEacharn||PROT||00.2 vs LAB|
|Darwin (Tas)||King O'Malley||LAB||00.7 vs PROT|
|Wimmera (Vic)||Pharez Phillips||PROT||01.0 vs FT|
|Bendigo (Vic)||John Quick||PROT||01.1 vs LAB|
|Bourke (Vic)||James Hume Cook||PROT||01.8 vs LAB|
|Brisbane (Qld)||Millice Culpin||LAB||02.1 vs PROT|
|Southern Melbourne (Vic)||James Ronald||LAB||02.1 vs IND|
|Oxley (Qld)||Richard Edwards||PROT||02.3 vs LAB|
|Moira (Vic)||Thomas Kennedy||PROT||04.0 vs FT|
|Corio (Vic)||Richard Crouch||PROT||04.4 vs FT|
|Boothby (SA)||Lee Batchelor||LAB||04.6 vs FT|
|Bland (NSW)||Chris Watson||LAB||05.4 vs FT|
|Bass (Tas)||David Storrer||PROT||06.7 vs FT|
|Melbourne Ports (Vic)||Samuel Mauger||PROT||06.8 vs LAB|
|Herbert (Qld)||Fred Bamford||LAB||07.8 vs PROT|
|Darling (NSW)||William Spence||LAB||08.2 vs FT|
|Capricornia (Qld)||David Thomson||LAB||09.6 vs PROT|
|Hume (NSW)||William Lyne||PROT||10.0 vs FT|
|Wide Bay (Qld)||Andrew Fisher||LAB||11.2 vs PROT|
|Fremantle (WA)||William Carpenter||LAB||11.3 vs FT|
|Gwydir (NSW)||William Webster||LAB||11.4 vs FT|
|Mernda (Vic)||Robert Harper||PROT||12.1 vs FT|
|Newcastle (NSW)||David Watkins||LAB||12.5 vs FT|
|Echuca (Vic)||James McColl||PROT||13.3 vs FT|
|Kalgoorlie (WA)||Charlie Frazer||LAB||16.6 vs FT|
|Hindmarsh (SA)||James Hutchison||LAB||16.7 vs PROT|
|Kennedy (Qld)||Charles McDonald||LAB||19.7 vs PROT|
|Yarra (Vic)||Frank Tudor||LAB||19.7 vs PROT|
|West Sydney (NSW)||Billy Hughes||LAB||19.9 vs FT|
|Northern Melbourne (Vic)||H. B. Higgins||PROT||20.3 vs LAB|
|Richmond (NSW)||Thomas Ewing||PROT||22.6 vs FT|
|Perth (WA)||James Fowler||LAB||22.8 vs FT|
|Laanecoorie (Vic)||Carty Salmon||PROT||24.6 vs FT|
|Maranoa (Qld)||Jim Page||LAB||25.0 vs PROT|
|Barrier (NSW)||Josiah Thomas||LAB||32.0 vs IND|
|Adelaide (SA)||Charles Kingston||PROT||unopposed|
|Balaclava (Vic)||George Turner||PROT||unopposed|
|Ballaarat (Vic)||Alfred Deakin||PROT||unopposed|
|Barker (SA)||Langdon Bonython||PROT||unopposed|
|Canobolas (NSW)||Thomas Brown||LAB||unopposed|
|Coolgardie (WA)||Hugh Mahon||LAB||unopposed|
|Corinella (Vic)||James McCay||PROT||unopposed|
|Darling Downs (Qld)||Littleton Groom||PROT||unopposed|
|Eden-Monaro (NSW)||Austin Chapman||PROT||unopposed|
|Gippsland (Vic)||Allan McLean||PROT||unopposed|
|Grey (SA)||Alexander Poynton||LAB||unopposed|
|Indi (Vic)||Isaac Isaacs||PROT||unopposed|
|Swan (WA)||John Forrest||PROT||unopposed|
|Free Trade Party|
|Riverina (NSW)||Robert Blackwood||FT||00.0 vs PROT|
|New England (NSW)||Edmund Lonsdale||FT||01.9 vs PROT|
|Corangamite (Vic)||Gratton Wilson||FT||02.2 vs PROT|
|Grampians (Vic)||Thomas Skene||FT||02.6 vs PROT|
|Kooyong (Vic)||William Knox||FT||02.8 vs PROT|
|Wannon (Vic)||Arthur Robinson||FT||02.9 vs PROT|
|Macquarie (NSW)||Sydney Smith||FT||04.0 vs PROT|
|Flinders (Vic)||James Gibb||FT||04.5 vs PROT|
|Wilmot (Tas)||Edward Braddon||FT||04.9 vs PROT|
|South Sydney (NSW)||George Edwards||FT||06.0 vs LAB|
|Lang (NSW)||Elliot Johnson||FT||12.0 vs IND|
|Cowper (NSW)||Henry Lee||FT||13.0 vs PROT|
|Hunter (NSW)||Frank Liddell||FT||13.3 vs IND|
|Robertson (NSW)||Henry Willis||FT||13.5 vs IND|
|East Sydney (NSW)||George Reid||FT||14.4 vs LAB|
|Werriwa (NSW)||Alfred Conroy||FT||18.7 vs LAB|
|Wentworth (NSW)||Willie Kelly||FT||21.8 vs PROT|
|Parkes (NSW)||Bruce Smith||FT||27.8 vs PROT|
|Dalley (NSW)||William Wilks||FT||28.6 vs IND|
|Parramatta (NSW)||Joseph Cook||FT||30.1 vs IND|
|Angas (SA)||Paddy Glynn||FT||unopposed|
|Illawarra (NSW)||George Fuller||FT||unopposed|
|North Sydney (NSW)||Dugald Thomson||FT||unopposed|
|Wakefield (SA)||Frederick Holder||SPEAKER||unopposed|
|Franklin (Tas)||William McWilliams||REV TAR||04.6 vs FT|
|Moreton (Qld)||James Wilkinson||IND LAB||05.8 vs PROT|
John Christian Watson, commonly known as Chris Watson, was an Australian politician who served as the third Prime Minister of Australia. He was the first Prime Minister from the Australian Labour Party, and led the world's first Labour Party government, indeed the world's first socialist or social democratic government, at a national level. From paternal German and maternal British ancestry, he is the only Australian Prime Minister not born in a Commonwealth country.
Sir George Houston Reid was an Australian politician who led the Reid Government as the fourth Prime Minister of Australia from 1904 to 1905, having previously been Premier of New South Wales from 1894 to 1899. He led the Free Trade Party from 1891 to 1908.
The Free Trade Party which was officially known as the Australian Free Trade and Liberal Association, also referred to as the Revenue Tariff Party in some states, was an Australian political party, formally organised in 1887 in New South Wales, in time for the 1887 colony election, which the party won. It advocated the abolition of protectionism, especially protective tariffs and other restrictions on trade, arguing that this would create greater prosperity for all. However, many members also advocated use of minimal tariffs for government revenue purposes only. Its most prominent leader was George Reid, who led the Reid Government as the fourth Prime Minister of Australia (1904–05). In New South Wales it was succeeded by the Liberal and Reform Association in 1902, and federally by the Anti-Socialist Party in 1906. In 1909, the Anti-Socialist Party merged with the Protectionist Party to form the Commonwealth Liberal Party.
The Protectionist Party or Liberal Protectionist Party was an Australian political party, formally organised from 1887 until 1909, with policies centred on protectionism. The party advocated protective tariffs, arguing it would allow Australian industry to grow and provide employment. It had its greatest strength in Victoria and in the rural areas of New South Wales. Its most prominent leaders were Sir Edmund Barton and Alfred Deakin, who were the first and second prime ministers of Australia.
Sir William John Lyne KCMG was an Australian politician who served as Premier of New South Wales from 1899 to 1901, and later as a federal cabinet minister under Edmund Barton and Alfred Deakin. He is best known as the subject of the "Hopetoun Blunder", unexpectedly being asked to serve as the first Prime Minister of Australia but failing to form a government.
Allan McLean was an Australian politician who served as the 19th Premier of Victoria, in office from 1899 to 1900. He was later elected to federal parliament, where he served as a government minister under George Reid.
The 1901 Australian federal election for the inaugural Parliament of Australia was held in Australia on Friday 29 March and Saturday 30 March 1901. The elections followed Federation and the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901. All 75 seats in the Australian House of Representatives, six of which were uncontested, as well as all 36 seats in the Australian Senate, were up for election.
This is a list of the members of the Australian Senate in the First Australian Parliament, which was elected on 29 March 1901. There were 36 senators in this initial parliament. Terms were deemed to start on 1 January 1901. In accordance with section 13 of the Constitution, the Senate resolved that in each State the three senators who received the most votes would sit for a six-year term, finishing on 31 December 1906 while the other half would sit for a three-year term, finishing on 31 December 1903. The process for filing of casual vacancies was complex, with an initial appointment followed by an election. The status of political parties varied, being national, State based, and informal.
The 1906 Australian federal election was held in Australia on 12 December 1906. All 75 seats in the House of Representatives, and 18 of the 36 seats in the Senate were up for election. The incumbent Protectionist Party minority government led by Prime Minister Alfred Deakin retained government, despite winning the fewest House of Representatives votes and seats of the three parties. Parliamentary support was provided by the Labour Party led by Chris Watson, while the Anti-Socialist Party, led by George Reid, remained in opposition.
David Storrer was an Australian politician.
Edward Pulsford was an English-born Australian politician and free-trade campaigner.
This article provides information on candidates who stood for the 1901 Australian federal election. The election was held on 29/30 March 1901.
This article provides information on candidates who stood for the 1903 Australian federal election. The election was held on 16 December 1903.
This article provides information on candidates who stood for the 1906 Australian federal election. The election was held on 12 December 1906.
This is a list of members of the Australian Senate from 1907 to 1910. Half of its members were elected at the 16 December 1903 election and had terms starting on 1 January 1904 and finishing on 30 June 1910; the other half were elected at the 12 December 1906 election and had terms starting on 1 January 1907 and finishing on 30 June 1913. They had an extended term as a result of the 1906 referendum, which changed Senate terms to finish on 30 June, rather than 31 December.
The Barton Government was the first federal Executive Government of the Commonwealth of Australia. It was led by Prime Minister Sir Edmund Barton, from 1 January 1901 until 24 September 1903, when Barton resigned to become one of the three founding judges of the High Court of Australia.
The following tables show state-by-state results in the Australian Senate at the 1901 federal election. Senators total 17 Free Trade, 11 Protectionist, and eight Labour. The terms were deemed to start on 1 January 1901. In each state, the first three elected received full six-year terms, and the three senators elected with the lowest number of votes retire after three years.
The history of the Australian Labor Party has its origins in the Labour parties founded in the 1890s in the Australian colonies prior to federation. Labor tradition ascribes the founding of Queensland Labour to a meeting of striking pastoral workers under a ghost gum tree in Barcaldine, Queensland in 1891. The Balmain, New South Wales branch of the party claims to be the oldest in Australia. Labour as a parliamentary party dates from 1891 in New South Wales and South Australia, 1893 in Queensland, and later in the other colonies.
The Watson Government was the third federal executive government of the Commonwealth of Australia. It was led by Prime Minister Chris Watson of the Australian Labor Party from 27 April 1904 to 18 August 1904. The Watson Government was the first Labor Party national government in both Australia and in the world. Watson was aged just 37 when he became Prime Minister of Australia, and remains the youngest person to have held the post.
The Reid Government refers to the period of federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister George Reid. It lasted from 18 August 1904 - 5 July 1905. Reid was the one and only Prime Minister of Australia to belong to the Free Trade Party. Allan McLean of the Protectionist Party served as deputy.