1987 Australian federal election

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1987 Australian federal election
Flag of Australia (converted).svg
  1984 11 July 1987 (1987-07-11) 1990  

All 148 seats in the House of Representatives
75 seats were needed for a majority in the House
All 76 seats in the Senate
 First partySecond party
  Bob Hawke 1987 portrait crop.jpg John howard.jpg
Leader Bob Hawke John Howard
Party Labor Liberal/National coalition
Leader since 3 February 1983 (1983-02-03) 5 September 1985 (1985-09-05)
Leader's seat Wills (Vic.) Bennelong (NSW)
Last election82 seats66 seats
Seats won86 seats62 seats
Seat changeIncrease2.svg4Decrease2.svg4
Popular vote4,222,4314,236,238
Percentage50.83%49.17%
SwingDecrease2.svg0.94%Increase2.svg0.94%

Australia 1987 federal election.png
Popular vote by state and territory with graphs indicating the number of seats won. As this is an IRV election, seat totals are not determined by popular vote by state or territory but instead via results in each electorate.

Prime Minister before election

Bob Hawke
Labor

Subsequent Prime Minister

Bob Hawke
Labor

The 1987 Australian federal election was held in Australia on 11 July 1987, following the granting of a double dissolution on 5 June by the Governor-General Sir Ninian Stephen. Consequently, all 148 seats in the House of Representatives as well as all 76 seats in the Senate were up for election. The incumbent Australian Labor Party, led by Prime Minister Bob Hawke, defeated the opposition Liberal Party of Australia, led by John Howard and the National Party of Australia led by Ian Sinclair. This was the first time the Labor party won a third consecutive election.

Contents

Future opposition leader John Hewson entered parliament at this election.

Since the introduction in the previous election in 1984 of leaders' debates, this was the only election in which there was not at least one leaders' debate due to Hawke's refusal to debate Howard. [1]

Background

The Hawke Government had been in power since the general election of 1983, and had been re-elected in the snap election of 1984, although with a decreased majority. Hawke, in partnership with Treasurer Paul Keating, had pursued an ambitiously reformist agenda over the course of his time in office, which included floating the Australian dollar, reducing tariffs on imports and completely reforming the tax system. However, the government's popularity dropped sharply throughout the course of its 1984-87 term, mostly due to a series of blunders such as its failed 'tax summit' (designed to gain support for Keating's proposed consumption tax), and declining terms of trade, which Treasurer Keating argued threatened to reduce Australia to the status of a banana republic unless tough measures were taken to correct the balance of trade.

Meanwhile, for much of the 1984-87 term, the opposition Liberal-National coalition led in the polls, leading to speculation that it could regain office in 1987. However, both coalition parties were also wracked by infighting throughout the parliament. In September 1985, Andrew Peacock, who had led the party to a surprising rebound in the 1984 general election, was replaced as leader of the Liberal party by the then Deputy Leader and Shadow Treasurer John Howard, after a botched effort to remove the latter from the Deputy Leadership and replace him with Queenslander John Moore, resulting in Peacock's resignation. Nonetheless, the party remained divided, as Howard was seen by some Liberals as being too far to the right, and these opponents of the Howard policy agenda rallied to Peacock, who was eventually sacked from the shadow ministry in March 1987, following unfortunate remarks regarding Howard by Peacock to Victorian state opposition leader Jeff Kennett in an infamous car phone conversation. [2]

Moreover, Howard and National Party leader Ian Sinclair faced challenges from the right as well as the left of the coalition, in the form of Queensland premier Sir Joh Bjelke-Petersen. Premier since 1968, Bjelke-Petersen was a hardline conservative who aggressively opposed the "socialist" Hawke Labor government, and believed that he could transfer the style of politics that had served him so well in his native Queensland to the federal stage. Following a decisive electoral victory in Queensland in 1986, the so-called Joh for Canberra campaign began in earnest, supported by much of the Queensland business establishment (the infamous "white shoe brigade"), with Bjelke-Petersen announcing that he intended to run for the Prime Ministership on 1 January 1987. At the end of February 1987, the Queensland National Party decided to withdraw its twelve federal members of parliament from the Coalition, and demanded that federal National Party leader Ian Sinclair also withdraw because of "basic differences in taxation and other philosophies and policies" between the Liberal and National parties. [3] Within the Queensland National Party, the party president Sir Robert Sparkes enforced support for Bjelke-Petersen, making practical opposition within the Queensland ranks unlikely. [4] The Coalition formally split in early May, with the National Party voting to break the federal coalition, and Ian Sinclair looking increasingly impotent and unable to ensure the loyalty of National Party members. However, it was at this point that Bob Sparkes reneged on his loyalty to Bjelke-Petersen and withdrew from the campaign. [5] With his pool of supporters steadily decreasing, the likelihood of an effective challenge to the federal Coalition from Bjelke-Petersen began to collapse. When the election was called on 27 May, Bjelke-Petersen was in the United States, and quickly decided to withdraw from his bid for federal power. However, the federal coalition had been broken, and Howard's credibility as a challenger to the Hawke government had been severely damaged. [6]

Campaign

The 1987 federal election was called 6 months early by Prime Minister Hawke to capitalise on the aforementioned disunity in the opposition. The nominal trigger for the double dissolution was the rejection of legislation for the Australia Card by the Senate, but it did not figure prominently in the campaign, and Labor Senate Leader John Button even burst into laughter when referring to it in his speech announcing the election. Caught off guard by the early election, the opposition quickly ran into difficulties when the funding for its flagship tax cut proposals was revealed to have been miscalculated by some $900 million, a mistake brought up by the Labor party and conceded by Howard. Furthermore, although the Joh for Canberra push had been abandoned, the resulting schism between the Nationals and Liberals led to several three-cornered contests and the National Party ran independent Senate tickets in every state except New South Wales. [7] Labor therefore chose to campaign strongly on the disunity amongst the opposition parties, contrasting it with the relative unity of purpose of the Labor Government. However, aside from these issues, the 1987 campaign failed to generate great excitement on the part of the electorate, and the opposition was viewed as unlikely (particularly in view of the infighting that had recently taken place on the conservative side of politics) to be able to remove the Labor party from power. This was a view strengthened by much of the polling during the campaign, which generally showed Labor with a commanding lead. [8] This election was the last time the Liberals and Nationals competed directly against each other in a federal election.

Results

House of Representatives results

Government (86)
Labor (86)

Opposition (62)
Coalition
Liberal (43)
National (19) Australian House of Representatives elected members, 1987.svg
Government (86)
     Labor (86)

Opposition (62)
Coalition
     Liberal (43)
     National (19)
    House of Reps (IRV) — 1987–90 – Turnout 93.84% (CV) — Informal 4.94%
    PartyVotes%SwingSeatsChange
      Liberal–National coalition 4,238,97845.90+0.8962–4
      Liberal  3,169,06134.32+0.2643−2
      National  1,048,24911.35+0.7219−2
      Country Liberal  21,6680.23−0.0900
      Labor 4,238,66345.90−1.6586+4
      Democrats 557,2626.00+0.5500
      Unite Australia 14,5930.16+0.1600
      NT Nationals 10,2730.11+0.1100
      Nuclear Disarmament 9,7350.11–0.1000
      Family Movement 4,0650.04+0.0400
      Pensioner 3,3460.04+0.0200
      Democratic Labor 3,3340.04–0.5300
      Socialist Workers 1,0970.01–0.1000
      Communist 5350.01+0.0000
      Independent 153,2051.66+0.6200
     Total9,235,086  148 
    Two-party-preferred vote
      Labor WIN50.83−0.9486+4
      Liberal–National coalition  49.17+0.9462−4
    Popular Vote
    Labor
    45.76%
    Liberal
    34.41%
    National
    11.50%
    Democrats
    6.00%
    CLP
    0.23%
    Other
    2.06%
    Two Party Preferred Vote
    Labor
    50.83%
    Coalition
    49.17%
    Parliament Seats
    Labor
    58.11%
    Coalition
    41.89%

    Senate results

    Government (32)
Labor (32)

Opposition (34)
Coalition
Liberal (28)
National (5)
CLP (1)

Crossbench (10)
Democrats (7)
NDP (1)
Independent (2) Australian Senate elected members, 1987.svg
    Government (32)
         Labor (32)

    Opposition (34)
    Coalition
         Liberal (28)
         National (5)
         CLP (1)

    Crossbench (10)
         Democrats (7)
         NDP (1)
         Independent (2)
      Senate (STV GV) — 1987–90 – Turnout 93.84% (CV) — Informal 3.54%
      PartyVotes%SwingSeats WonSeats HeldChange
        Labor 4,013,86042.83+0.663232–2
        Liberal–National coalition 3,939,43242.04+2.503434+1
        Liberal 1,965,18020.97+0.3823270
       Liberal–National joint ticket1,289,88813.76+1.055N/AN/A
        National 664,3947.09+1.1666+1
        Country Liberal 19,9700.21−0.10110
        Democrats 794,1078.47+0.85770
        Call to Australia 136,8251.46−0.36000
        Nuclear Disarmament 102,4801.09−6.14110
        Democratic Labor 50,8940.54+0.17000
        Vallentine Peace Group 40,0480.43+0.4311+1
        Harradine Group 37,0370.40+0.4011+1
        NSW Greens 32,5130.35+0.35000
        Unite Australia 24,7040.26+0.26000
        Pensioner 17,2650.18–0.09000
        Defence and Ex-Services 14,4310.15+0.15000
        One Australia 13,0630.14+0.14000
        SA Greens 8,1020.09+0.09000
        Communist 2,4560.03+0.03000
        Independent 177,2481.89+1.2500–1
       Total9,371,681  7676

      Note: As this was a double-dissolution election, all Senate seats were contested.

      This was the first election in which the AEC conducted a special recount (under 1983 legislation) for the purpose of allocating three- and six-year senate terms. The recount results were not used.

      Seats changing hands

      SeatPre-1987SwingPost-1987
      PartyMemberMarginMarginMemberParty
      Chisholm, Vic  Labor Helen Mayer 0.20.90.7 Michael Wooldridge Liberal 
      Denison, Tas  Liberal Michael Hodgman 1.04.83.8 Duncan Kerr Labor 
      Fisher, Qld  National Peter Slipper 2.32.80.5 Michael Lavarch Labor 
      Forde, Qld  Liberal David Watson 0.01.01.0 Mary Crawford Labor 
      Hinkler, Qld  National Bryan Conquest 0.21.31.1 Brian Courtice Labor 
      Lowe, NSW  Labor Michael Maher 2.23.81.6 Bob Woods Liberal 
      Northern Territory, NT  Country Liberal Paul Everingham 1.43.62.2 Warren Snowdon Labor 
      Petrie, Qld  Liberal John Hodges 0.62.01.4 Gary Johns Labor 

      Hawke led Labor to a record third successive term in government, despite finishing slightly behind the Coalition in the first-preference vote (the first time that a party had won an election in spite of this since 1969), and suffering a swing of some 0.9% to the Coalition in the two-party-preferred vote. Nonetheless, Labor's result of 86 seats was the party's highest ever (the total number of seats was expanded by 23 in 1984), and the party made particularly strong gains in Bjelke-Petersen's native Queensland, gaining four seats to bring their Queensland tally to 13 of 24 seats. The Liberals suffered a net loss of two seats, primarily due to losses in Queensland, although they did make small gains in Howard's native New South Wales and in Victoria. The federal National Party also suffered a net loss of two seats, failing to expand upon its traditional rural base and hampered by disunity within its ranks.

      The Gallagher Index result: 10.57 1987 Election Australia Gallagher Index.png
      The Gallagher Index result: 10.57

      This was the most recent election in which every seat in the House of Representatives was won by either Labor or the Coalition. Following the election, John Howard stayed on as leader of the Liberal Party, and would eventually become Prime Minister in 1996. However, the experience of the 1987 campaign is said to have been the origin of his oft-repeated remark that, in politics, "disunity is death". Meanwhile, Hawke would go on to win a fourth-consecutive election for the Labor party, but was eventually replaced as Labor leader and Prime Minister by Paul Keating in 1991.

      See also

      Notes

      1. https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/federal-election-2016-do-leader-debates-really-make-a-difference-in-australian-elections-20160512-got9xe.html
      2. Kennett-Peacock Car Phone Conversation. Retrieved 5 May 2006.
      3. Adams (1987) , p. 253
      4. Davey (2010) , p. 231
      5. Walter (1990) , p. 318
      6. Rydon (1987) , p. 365
      7. Davey (2010) , p. 236
      8. "Newspoll Archive".

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      References