Immigration to Australia

Last updated

People born overseas as a percentage of the population in Australia divided geographically by statistical local area, as of the 2011 census Australian Census 2011 demographic map - Australia by SLA - BCP field 1936 Total Total.svg
People born overseas as a percentage of the population in Australia divided geographically by statistical local area, as of the 2011 census
Monthly arrivals of permanent settlers since 1976 ABS-3401.0-OverseasArrivalsDeparturesAustralia-TotalMovementArrivals CategoryMovement-NumberMovements-PermanentSettlerArrivals-A83808877L.svg
Monthly arrivals of permanent settlers since 1976

Immigration to Australia began when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of Maritime Southeast Asia and New Guinea. [1]

Maritime Southeast Asia maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste

Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia, as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia, and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and East Timor. The local Malayo-Polynesian name for the region is Nusantara. Maritime Southeast Asia is sometimes also referred to as "island Southeast Asia" or "insular Southeast Asia". The 16th-century term East Indies, and the later 19th-century term Malay Archipelago refers to a largely similar area.

New Guinea Island in the Pacific Ocean

New Guinea is a large island separated by a shallow sea from the rest of the Australian continent. It is the world's second-largest island, after Greenland, covering a land area of 785,753 km2 (303,381 sq mi), and the largest wholly or partly within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania.


Permanent European settlement began in 1788 with the establishment of a British penal colony in New South Wales. From early federation in 1901, Australia maintained the White Australia policy, which forbid the entrance in Australia of people of non-European ethnic origins and was abolished after World War II. Since 1945, more than 7 million people have settled in Australia. From the late 1970s, there was a significant increase in immigration from Asian and other non-European countries, making Australia a multicultural country.

British Empire States and dominions ruled by the United Kingdom

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was often used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories.

Penal colony remote settlement used to house convicts from the general population

A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer to a correctional facility located in a remote location it is more commonly used to refer to communities of prisoners overseen by wardens or governors having absolute authority.

New South Wales State of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

Net overseas migration has increased from 30,042 in 1992–93 [2] to 178,582 persons in 2015–16. [3] The largest components of immigration are the skilled migration and family re-union programs. A 2014 sociological study concluded that: "Australia and Canada are the most receptive to immigration among western nations". [4]

Immigration Movement of people into another country or region to which they are not native

Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.

Australia is a signatory to the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and has resettled many asylum seekers. In recent years, Australia's policy of mandatory detention of unauthorised arrivals by boat has attracted controversy.

Refugees are governed by statutes and Government policies which seek to implement Australia's obligations under the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, to which Australia is a party. Thousands of refugees have sought asylum in Australia over the past decade, with the main forces driving movement being war, civil unrest and persecution. The annual refugee quota is currently 20,000 people. From 1945 to the early 1990s, more than half a million refugees and other displaced persons were accepted into Australia.

The Government of Australia has a policy and practice of detaining in immigration detention facilities non-citizens not holding a valid visa, suspected of visa violations, illegal entry or unauthorised arrival, and those subject to deportation and removal in immigration detention until a decision is made by the immigration authorities to grant a visa and release them into the community, or to repatriate them to their country of departure. Persons in immigration detention may at any time opt to voluntarily leave Australia for their country of origin, or they may be deported or given a bridging or temporary visa.

An unauthorised arrival is a person who has arrived in a country of which they are not a citizen and does not have a valid visa or does not satisfy other required conditions for entry to that country.

On August 7, 2018, Australian Bureau of Statistics population clock reached 25 million, with 62% of the growth in the last ten years being a result of immigration. The milestone was 33 years ahead of schedule. Senator Pauline Hanson has called for a national plebiscite asking voters if they think immigration is too high. Opinion polls show majority support for reduced immigration. [5] [6] [7] [8]

Pauline Hanson Australian politician

Pauline Lee Hanson is an Australian politician who is the founder and leader of Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party (PHON). She is currently a Senator representing Queensland in the Parliament of Australia.

Immigration history of Australia

The first migration of humans to the continent took place around 65,000 years ago [9] via the islands of Maritime Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea as part of the early history of human migration out of Africa. [10]

Human migration permanent change of residence of people

Human migration is the movement of people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily at a new location. The movement is often over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is also possible; indeed, this is the dominant form globally. People may migrate as individuals, in family units or in large groups.

Papua New Guinea constitutional monarchy in Oceania

Papua New Guinea, officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea is a country in Oceania that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua.

Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in the new location. It typically involves movements over long distances and from one country or region to another.

Penal transportation

Women in England mourning their loved ones who are to be transported to the penal colony at Botany Bay, 1792 Black-eyed Sue and Sweet Poll of Plymouth taking leave of their lovers who are going to Botany Bay.jpeg
Women in England mourning their loved ones who are to be transported to the penal colony at Botany Bay, 1792

European migration to Australia began with the British convict settlement of Sydney Cove on 26 January 1788. The First Fleet comprised 11 ships carrying 775 convicts and 645 officials, members of the crew, marines, and their families and children. The settlers consisted of petty criminals, second-rate soldiers and a crew of sailors. There were few with skills needed to start a self-sufficient settlement, such as farmers and builders, and the colony experienced hunger and hardships. Male settlers far outnumbered female settlers. The Second Fleet arrived in 1790 bringing more convicts. The conditions of the transportation was described as horrific and worse than slave transports. Of the 1,026 convicts who embarked, 267 (256 men and 11 women) died during the voyage (26%); a further 486 were sick when they arrived of which 124 died soon after. The fleet was more of a drain on the struggling settlement than of any benefit. Conditions on the Third Fleet, which followed on the heels of the Second Fleet in 1791, were a bit better. The fleet comprised 11 ships. Of the more than 2000 convicts brought onto the ships, 173 male convicts and 9 female convicts died during the voyage. Other transport fleets bringing further convicts as well as freemen to the colony would follow. By the end of the penal transportation in 1868, approximately 165,000 people had entered Australia as convicts.

Bounty Immigration

The colonies promoted migration by a variety of schemes. The Bounty Immigration Scheme (1835-1841) boosted emigration from the United Kingdom to New South Wales. [11] The South Australia Company was established to encourage settlement in South Australia by labourers and skilled migrants.

Gold rush and population growth

Migrants disembarking from a ship, ca. 1885 StateLibQld 1 110096 Drawing of migrants disembarking from a ship, ca. 1885.jpg
Migrants disembarking from a ship, ca. 1885
Australian Government poster issued by the Overseas Settlement Office to attract immigrants (1928). Southern Cross - call to British.jpg
Australian Government poster issued by the Overseas Settlement Office to attract immigrants (1928).

The Gold rush era, beginning in 1851, led to an enormous expansion in population, including large numbers of British and Irish settlers, followed by smaller numbers of Germans and other Europeans, and Chinese. This latter group were subject to increasing restrictions and discrimination, making it impossible for many to remain in the country. With the Federation of the Australian colonies into a single nation, one of the first acts of the new Commonwealth Government was the Immigration Restriction Act 1901, otherwise known as the White Australia policy, which was a strengthening and unification of disparate colonial policies designed to restrict non-White settlement. Because of opposition from the British government, an explicit racial policy was avoided in the legislation, with the control mechanism being a dictation test in a European language selected by the immigration officer. This was selected to be one the immigrant did not know; the last time an immigrant passed a test was in 1909. Perhaps the most celebrated case was Egon Erwin Kisch, a left-wing Czechoslovakian journalist, who could speak five languages, who was failed in a test in Scottish Gaelic, and deported as illiterate.

The government also found that if it wanted immigrants it had to subsidise migration. The great distance from Europe made Australia a more expensive and less attractive destination than Canada and the United States. The number of immigrants needed during different stages of the economic cycle could be controlled by varying the subsidy. Before federation in 1901, assisted migrants received passage assistance from colonial government funds. The British government paid for the passage of convicts, paupers, the military and civil servants. Few immigrants received colonial government assistance before 1831. [12]

PeriodAnnual average assisted immigrants [12]

With the onset of the Great Depression, the Governor-General proclaimed the cessation of immigration until further notice, and the next group to arrive were 5000 Jewish refuge families from Germany in 1938. Approved groups such as these were assured of entry by being issued with a Certificate of Exemption from the Dictation Test.

Post-war immigration to Australia

In 1954 the 50,000th Dutch migrant arrived in Australia. Dutch Migrant 1954 MariaScholte=50000thToAustraliaPostWW2.jpg
In 1954 the 50,000th Dutch migrant arrived in Australia.

After World War II Australia launched a massive immigration program, believing that having narrowly avoided a Japanese invasion, Australia must "populate or perish". Hundreds of thousands of displaced Europeans migrated to Australia and over 1,000,000 British subjects immigrated under the Assisted Passage Migration Scheme, colloquially becoming known as Ten Pound Poms. [13] The scheme initially targeted citizens of all Commonwealth countries; after the war it gradually extended to other countries such as the Netherlands and Italy. The qualifications were straightforward: migrants needed to be in sound health and under the age of 45 years. There were initially no skill restrictions, although under the White Australia Policy, people from mixed-race backgrounds found it very difficult to take advantage of the scheme. [14]

In the 1970s, multiculturalism largely displaced cultural selectivity in immigration policy.

PeriodMigration Programme [15] [16]
1998–9968 000
1999–0070 000
2000–0176 000
2001–0285 000

Current immigration programs

Migration program

"Life From A Suitcase" sculpture installed at Pyrmont dedicated to immigrants in Australia "Life From A Suitcase" sculpture.jpg
"Life From A Suitcase" sculpture installed at Pyrmont dedicated to immigrants in Australia

There are a number of different types of Australian immigration, classed under different categories of visa: [17]

Employment and family visas can often lead to Australian citizenship; however, this requires the applicant to have lived in Australia for at least four years with at least one year as a permanent resident.

Claims have been made that Australia's migration program is in conflict with anti age-discrimination legislation and there have been calls to remove or amend the age limit of 50 for general skilled migrants. [19]

Humanitarian program

Australia grants two types of visa under its humanitarian program: [20]

The cap for visas granted under the humanitarian program was 13,750 for 2015-16, [21] plus an additional 12,000 visas available for refugees from the conflicts in Syria and Iraq. [22]

Migration and settlement services

The Australian Government and the community[ which? ] provide a number of migration-assistance and settlement-support services:

Country of birth of Australian residents

In 2018, 29% of the Australian resident population, or 7,341,910 people, were born overseas. [28]

The Australian resident population consists of people who were born in the following countries:

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics (2018) [28]
Place of birthEstimated resident population [upper-alpha 1]
Total Australian-born 17,650,000
Total foreign-born7,341,910
Flag of England.svg England [upper-alpha 2] 992,000
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Mainland China [upper-alpha 3] 651,000
Flag of India.svg India 592,000
Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand 568,000
Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines 278,000
Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam 256,000
Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa 189,000
Flag of Italy.svg Italy 187,000
Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia 174,000
Flag of Scotland.svg Scotland [upper-alpha 4] 135,000
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka 134,500
Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea 116,120
Flag of Germany.svg Germany 114,580
Flag of Greece.svg Greece 108,830
Flag of the United States.svg United States 108,610
Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong SAR [upper-alpha 5] 100,620
Country of birth of Australian residents (2016) Australian Residents by Country of Birth 2016 Census.png
Country of birth of Australian residents (2016)

Among the States, there are some differences in settlement patterns, as demonstrated in the statistics compiled at the 2006 Census: [30]

Impacts and concerns

There is a range of views in the Australian community on the composition and level of immigration, and on the possible effects of varying the level of immigration and population growth.

In 2002, a CSIRO population study commissioned by the former Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, outlined six potential dilemmas associated with immigration-driven population growth. These included: the absolute numbers of aged continuing to rise despite high immigration off-setting ageing and declining birth-rates in a proportional sense; a worsening of Australia's trade balance due to more imports and higher consumption of domestic production; increased greenhouse gas emissions; overuse of agricultural soils; marine fisheries and domestic supplies of oil and gas; and a decline in urban air quality, river quality and biodiversity. [31]


Some environmental movements believe that as the driest inhabited continent, Australia cannot continue to sustain its current rate of population growth without becoming overpopulated. The Sustainable Population Australia (SPA) argues that climate change will lead to a deterioration of natural ecosystems through increased temperatures, extreme weather events and less rainfall in the southern part of the continent, thus reducing its capacity to sustain a large population even further. [32] The Australia Institute has concluded that Australia’s population growth has been one of the main factors driving growth in domestic greenhouse gas emissions. [33] It concluded that the average emissions per capita in the countries that immigrants come from is only 42 percent of average emissions in Australia, finding that as immigrants alter their lifestyle to that of Australians, they increase global greenhouse gas emissions. [33] The Institute calculated that each additional 70,000 immigrants will lead to additional emissions of 20 million tonnes of greenhouse gases by the end of the Kyoto target period (2012) and 30 million tonnes by 2020. [34]

Housing and infrastructure

A number of economists, such as Macquarie Bank analyst Rory Robertson, assert that high immigration and the propensity of new arrivals to cluster in the capital cities is exacerbating the nation's housing affordability problem. [35] According to Robertson, Federal Government policies that fuel demand for housing, such as the currently high levels of immigration, as well as capital gains tax discounts and subsidies to boost fertility, have had a greater impact on housing affordability than land release on urban fringes. [36]

The Productivity Commission in its 2004 Inquiry Report No. 28, First Home Ownership, concluded: "Growth in immigration since the mid-1990s has been an important contributor to underlying demand, particularly in Sydney and Melbourne." [37] The Reserve Bank of Australia in its submission to the same Productivity Commission report stated that "rapid growth in overseas visitors such as students may have boosted demand for rental housing". [37] However, the Commission found that "the ABS resident population estimates have limitations when used for assessing housing demand. Given the significant influx of foreigners coming to work or study in Australia in recent years, it seems highly likely that short-stay visitor movements may have added to the demand for housing. However, the Commissions are unaware of any research that quantifies the effects." [37]

Some individuals and interest groups have also argued that immigration causes overburdened infrastructure. [38] [39]


Australia maintains a list of skilled occupations that are currently acceptable for immigration to Australia. [40]

In 2009, following the global financial crisis, the Australian government reduced its immigration target by 14%, and the permanent migration program for skilled migrants was reduced to 115,000 people for that financial year. [41] In 2010-2011, the migration intake was adjusted so that 67.5% of the permanent migration program would be for skilled migrants, and 113,725 visas were granted. [42]

According to Graduate Careers Australia, there have been some declines in full-time employment between 2012–2015 for recent university graduates of various degrees, including dentistry, computer science, architecture, psychology, and nursing. [43] In 2014, a number of the professional associations for some of these fields criticised the immigration policy for skilled migrants, contending that these policies have contributed to difficulties for local degree holders in obtaining full-time employment. [44] [45] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] In 2016, the Department of Health forecast a shortfall in nurses of approximately 85,000 by 2025 and 123,000 by 2030. [50]

In 2016, Monash University academics published a report which contended that Australia's immigration program is deeply flawed. The government's Medium to Long-Term Strategic Skill List allows immigration by professionals who end up competing with graduates of Australian universities for scarce positions. On the other hand, Australia's shortage of skilled tradespeople is not being addressed. [51]

Economic growth and aging population

Another element in the immigration debate is a concern to alleviate adverse impacts arising from Australia's aging population. The former Federal Treasurer, Peter Costello has said that Australia is underpopulated due to a low birth rate, and that negative population growth will have adverse long-term effects on the economy as the population ages and the labour market becomes less competitive. [52] To avoid this outcome the government increased immigration to fill gaps in labour markets and introduced a subsidy to encourage families to have more children.[ citation needed ] However, opponents of population growth such as Sustainable Population Australia do not accept that population growth will decline and reverse, based on current immigration and fertility projections. [53]

There is debate over whether immigration can slow the ageing of Australia's population. In a research paper entitled Population Futures for Australia: the Policy Alternatives, Peter McDonald claims that "it is demographic nonsense to believe that immigration can help to keep our population young." [54] However, according to Creedy and Alvarado (p. 99), [55] by 2031 there will be a 1.1 per cent fall in the proportion of the population aged over 65 if net migration rate is 80,000 per year. If net migration rate is 170,000 per year, the proportion of the population aged over 65 would reduce by 3.1 per cent. As of 2007 during the leadership of John Howard, the net migration rate was 160,000 per year. [56]

According to the Commonwealth Treasury, immigration can reduce the average age of the Australian population: "The level of net overseas migration is important: net inflows of migrants to Australia reduce the rate of population ageing because migrants are younger on average than the resident population. Currently, around 85 per cent of migrants are aged under 40 when they migrate to Australia, compared to around 55 per cent for the resident population." [57] Ross Gittins, an economics columnist at Fairfax Media, has said that the Government's focus on skilled migration has in fact reduced the average age of migrants. "More than half are aged 15 to 34, compared with 28 per cent of our population. Only 2 per cent of permanent immigrants are 65 or older, compared with 13 per cent of our population." [58] Because of these statistics, Gittens claims that immigration is slowing the ageing of the Australian population and that the "net benefit to the economy is a lot more clear-cut."

Robert Birrell, director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Monash University, has argued: "It is true that a net migration intake averaging around 180,000 per year will mean that the proportion of persons aged 65 plus to the total population will be a few percentage points lower in 2050 than it would be with a low migration intake. But this ‘gain’ would be bought at the expense of having to accommodate a much larger population. These people too, will age, thus requiring an even larger migration intake in subsequent years to look after them." [59]

In July 2005 the Productivity Commission launched a commissioned study entitled Economic Impacts of Migration and Population Growth, [60] and released an initial position paper on 17 January 2006 [61] which states that the increase of income per capita provided by higher migration (50 percent more than the base model) by the 2024–2025 financial year would be $335 (0.6%), an amount described as "very small." The paper also found that Australians would on average work 1.3 percent longer hours, about twice the proportional increase in income. [62]

Using regression analysis, Addison and Worswick found in a 2002 study that "there is no evidence that immigration has negatively impacted on the wages of young or low-skilled natives." Furthermore, Addison's study found that immigration did not increase unemployment among native workers. Rather, immigration decreased unemployment. [63] However, in 2005 the Productivity Commission concluded that higher immigration levels would result in lower wage growth for existing Australian residents. [64] On the impact of immigration on unemployment levels, the Commission said: "The conclusion that immigration has not caused unemployment at an aggregate level does not imply that it cannot lead to higher unemployment for specific groups. Immigration could worsen the labour market outcomes of people who work in sectors of the economy that have high concentrations of immigrant workers."

Gittins claims there is considerable opposition to immigration in Australia by "battlers" because of the belief that immigrants will steal jobs. Gittins claims though that "it's true that immigrants add to the supply of labour. But it's equally true that, by consuming and bringing families who consume, they also add to the demand for labour – usually by more." [58] Overall, Gittins has written that the "economic case for rapid population growth though immigration is surprisingly weak," noting the diseconomies of scale, infrastructure costs and negative environmental impacts associated with continued immigration-driven population growth. [65]

Robert Birrell has asserted that high immigration levels are being used by the Federal Government to stimulate aggregate economic growth, but that per capita growth is more important to Australians. [59] Birrell concluded that high migration does not benefit existing residents, because it dilutes the benefit that can accrue from the export of non-renewable resources which form a large part of the Australian economy. As well, Birrell argues that a slowdown in labour force growth would require employers to pay greater attention to training, wages and conditions of workers. [59]

Social cohesion

Robert Birrell has argued that immigration is creating social divisions and risks long-term national unity. [59] Anthropologist and ethologist Frank Salter has argued that immigration is creating "ethnic stratification" in Australian society. [66]

Politics and public debate

Over the last decade, leaders of the major Federal political parties have demonstrated support for high level immigration (including John Howard, Peter Costello and Kim Beazley [67] [67] ). There was, overall, an upward trend in the number of immigrants to Australia over the period of the Howard Government (1996–2007). The Rudd Labor Government (elected 2007) increased the quota again once in office. [68] In 2010, both major parties continue to support high immigration, with former Prime Minister Kevin Rudd advocating a 'Big Australia'; and Opposition Leader Tony Abbott stating in a 2010 Australia Day speech that: "My instinct is to extend to as many people as possible the freedom and benefits of life in Australia". [69] [70]

In 2003, economist Ross Gittins, a columnist at Fairfax Media , said former Prime Minister John Howard had been "a tricky chap " on immigration, by appearing "tough" on illegal immigration to win support from the working class, while simultaneously winning support from employers with high legal immigration. [71] In 2006, the Labor Party under Kim Beazley took a stance against the importation of increasingly large numbers of temporary skilled migrant workers by employers, arguing that this is simply a way for employers to drive down wages. [67]

Anti-immigration policies are a major part of One Nation Party policies, formed by Pauline Hanson in the late 1990s.[ citation needed ]

A 2018, Lowy Institute Poll found that a majority of Australians oppose the current rate of immigration to Australia. In 2018, 54% of Australians say that ‘the total number of migrants coming to Australia each year is too high’. A minority say its ‘too low’ (14%). These results represent a significant rise in opposition to the existing migration rate – up 14 points since last year, and up 17 points since we first asked this question in 2014. [72]

Asylum seekers

Australia's policies concerning refugees and asylum have been the subject of much debate.

See also


  1. Only countries with 100,000 or more are listed here.
  2. The Australian Bureau of Statistics source lists England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland separately although they are all part of the United Kingdom. These should not be combined as they are not combined in the source.
  3. In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source, Mainland China, Taiwan and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are listed separately.
  4. The Australian Bureau of Statistics source lists England and Scotland separately although they are both part of the United Kingdom. These should not be combined as they are not combined in the source.
  5. In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source, Mainland China, Taiwan and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are listed separately.

    Related Research Articles

    Immigration to the United States demographic phenomenon

    Immigration to the United States is the international movement of non-U.S. nationals in order to reside permanently in the country. Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the U.S. history. Because the United States is a settler colonial society, all Americans, with the exception of the small percent of Native Americans, can trace their ancestry to immigrants from other nations around the world.

    White Australia policy Australian policy that intentionally favoured immigrants to Australia from some other English-speaking and other European countries

    The term White Australia policy was widely used to encapsulate a set of historical policies that aimed to forbid people of non-European ethnic origin, especially Asians and Pacific Islanders from immigrating to Australia. Governments progressively dismantled such policies between 1949 and 1973.

    Forced displacement coerced movement of a person or persons away from their home or home region

    Forced displacement or forced immigration is the coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion. Someone who has experienced forced displacement is a "forced immigrant", a "displaced person" (DP), rarely also a "displacee", or if it is within the same country, an internally displaced person (IDP). In some cases the forced immigrant can also become a refugee, as that term has a specific legal definition. A specific form of forced displacement is population transfer, which is a coherent policy to move unwanted groups, for example, as an attempt at ethnic cleansing. Another form is deportation.

    Australian permanent residents are residents of Australia who hold a permanent residency visa but are not citizens of Australia. A holder of a permanent residency visa may remain in Australia indefinitely. A 5-year initial travel facility, which corresponds to the underlying migration program, is granted alongside the permanent residency. Until the travel facility expires, the visa holder may leave and re-enter Australia freely. After that period the visa holder needs to re-apply for the travel facility.

    The Australian migration zone is a legal device created by the Australian government for the purpose of Australia's visa policy and immigration policy. In the Australian migration zone, which covers such Australian controlled territories as the government may determine, a non-citizen must hold an Australian visa. Without such a visa, or a bridging visa, the alien is treated as an "unauthorised arrival". Prior to 2001, the Australian migration zone consisted of the mainland, and some external territories.

    Department of Immigration and Border Protection

    The Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP) was a department of the Government of Australia that was responsible for immigration, citizenship and border control. It has now been subsumed into the Department of Home Affairs, which combines its responsibilities with a number of other portfolios.

    The immigration history of Australia began with the initial human migration to the continent around 80,000 years ago when the ancestors of Australian Aboriginals arrived on the continent via the islands of Maritime Southeast Asia and New Guinea. From the early 17th century onwards, the continent experienced the first coastal landings and exploration by European explorers. Permanent European settlement began in 1788 with the establishment of a British penal colony in New South Wales. From early federation in 1901, Australia maintained the White Australia Policy, which was abolished after World War II, heralding the modern era of multiculturalism in Australia. From the late 1970s there was a significant increase in immigration from Asian and other non-European countries.

    Since 1945, immigration to the United Kingdom under British nationality law has been significant, in particular from the Republic of Ireland and from the former British Empire especially India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Caribbean, South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya and Hong Kong. Other immigrants have come as asylum seekers, seeking protection as refugees under the United Nations 1951 Refugee Convention, or from member states of the European Union, exercising one of the European Union's Four Freedoms.

    Chinese Australians ethnic group

    Chinese Australians are Australian citizens of Chinese ancestry. Chinese Australians are one of the largest groups of Overseas Chinese people, forming the largest Overseas Chinese community in Oceania. Per capita, Australia has more people of Chinese ancestry than any country outside Asia. Many Chinese Australians have immigrated from Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and other countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines, while many are descendants of such immigrants. Chinese Australians are also a subgroup of Asian Australians and East Asian Australians and represent the single largest minority ethnicity in the country. As a whole, Australian residents identifying themselves as having Chinese ancestry made up 5.6% of those nominating their ancestry at the 2016 census and numbered 1,213,903.

    Immigration to Canada

    Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada to reside there. The majority of these people become Canadian citizens. After 1947, domestic immigration law and policy went through major changes, most notably with the Immigration Act, 1976, and the current Immigration and Refugee Protection Act from 2002.

    Visa policy of Australia visa policy

    The visa policy of Australia deals with the requirements that a foreign national wishing to enter Australia must meet to obtain a visa, which is a permit to travel, to enter and remain in the country. Visa rules are set out in the Migration Act 1958 and the Migration Regulations, which are administered by the Department of Home Affairs.

    Immigration to New Zealand

    Migration to New Zealand began with Polynesian settlement in New Zealand, then uninhabited, about 1250 to 1280. European migration provided a major influx following the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. Subsequent immigration has been chiefly from the British Isles, but also from continental Europe, the Pacific, the Americas and Asia.

    African Australians are Australians of African ancestry. Large-scale immigration from Africa to Australia is only a recent phenomenon, with Europe and Asia traditionally being the largest sources of migration to Australia. In 2005–06, permanent settler arrivals to Australia included 4,000 South Africans and 3,800 Sudanese, constituting the sixth and seventh largest sources of migrants, respectively.

    Azerbaijan though not a popular destination for immigrants, has recently experienced waves of immigration with the collapse of the Soviet Union, especially from ethnic Azerbaijanis mostly from Armenia, Russia and the rest of the former Soviet Union. Meskhetian Turks were also relocated to Azerbaijan from Central Asia before and after the end of the Soviet Union. With the booming petroleum industry, immigration from Turkey has also followed. In 2010, every eighth resident in Azerbaijan was a migrant, of whom more than 90% of them are Azerbaijanis and 70% are internally displaced persons from the territories occupied by Armenia.

    Burmese in Thailand

    Burmese in Thailand constitute Thailand's largest migrant population. According to the 2014 Burma Census, 1,418,472 former Burmese residents, including 812,798 men and 605,674 women, were living in Thailand, constituting about 70% of Burma's overseas population. Burmese in Thailand tend to fall into three categories: professional migrants working in the business or professional sectors, laborers working in low-skilled professions, and refugees fleeing conflict.

    Congolese Australians are Australians of Congolese descent or who were born in the Democratic Republic of the Congo or the Republic of the Congo. The population of Congolese born Australians has increased significantly over the past 20 years, from just 21 at the 1996 Census to 5,522 at the 2016 Census.

    In 2018, 29% of the Australian resident population, or 7,341,910 people, were born overseas.

    Australia ranked third in top study abroad destinations with a total market value of over 5 million AUD generated by international students in 2018. With the wishing to gain a high-quality education, have immigration or experience a different life, in 2018, 869,709 international students were enrolled in education program in Australia, which was about 8.8% higher than the amount in 2017 (799,371). Each year, many new international students will enrol in Australian courses and add to the already significant international student body around the country.


    1. Smith, Debra (9 May 2007). "Out of Africa – Aboriginal origins uncovered". The Sydney Morning Herald . Retrieved 5 June 2008. Aboriginal Australians are descended from the same small group of people who left Africa about 70,000 years ago and colonised the rest of the world, a large genetic study shows. After arriving in Australia and New Guinea about 50,000 years ago, the settlers evolved in relative isolation, developing unique genetic characteristics and technology.
    2. Australian Bureau of Statistics, International migration
    3. Australian Bureau of noms
    4. Markus, Andrew. "Attitudes to immigration and cultural diversity in Australia." Journal of Sociology 50.1 (2014): 10-22.
    5. "Australia's population will hit 25m today". Retrieved 8 August 2018.
    6. "Australia's population hits 25 million, 33 years ahead of schedule - MacroBusiness". Retrieved 8 August 2018.
    7. "'We have a right to a say': Hanson continues population plebiscite push" . Retrieved 8 August 2018.
    8. "Pauline Hanson: Give Australians a vote on immigration - MacroBusiness". Retrieved 8 August 2018.
    9. A story of rupture and resilience: When did Australia's human history begin? ABC News, 17 November 2017, Retrieved 17 November 2017.
    12. 1 2 Price, Charles (1987). "Chapter 1: Immigration and Ethnic Origin". In Wray Vamplew (ed.). Australians: Historical Statistics. Broadway, New South Wales, Australia: Fairfax, Syme & Weldon Associates. pp. 2–22. ISBN   0-949288-29-2.
    13. "Ten Pound Poms". ABC Television (Australia) . 1 November 2007.
    14. "Ten Pound Poms". Museum Victoria . 10 May 2009.
    17. Australian Government. Department of Home Affairs. "Visa listing" . Retrieved 23 January 2018.
    18. Australian Visa Bureau (22 December 2011). "Australia visas" . Retrieved 22 December 2011.
    19. How old is too old? Calls are being made to lift or abolish the age restriction for General Skilled Migrants amid claims Australia's migration program could be in conflict wit...
    20. "Offshore - Resettlement". Retrieved 2 January 2017.
    21. "The Special Humanitarian Programme (SHP)". Retrieved 2 January 2017.
    22. "Australia's response to the Syrian and Iraqi humanitarian crisis". Retrieved 2 January 2017.
    23. Department of Home Affairs
    27. Australian Immigration Fact Sheet 66. Humanitarian Settlement Services
    28. 1 2
    30. "2006 Census Data : View by Location Or Topic". Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    31. Foran, B., and F. Poldy, (2002), Future Dilemmas: Options to 2050 for Australia's population, Technology, Resources and Environment, CSIRO Resource Futures, Canberra.
    32. "Baby Bonus Bad for Environment" (PDF). Sustainable Population Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
    33. 1 2 "Population Growth and Greenhouse Gas Emissions". 10 July 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    34. "High Population Policy Will Double Greenhouse Gas Growth". 10 July 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    35. Klan, A. (17 March 2007) Locked out
    36. Wade, M. (9 September 2006) PM told he's wrong on house prices
    37. 1 2 3 "Microsoft Word - prelims.doc" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 June 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    38. Claus, E (2005) Submission to the Productivity Commission on Population and Migration (submission 12 to the Productivity Commission's position paper on Economic Impacts of Migration and Population Growth). Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
    39. Nilsson (2005) Negative Economic Impacts of Immigration and Population Growth (submission 9 to the Productivity Commission's position paper on Economic Impacts of Migration and Population Growth). Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
    40. "Skilled Occupations List (SOL)". Retrieved 2 January 2017.
    41. "Immigration cut only temporary 16Mar 2009". 16 March 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    44. 1 2,200-excess-by-2036.aspx
    49. Patty, Anna (8 January 2017). "Forecast oversupply of doctors to hit this year amid calls to halt imports". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
    50. Birrell, Bob (8 March 2016). "Australia's Skilled Migration Program: Scarce Skills Not Required" (PDF). The Australian Population Research Institute. Monash University. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
    51. "Costello hatches census-time challenge: procreate and cherish". The Sydney Morning Herald. 25 July 2006.
    52. Goldie, J. (23 February 2006) "Time to stop all this growth" (Retrieved 30 October 2006)
    53. McDonald, P., Kippen, R. (1999) Population Futures for Australia: the Policy Alternatives Archived 18 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
    54. "Population Ageing, Migration and Social Expenditure". 9 September 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    55. "Farewell, John. We will never forget you". The Age. Melbourne. 25 November 2007.
    56. "Part 2: Long-term demographic and economic projections". Archived from the original on 2 June 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    57. 1 2 "Back-scratching at a national level". The Sydney Morning Herald. 13 June 2007.
    58. 1 2 3 4 Birrell, B. The Risks of High Migration Archived 10 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine , Policy, Vol. 26 No. 1, Autumn 2010
    59. Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
    60. Productivity Commission, Economic Impacts of Migration and Population Growth (Position Paper), p. 73 Archived 25 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine
    61. Productivity Commission, Economic Impacts of Migration and Population Growth Key Points Archived 19 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine
    62. Addison, T. and Worswick, C. (2002). The impact of immigration on the earnings of natives: Evidence from Australian micro data. , Vol. 78, pp. 68–78.
    63. Economic Impacts of Migration and Population Growth Archived 29 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
    64. Gittins, R. Beware gurus selling high migration, The Sydney Morning Herald, 20 December 2010
    65. Salter, F. The Misguided Advocates of Open Borders, Quadrant, Volume LIV Number 6, June 2010.
    66. 1 2 3 "Workers of the World", Background Briefing, Radio National Sunday 18 June 2006
    67. "Lateline – 11/06/2008: Immigration intake to rise to 300,000". Retrieved 14 July 2011.
    68. Hudson, Phillip (23 January 2010). "Abbott urges more migration, compassion for boat people". The Advertiser.
    70. Gittens, R. (20 August 2003). Honest John's migrant twostep. The Age. Retrieved 2 October from


    Further reading

    Migration history

    State immigration websites