Population growth

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In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population. Many of the world's countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, South Asia and South East Asia, have seen a sharp rise in population since the end of the Cold War. The fear is that high population numbers are putting further strain on natural resources, food supplies, fuel supplies, employment, housing, etc. in some of the less fortunate countries. For example, the population of Chad has ultimately grown from 6,279,921 in 1993 to 10,329,208 in 2009, [1] further straining its resources. Niger, Pakistan, Nigeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, and the DRC are witnessing a similar growth in population.

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis.

Human geography The study of cultures, communities and activities of peoples of the world

Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of geography that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Human geography attends to human patterns of social interaction, as well as spatial level interdependencies, and how they influence or affect the earth's environment. As an intellectual discipline, geography is divided into the sub-fields of physical geography and human geography, the latter concentrating upon the study of human activities, by the application of qualitative and quantitative research methods.

Population All the organisms of a given species that live in the specified region

In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is potentially possible between any pair within the area, and where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas.

Contents

Global human population growth amounts to around 83 million annually, [2] or 1.1% per year. The global population has grown from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.616 billion [3] in 2018. It is expected to keep growing, and estimates have put the total population at 8.6 billion by mid-2030, 9.8 billion by mid-2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100. [4]

World population The total number of living humans on Earth

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.7 billion people as of April 2019. It took over 200,000 years of human history for the world's population to reach 1 billion; and only 200 years more to reach 7 billion.

Population [5]
Years passedYearBillion
18001
12719272
3319603
1419744
1319875
1219996
1220117
122023*8
142037*9
182055*10
332088*11
*World Population Prospects 2017
(United Nations Population Division)

History

Population began growing rapidly in the Western world early in the industrial revolution of the late 18th century. The reasons for the "Modern Rise of Population" [6] were particularly investigated by the British health scientist Thomas McKeown (1912-1988). In his publications, McKeown challenged four theories about the population growth:

Western world Countries that identify themselves with an originally European shared culture

The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least parts of Europe, Australasia, and the Americas, with the status of Latin America disputed by some. There are many accepted definitions, all closely interrelated. The Western world is also known as the Occident, in contrast to the Orient, or Eastern world.

Industrial Revolution mid 18th – early 19th century period; First Industrial Revolution evolved into the Second Industrial Revolution in the transition years between 1840 and 1870

The Industrial Revolution, now also known as the First Industrial Revolution, was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system. The Industrial Revolution also led to an unprecedented rise in the rate of population growth.

Thomas McKeown (1912–1988) was a British physician, epidemiologist and historian of medicine. Largely based on demographic data from England and Wales, McKeown argued that the population growth since the late eighteenth century was due to improving economic conditions, i.e. better nutrition, rather than to better hygiene, public health measures and improved medicine. This became known as the "McKeown thesis".

  1. McKeown stated that the growth in Western population, particularly surging in the 19th century, was not so much caused by an increase in fertility, but largely by a decline of mortality particularly of childhood mortality followed by infant mortality, [7] [8]
  2. The decline of mortality could largely be attributed to rising standards of living, whereby McKeown put most emphasis on improved nutritional status,
  3. His most controversial idea, at least his most disputed idea, was that he questioned the effectiveness of public health measures, including sanitary reforms, vaccination and quarantine, [9]
  4. The sometime fierce disputes that his publication provoked around the "McKeown thesis", have overshadowed his more important and largely unchallenged argument that curative medicine measures played little role in mortality decline, not only prior to the mid-20th century [7] but also until well into the 20th century. [10]

Although the McKeown thesis has been heavily disputed, recent studies have confirmed the value of his ideas. [11] His work is pivotal for present day thinking about population growth, birth control, public health and medical care. McKeown had a major influence on many population researchers, such as health economists and Nobel prize winners Robert W. Fogel (1993) and Angus Deaton (2015). The latter considered McKeown as "the founder of social medicine". [12]

Robert Fogel American economist, historian

Robert William Fogel was an American economic historian and scientist, and winner of the 1993 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. As of his death, he was the Charles R. Walgreen Distinguished Service Professor of American Institutions and director of the Center for Population Economics (CPE) at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. He is best known as an advocate of new economic history (cliometrics) – the use of quantitative methods in history.

Angus Deaton British microeconomist

Sir Angus Stewart Deaton is a British-American economist and academic. Deaton is currently a Senior Scholar and the Dwight D. Eisenhower Professor of Economics and International Affairs Emeritus at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and the Economics Department at Princeton University. His research focuses primarily on poverty, inequality, health, wellbeing, and economic development.

Social medicine

The field of social medicine seeks to implement social care through

  1. understanding how social and economic conditions impact health, disease and the practice of medicine and
  2. fostering conditions in which this understanding can lead to a healthier society.

Population growth rate

The "population growth rate" is the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases in a given time period, expressed as a fraction of the initial population. Specifically, population growth rate refers to the change in population over a unit time period, often expressed as a percentage of the number of individuals in the population at the beginning of that period. This can be written as the formula, valid for a sufficiently small time interval:

A positive growth rate indicates that the population is increasing, while a negative growth rate indicates that the population is decreasing. A growth ratio of zero indicates that there were the same number of individuals at the beginning and end of the period—a growth rate may be zero even when there are significant changes in the birth rates, death rates, immigration rates, and age distribution between the two times. [13]

Birth rate total number of live births per 1,000 of a population in a certain period of time (usually a year)

The birth rate is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period. The rate of births in a population is calculated in several ways: live births from a universal registration system for births, deaths, and marriages; population counts from a census, and estimation through specialized demographic techniques. The birth rate are used to calculate population growth.

A related measure is the net reproduction rate. In the absence of migration, a net reproduction rate of more than 1 indicates that the population of females is increasing, while a net reproduction rate less than one (sub-replacement fertility) indicates that the population of females is decreasing.

The net reproduction rate (NRR) is the average number of daughters that would be born to a female if she passed through her lifetime conforming to the age-specific fertility and mortality rates of a given year. This rate is similar to the gross reproduction rate but takes into account that some females will die before completing their childbearing years. An NRR of one means that each generation of mothers is having exactly enough daughters to replace themselves in the population. If the NRR is less than one, the reproductive performance of the population is below replacement level.

Sub-replacement fertility

Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that leads to each new generation being less populous than the older is any rate below approximately 2.1 children born per woman, but the threshold can be as high as 3.4 in some developing countries because of higher mortality rates. Taken globally, the total fertility rate at replacement was 2.33 children per woman in 2003. This can be "translated" as 2 children per woman to replace the parents, plus a "third of a child" to make up for the higher probability of boys born and mortality prior to the end of their fertile life.

Most populations do not grow exponentially, rather they follow a logistic model. Once the population has reached its carrying capacity, it will stabilize and the exponential curve will level off towards the carrying capacity, which is usually when a population has depleted most its natural resources. [14]

The logistic growth of a population. Logistic growth graph (population ecology).JPG
The logistic growth of a population.

Logistic equation

The growth of a population can often be modelled by the logistic equation [15]

where

As it is a separable differential equation, the population may be solved explicitly, producing a logistic function:

,

where and is the initial population at time 0.

Human population growth rate

A world map showing global variations in fertility rate per woman according to the CIA World Factbook's 2016 data
7-8 children
6-7 children
5-6 children
4-5 children
3-4 children
2-3 children
1-2 children
0-1 children Countriesbyfertilityrate.svg
A world map showing global variations in fertility rate per woman according to the CIA World Factbook's 2016 data
Estimates of population evolution in different continents between 1950 and 2050 according to the United Nations. The vertical axis is logarithmic and is in millions of people. World population (UN).svg
Estimates of population evolution in different continents between 1950 and 2050 according to the United Nations. The vertical axis is logarithmic and is in millions of people.
World population growth rates between 1950-2050 World population growth rate 1950-2050.svg
World population growth rates between 1950–2050

In 2017, the estimated annual growth rate was 1.1%. [16] The CIA World Factbook gives the world annual birthrate, mortality rate, and growth rate as 1.86%, 0.78%, and 1.08% respectively. [17] The last 100 years have seen a massive fourfold increase in the population, due to medical advances, lower mortality rates, and an increase in agricultural productivity [18] made possible by the Green Revolution.

The annual increase in the number of living humans peaked at 88.0 million in 1989, then slowly declined to 73.9 million in 2003, after which it rose again to 75.2 million in 2006. In 2017, the human population increased by 83 million. [16] Generally, developed nations have seen a decline in their growth rates in recent decades, though annual growth rates remain above 2% in poverty-stricken countries of the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa, and also in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. [19]

In some countries the population is declining, especially in Eastern Europe, mainly due to low fertility rates, high death rates and emigration. In Southern Africa, growth is slowing due to the high number of AIDS-related deaths. Some Western Europe countries might also experience population decline. [20] Japan's population began decreasing in 2005. [21]

The United Nations Population Division projects world population to reach 11.2 billion by the end of the 21st century, but Sanjeev Sanyal has argued that global fertility will fall below the replacement rate in the 2020s and that world population will peak below 9 billion by 2050, followed by a long decline. [22] A 2014 study in Science concludes that the global population will reach 11 billion by 2100, with a 70% chance of continued growth into the 22nd century. [23]

Growth by country

According to United Nations population statistics, the world population grew by 30%, or 1.6 billion humans, between 1990 and 2010. [24] In number of people the increase was highest in India (350 million) and China (196 million). Population growth was among highest in the United Arab Emirates (315%) and Qatar (271%). [24]

Growth rates of the world's most populous countries
RankCountryPopulation
1990
Population
2010
Estimated population

2018 [25]

Growth (%)
1990–2010
Growth (%) 2010–2018
  World 5,306,425,0006,895,889,0007,503,828,18030.0%
1Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 1,139,060,0001,341,335,0001,384,688,98617.1%3.23%
2Flag of India.svg  India 873,785,0001,224,614,0001,296,834,04240.2%5.90%
3Flag of the United States.svg  United States 253,339,000310,384,000329,256,46522.5%6.08%
4Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 184,346,000239,871,000262,787,40330.1%9.55%
5Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 149,650,000194,946,000208,846,89230.3%7.13%
6Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 111,845,000173,593,000207,862,51855.3%19.74%
7Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 97,552,000158,423,000203,452,50562.4%28.42%
8Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 105,256,000148,692,000159,453,00141.3%7.24%
9Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 148,244,000142,958,000142,122,776-3.6%-0.58%
10Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 122,251,000128,057,000126,168,1564.7%-1.48%

Many of the world's countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, South Asia and South East Asia, have seen a sharp rise in population since the end of the Cold War. The fear is that high population numbers are putting further strain on natural resources, food supplies, fuel supplies, employment, housing, etc. in some of the less fortunate countries. For example, the population of Chad has ultimately grown from 6,279,921 in 1993 to 10,329,208 in 2009, [1] further straining its resources. Vietnam, Mexico, Nigeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, and the DRC are witnessing a similar growth in population.

The following table gives some example countries:

Example nation1967 population1990 population1994 population2002 population2008 populationLife expectancy in years (2008)Total population growth from 1960s to 2007- 2011
Eritrea*N/A*N/A*3,437,000 [26] 4,298,2695,673,520 [27] 61 [28] [28] 2,236,520
Ethiopia*23,457,000* [29] 50,974,000* [30] 54,939,000 [26] 67,673,031(2003)79,221,000 [31] 55 [28] 55,764,000
Sudan 14,355,000† [29] 25,204,000† [30] 27,361,000† [26] 38,114,160 (2003)†42,272,000† [27] 50† [28] 27,917,000
Chad 3,410,000 [29] 5,679,000 [30] 6,183,000 [26] 9,253,493(2003)10,329,208 (2009) [1] 47 [28] 6,919,205
Niger 3,546,000 [29] 7,732,000 [30] 8,846,000 [26] 10,790,352 (2001)15,306,252 (2009) [32] 44 [28] 11,760,252
Nigeria 61,450,000 [29] 88,500,000 [30] 108,467,000 [26] 129,934,911158,259,000 [27] 47 [28] 96,809,000
Mali 4,745,000 [29] 8,156,000 [30] 10,462,000 [26] 11,340,48014,517,176(2010) [33] 50 [28] 9,772,176
Mauritania 1,050,000 [29] 2,025,000 [30] 2,211,000 [26] 2,667,859 (2003)3,291,000 (2009) [1] 54 [28] 2,241,000
Senegal 3,607,000 [29] 7,327,000 [30] 8,102,000 [26] 9,967,21513,711,597 (2009) [34] 57 [28] 10,104,597
Gambia 343,000 [29] 861,000 [30] 1,081,000 [26] 1,367,124 (2000)1,705,000 [27] 55 [28] 1,362,000
Algeria 11,833,126 (1966) [29] 25,012,000 [30] 27,325,000 [26] 32,818,500 (2003)34,895,000 [31] [35] 74 [28] 23,061,874
The DRC/Zaire 16,353,000 [29] 35,562,000 [30] 42,552,000 [26] 55,225,478 (2003)70,916,439 [31] [36] 54 [28] 54,563,439
Egypt 30,083,419 (1966) [29] 53,153,000 [30] 58,326,000 [26] 70,712,345 (2003)79,089,650 [31] [37] [37] 72 [28] 49,006,231
Réunion (overseas region of France)418,000 [29] N/A [30] N/A [26] 720,934 (2003)827,000 (2009) [27] N/A [28] 409,000
The Falkland Islands (British Overseas Territory)2,500 [29] N/A [30] N/A [26] 2,967 (2003)3,140(2010) [38] N/A [28] 640
Chile 8,935,500 [29] 13,173,000 [30] 13,994,000 [26] 15,116,43517,224,200 (2011)77 [28] 8,288,700
Colombia 19,191,000 [29] 32,987,000 [30] 34,520,000 [26] 41,088,22745,925,397 (2010) [39] 73 [28] 26,734,397
Brazil 85,655,000 [29] 150,368,000 [30] 153,725,000 [26] 174,468,575 (2000)190,732,694 (2010) [40] 72 [28] 105,077,694
Mexico45,671,000 [29] 86,154,000 [30] 93,008,000 [26] 103,400,165 (2000)112,322,757 (2010) [41] 76 [28] 66,651,757
Fiji 476,727 (1966) [29] 765,000 [30] 771,000 [26] 844,330 (2001)849,000 [35] (2010)70 [28] 372,273
Nauru 6,050 (1966) [29] 10,000 [30] N/A [26] 12,3299,322 (2011) [42] N/A [28] 3,272
Jamaica 1,876,000 [29] 2,420,000 [30] 2,429,000 [26] 2,695,867 (2003)2,847,232 [43] (2010)74 [28] 971,232
Australia 11,540,764 (1964) [29] 17,086,000 [30] 17,843,000 [26] 19,546,792 (2003)25,236,683 [44] (2010)82 [28] 10,066,508
Albania 1,965,500 (1964) [29] 3,250,000 [30] 3,414,000 [26] 3,510,4842,986,952 (July 2010 est.) [1] [45] 78 [28] 1,021,452
Poland 31,944,000 [29] 38,180,000 [30] 38,554,000 [26] 38,626,349 (2001)38,192,000 (2010) [46] 75 [28] 6,248,000
Hungary10,212,000 [29] 10,553,000 [30] 10,261,000 [26] 10,106,0179,979,000 (2010) [47] 73 [28] -142,000
Bulgaria 8,226,564 (1965) [29] 8,980,000 [30] 8,443,000 [26] 7,707,495(2000)7,351,234 (2011) [48] 73 [28] -875,330
United Kingdom 55,068,000 (1966) [29] 57,411,000 [30] 58,091,000 [26] 58,789,19462,008,048 (2010) [49] 79 [28] 7,020,048
Ireland 2,884,002 (1966) [29] 3,503,000 [30] 3,571,000 [26] 3,840,838 (2000)4,470,700 [50] (2010)78 [28] 1,586,698
People's Republic of China 720,000,000 [29] 1,139,060,000 [30] 1,208,841,000 [26] 1,286,975,468 (2004)1,339,724,852 (2010) [51] 73 [28] 619,724,852
Japan‡98,274,961 (1965) [29] 123,537,000 [30] 124,961,000 [26] 127,333,002127,420,000 (2010) [52] 82 [28] 28,123,865
Ryukyu Islands (Once occupied by the United States)‡934,176 (1965) [29] N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
India#511,115,000 [29] 843,931,000 [30] 918,570,000 [26] 1,028,610,328 (2001)1,210,193,422 (2011) [53] 69 [28] 699,078,422
Singapore 1,956,000 (1967) [29] 3,003,000 (1990) [30] 2,930,000 (1994) [26] 4,452,732 (2002)5,076,700 (2010) [54] 82 (2008) [28] 3,120,700
Sikkim#183,000 (1967) [29] N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Monaco 24,000 (1967) [29] 29,000 (1990) [30] N/A (1994) [26] 31,842 (2000)35,586 [55] (2010)(2008) [28] 11,586
Greece 8,716,000 (1967) [29] 10,123,000 (1990) [30] 10,426,000 (1994) [26] 10,964,020 (2001) [56] 11,305,118 (2011) [57] N/A (2008) [28] 2,589,118
Faroe Islands (Danish dependency)38,000 (1967) [29] N/A (1990) [30] N/A (1994) [26] 46,345 (2000)48,917 (2010) [58] N/A (2008) [28] 18,917
Liechtenstein 20,000 (1967) [29] 29,000 (1990) [30] N/A (1994) [26] 33,307 (2000)35,789 (2009) [59] (2008) [28] 15,789
South Korea 29,207,856 (1966) [29] 42,793,000 (1990) [30] 44,453,000 (1994) [26] 48,324,000 (2003)48,875,000 (2010) [60] (2008) [28] 19,667,144
North Korea 12,700,000 (1967) [29] 21,773,000 (1990) [30] 23,483,000 (1994) [26] 22,224,195 (2002)24,051,218 (2010) [61] (2008) [28] 11,351,218
Brunei 107,200 (1967) [29] 266,000 (1990) [30] 280,000 (1994) [26] 332,844 (2001)401,890 (2011) [62] 76 (2008) [28] 306,609
Malaysia 10,671,000 (1967) [29] 17,861,000 (1990) [30] 19,489,000 (1994) [26] 21,793,293 (2002)27,565,821 (2010) [63] (2008) [28] 16,894,821
Thailand 32,680,000 (1967) [29] 57,196,000 (1990) [30] 59,396,000 (1994) [26] 60,606,947 (2000) [64] 63,878,267 (2011) [65] (2008) [28] 31,198,267
Lebanon 2,520,000 (1967) [29] 2,701,000 (1990) [30] 2,915,000 (1994) [26] 3,727,703 [66] (2003)4,224,000 [27] (2009)- (2008) [28]
Syria 5,600,000 (1967) [29] 12,116,000 (1990) [30] 13,844,000 (1994) [26] 17,585,540 (2003)22,457,763 (2011) [67] -(2008) [28]
Bahrain 182,00 (1967) [29] 503,000 (1990) [30] 549,000 (1994) [26] 667,238 (2003)1,234,596 [68] (2010)75 (2008) [28]
Sri Lanka 11,741,000 (1967) [29] 16,993,000 (1990) [30] 17,685,000 (1994) [26] 19,607,519 (2002)20,238,000 [35] (2009)- (2008) [28]
Switzerland 6,050,000 (1967) [29] 6.712,000 (1990) [30] 6,994,000 (1994) [26] 7,261,200 (2002)7,866,500 [69] (2010)- (2008) [28]
Luxembourg 335,000 (1967) [29] 381,000 (1990) [30] 401,000 (1994) [26] 439,539 (2001)511,840 (2011) [70] - (2008) [28]
Romania 19,105,056 (1966) [29] 23,200,000 (1990) [30] 22,736,000 (1994) [26] 21,680,974 (2002)21,466,174 [71] (2011)- (2008) [28]
Niue (associated state of New Zealand)1,900 (1966) [29] N/A (1990) [30] N/A (1994) [26] 2,134 (2002)1,398 (2009) [72] N/A (2008) [28] -502
Tokelau (New Zealand territory)5,194 (1966) [29] N/A (1990) [30] N/A (1994) [26] 1,445 (2001)1,416 (2009)N/A (2008) [28] -3,778
Jamaica 1,876,000 (1967) [29] 2,420,000 (1990) [30] 2,429,000 (1994) [26] 2,695,867 (2003)2,847,232 [43] (2010)74 (2008) [28] 971,232
Argentina 32,031,000 (1967) [29] 32,322,000 (1990) [30] 34,180,000 (1994) [26] 37,812,817 (2002)40,091,359 (2010)74 (2008) [28] 8,060,359
France49,890,660 (1967) [29] 56,440,000 (1990) [30] 57,747,000 (1994) [26] 59,551,000 (2001)63,136,180 (2011) [73] 81 (2008) [28]
Italy52,334,000 (1967) [29] 57,662,000 (1990) [30] 57,193,000 (1994) [26] 56,995,744 (2002)60,605,053 [74] (2011)80 (2008) [28]
Mauritius 774,000 (1967) [29] 1,075,000 (1990) [30] 1,104,000 (1994) [26] 1,179,137 (2000)1,288,000 (2009) [35] 75 (2008) [28] 514,000
Guatemala 4,717,000 (1967) [29] 9,197,000 (1990) [30] 10,322,000 (1994) [26] 12,974,361 (2000)13,276,517 (2009)70 (2008) [28] 8,559,517
Cuba 8,033,000 (1967) [29] 10,609,000 (1990) [30] 10,960,000 (1994) [26] 11,177,743 (2002)11,239,363 (2009) [75] 77 (2008) [28]
Barbados 246,000 (1967) [29] 255,000 (1990) [30] 261,000 (1994) [26] 250,012 (2001)284,589 (2010) [1] 73 (2008) [28] 18,589
Samoa 131,377 (1967) [29] 164,000 (1990) [30] 164,000 (1994) [26] 178,173 (2003)179,000 (2009) [27] N/A (2008) [28]
Sweden 7,765,981 (1967) [29] 8,559,000 (1990) [30] 8,794,000 (1994) [26] 8,920,705 (2002)9,354,462 (2009)81 (2008) [28]
Finland 4,664,000 (1967) [29] 4,986,000 (1990) [30] 5,095,000 (1994) [26] 5,175,783 (2002)5,374,781 (2010)N/A (2008) [28]
Portugal 9,440,000 (1967) [29] 10,525,000 (1990) [30] 9,830,000 (1994) [26] 10,355,824 (2001)10,647,763 [76] (2011)N/A (2008) [28]
Austria 7,323,981 (1967) [29] 7,712,000 (1990) [30] 8,031,000 (1994) [26] 8,032,926 (2001)8,404,252 (2011)N/A (2008) [28]
Libya 1,738,000 (1967) [29] 4,545,000 (1990) [30] 5,225,000(1994) [26] 5,499,074 (2002)6,420,000 (2009) [27] 77 (2008) [28]
Peru 12,385,000 (1967) [29] 21,550,000 (1990) [30] 23,080,000(1994) [26] 27,949,639 (2002)29,496,000 (2010)70 (2008) [28]
Guinea Bissau 528,000 (1967) [29] 965,000 (1990) [30] 1,050,000 (1994) [26] 1,345,479 (2002)1,647,000 [27] (2009)48 (2008) [28]
Angola 5,203,066 (1967) [29] 10,020,000 (1990) [30] 10,674,000 (1994) [26] 10,766,500 (2003)18,498,000 [35] [77] (2009)38 (2008) [28]
Equatorial Guinea 277,000 (1967) [29] 348,000 (1990) [30] 389,000 (1994) [26] 474,214 (2000)676,000 (2009) [35] 61 (2008) [28]
Benin 2,505,000 (1967) [29] 4,736,000 (1990) [30] 5,246,000 (1994) [26] 8,500,500 (2002)8,791,832 (2009)59 (2008) [28]
Laos 2,770,000 (1967) [29] 4,139,000 (1990) [30] 4,742,000 (1994) [26] 5,635,967 (2002)6,800,000 [78] (2011)56 (2008) [28]
Nepal 10,500,000 (1967) [29] 18,961,000 (1990) [30] 21,360,000 (1994) [26] 25,284,463 (2002)29,331,000 [35] (2009)- (2008) [28]
Iran 25,781,090 (1966) [29] 54,608,000 (1990) [30] 59,778,000 (1994) [26] 66,622,704 (2002)75,330,000 (2010) [79] 71 (2008) [28]
Canada 20,014,880 (1966) [29] 26,603,000 (1990) [30] 29,248,000(1994) [26] 31,081,900 (2001)32,623,490 (2011) [80] 81 (2008) [28]
United States 199,118,000 (1967) [29] 249,995,000 (1990) [30] 260,650,00(1994) [26] 281,421,906 (2000)308,745,538 (2010) [81] 78 (2008) [28]
Uganda 7,931,000 (1967) [29] 18,795,000 (1990) [30] 20,621,000 (1994) [26] 24,227,297 (2002)32,369,558 (2009)52 (2008) [28]
Notes
* Eritrea left Ethiopia in 1991.
Split into the nations of Sudan and South Sudan during 2011.
Japan and the Ryukyu Islands merged in 1972.
# India and Sikkim merged in 1975.
Population growth 1990–2012 (%) [82]
Africa 73.3%
Middle East 68.2%
Asia (excl. China)42.8%
China19.0%
OECD Americas 27.9%
Non-OECD Americas36.6%
OECD Europe 11.5%
OECD Asia Oceania 11.1%
Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia -0.8%
Thousands of scooters make their way through the city of Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. Overpopulation in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.JPG
Thousands of scooters make their way through the city of Hồ Chí Minh, Vietnam.

Growth by region

Population growth rates vary by world region, with the highest growth rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and the lowest in Europe. For example, from 1950 to 2010, Sub-Saharan Africa grew over three and a half times, from about 186 million to 856 million. On the other hand, Europe only increased by 35%, from 547 million in 1950 to 738 million in 2010. As a result of these varying population growths, Sub-Saharan Africa changed from 7.4% of world population in 1950 to 12.4% in 2010, while Europe declined from 22% to 11% in the same time period. [83]

Into the future

Estimated size of human population from 10,000 BCE to 2000 CE. Population curve.svg
Estimated size of human population from 10,000 BCE to 2000 CE.
The majority of world population growth today is occurring in less developed countries. Comparing Population Growth By Country's Development, 2002.svg
The majority of world population growth today is occurring in less developed countries.

According to the UN's 2017 revision to its population projections, world population is projected to reach 11.2 billion by 2100 compared to 7.6 billion in 2017. [84] [85] In 2011, Indian economist Sanjeev Sanyal disputed the UN's figures and argued that birth rates will fall below replacement rates in the 2020s. According to his projections, population growth will be only sustained till the 2040s by rising longevity, but will peak below 9 bn by 2050. [22] Conversely, a 2014 paper by demographers from several universities and the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population would reach about 10.9 billion in 2100 and continue growing thereafter. [86] One of its authors, Adrian Raftery, a University of Washington professor of statistics and of sociology, says "The consensus over the past 20 years or so was that world population, which is currently around 7 billion, would go up to 9 billion and level off or probably decline. We found there’s a 70 percent probability the world population will not stabilize this century. Population, which had sort of fallen off the world’s agenda, remains a very important issue." [87]

See also

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