Population growth

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Absolute increase in global human population per year Absolute increase in global population per year, OWID.svg
Absolute increase in global human population per year

Population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population. Global human population growth amounts to around 83 million annually, [2] or 1.1% per year. The global population has grown from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.774 billion [3] in 2020. It is expected to keep growing, and estimates have put the total population at 8.6 billion by mid-2030, 9.8 billion by mid-2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100. [4] Many nations with rapid population growth have low standards of living, whereas many nations with low rates of population growth have high standards of living. [5]

Contents

Population [6]
Years passedYearBillion
18001
12719272
3319603
1419744
1319875
1219996
1320127
122023*8
142037*9
182055*10
332088*11
*World Population Prospects 2017
(United Nations Population Division)

History

World human population estimates from 1800 to 2100, with estimated range of future population after 2020 based on "high" and "low" scenarios. Data from the United Nations projections in 2019. Human population since 1800.png
World human population estimates from 1800 to 2100, with estimated range of future population after 2020 based on "high" and "low" scenarios. Data from the United Nations projections in 2019.

World population has been rising continuously since the end of the Black Death, around the year 1350. [7] Population began growing rapidly in the Western world during the industrial revolution. The most significant increase in the world's population has been since the 1950s, mainly due to medical advancements [8] and increases in agricultural productivity. [9]

Haber process

Due to its dramatic impact on the human ability to grow food, the Haber process served as the "detonator of the population explosion", enabling the global population to increase from 1.6 billion in 1900 to 7.7 billion by November 2019. [10]

Thomas McKeown hypotheses

Some of the reasons for the "Modern Rise of Population" [11] were particularly investigated by the British health scientist Thomas McKeown (1912-1988). In his publications, McKeown challenged four theories about the population growth:

  1. McKeown stated that the growth in Western population, particularly surging in the 19th century, was not so much caused by an increase in fertility, but largely by a decline of mortality particularly of childhood mortality followed by infant mortality, [12] [13]
  2. The decline of mortality could largely be attributed to rising standards of living, whereby McKeown put most emphasis on improved nutritional status,
  3. His most controversial idea, at least his most disputed idea, was that he questioned the effectiveness of public health measures, including sanitary reforms, vaccination and quarantine, [14]
  4. The sometime fierce disputes that his publication provoked around the "McKeown thesis", have overshadowed his more important and largely unchallenged argument that curative medicine measures played little role in mortality decline, not only prior to the mid-20th century [12] but also until well into the 20th century. [15]

Although the McKeown thesis has been heavily disputed, recent studies have confirmed the value of his ideas. [16] His work is pivotal for present day thinking about population growth, birth control, public health and medical care. McKeown had a major influence on many population researchers, such as health economists and Nobel prize winners Robert W. Fogel (1993) and Angus Deaton (2015). The latter considered McKeown as "the founder of social medicine". [17]

Population growth rate

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Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Human Population Through Time

The "population growth rate" is the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases in a given time period, expressed as a fraction of the initial population. Specifically, population growth rate refers to the change in population over a unit time period, often expressed as a percentage of the number of individuals in the population at the beginning of that period. This can be written as the formula, valid for a sufficiently small time interval:

A positive growth rate indicates that the population is increasing, while a negative growth rate indicates that the population is decreasing. A growth ratio of zero indicates that there were the same number of individuals at the beginning and end of the period—a growth rate may be zero even when there are significant changes in the birth rates, death rates, immigration rates, and age distribution between the two times. [18]

A related measure is the net reproduction rate. In the absence of migration, a net reproduction rate of more than 1 indicates that the population of females is increasing, while a net reproduction rate less than one (sub-replacement fertility) indicates that the population of females is decreasing.

Most populations do not grow exponentially, rather they follow a logistic model. Once the population has reached its carrying capacity, it will stabilize and the exponential curve will level off towards the carrying capacity, which is usually when a population has depleted most its natural resources. [19]

The logistic growth of a population. Logistic growth graph (population ecology).JPG
The logistic growth of a population.

Logistic equation

The growth of a population can often be modelled by the logistic equation [20]

where

As it is a separable differential equation, the population may be solved explicitly, producing a logistic function:

,

where and is the initial population at time 0.

Human population growth rate

A world map showing global variations in fertility rate per woman according to the CIA World Factbook's 2016 data
7-8 children
6-7 children
5-6 children
4-5 children
3-4 children
2-3 children
1-2 children
0-1 children Countriesbyfertilityrate.svg
A world map showing global variations in fertility rate per woman according to the CIA World Factbook's 2016 data
Estimates of population evolution in different continents between 1950 and 2050 according to the United Nations. The vertical axis is logarithmic and is in millions of people. World population (UN).svg
Estimates of population evolution in different continents between 1950 and 2050 according to the United Nations. The vertical axis is logarithmic and is in millions of people.
World population growth rates between 1950-2050 World population growth rate 1950-2050.svg
World population growth rates between 1950–2050

In 2017, the estimated annual growth rate was 1.1%. [21] The CIA World Factbook gives the world annual birthrate, mortality rate, and growth rate as 1.86%, 0.78%, and 1.08% respectively. [22] The last 100 years have seen a massive fourfold increase in the population, due to medical advances, lower mortality rates, and an increase in agricultural productivity [23] made possible by the Green Revolution.

The annual increase in the number of living humans peaked at 88.0 million in 1989, then slowly declined to 73.9 million in 2003, after which it rose again to 75.2 million in 2006. In 2017, the human population increased by 83 million. [21] Generally, developed nations have seen a decline in their growth rates in recent decades, though annual growth rates remain above 2% in poverty-stricken countries of the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa, and also in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. [24]

In some countries the population is declining, especially in Eastern Europe, mainly due to low fertility rates, high death rates and emigration. In Southern Africa, growth is slowing due to the high number of AIDS-related deaths. Some Western Europe countries might also experience population decline. [25] Japan's population began decreasing in 2005. [26]

The United Nations Population Division projects world population to reach 11.2 billion by the end of the 21st century, but Sanjeev Sanyal has argued that global fertility will fall below the replacement rate in the 2020s and that world population will peak below 9 billion by 2050, followed by a long decline. [27] A 2014 study in Science concludes that the global population will reach 11 billion by 2100, with a 70% chance of continued growth into the 22nd century. [28]

For further information regarding Human Population Growth, see the works of Dr(s) Al Bartlett, Hans Rosling, John Lovelock, Paul Ehrlich as well as Cleric Thomas Robert Malthus.

Growth by country

According to United Nations population statistics, the world population grew by 30%, or 1.6 billion humans, between 1990 and 2010. [29] In number of people the increase was highest in India (350 million) and China (196 million). Population growth was among highest in the United Arab Emirates (315%) and Qatar (271%). [29]

Growth rates of the world's most populous countries
RankCountryPopulation
1990
Population
2010
Estimated population

2018 [30]

Growth (%)
1990–2010
Growth (%) 2010–2018
World 5,306,425,0006,895,889,0007,503,828,18030.0%
1 China 1,139,060,0001,341,335,0001,384,688,98617.1%3.23%
2 India 873,785,0001,224,614,0001,296,834,04240.2%5.90%
3 United States 253,339,000310,384,000329,256,46522.5%6.08%
4 Indonesia 184,346,000239,871,000262,787,40330.1%9.55%
5 Brazil 149,650,000194,946,000208,846,89230.3%7.13%
6 Pakistan 111,845,000173,593,000207,862,51855.3%19.74%
7 Nigeria 97,552,000158,423,000203,452,50562.4%28.42%
8 Bangladesh 105,256,000148,692,000159,453,00141.3%7.24%
9 Russia 148,244,000142,958,000142,122,776-3.6%-0.58%
10 Japan 122,251,000128,057,000126,168,1564.7%-1.48%

Many of the world's countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, South Asia and South East Asia, have seen a sharp rise in population since the end of the Cold War. The fear is that high population numbers are putting further strain on natural resources, food supplies, fuel supplies, employment, housing, etc. in some of the less fortunate countries. For example, the population of Chad has ultimately grown from 6,279,921 in 1993 to 10,329,208 in 2009, [31] further straining its resources. Vietnam, Mexico, Nigeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, and the DRC are witnessing a similar growth in population.

The following table gives some example countries:

Example nation1967 population1990 population1994 population2002 population2008 populationLife expectancy in years (2008)Total population growth from 1960s to 2007- 2011
Eritrea*N/A*N/A*3,437,000 [32] 4,298,2695,673,520 [33] 61 [34] [34] 2,236,520
Ethiopia*23,457,000* [35] 50,974,000* [36] 54,939,000 [32] 67,673,031(2003)79,221,000 [37] 55 [34] 55,764,000
Sudan 14,355,000† [35] 25,204,000† [36] 27,361,000† [32] 38,114,160 (2003)†42,272,000† [33] 50† [34] 27,917,000
Chad 3,410,000 [35] 5,679,000 [36] 6,183,000 [32] 9,253,493(2003)10,329,208 (2009) [31] 47 [34] 6,919,205
Niger 3,546,000 [35] 7,732,000 [36] 8,846,000 [32] 10,790,352 (2001)15,306,252 (2009) [38] 44 [34] 11,760,252
Nigeria 61,450,000 [35] 88,500,000 [36] 108,467,000 [32] 129,934,911158,259,000 [33] 47 [34] 96,809,000
Mali 4,745,000 [35] 8,156,000 [36] 10,462,000 [32] 11,340,48014,517,176(2010) [39] 50 [34] 9,772,176
Mauritania 1,050,000 [35] 2,025,000 [36] 2,211,000 [32] 2,667,859 (2003)3,291,000 (2009) [31] 54 [34] 2,241,000
Senegal 3,607,000 [35] 7,327,000 [36] 8,102,000 [32] 9,967,21513,711,597 (2009) [40] 57 [34] 10,104,597
Gambia 343,000 [35] 861,000 [36] 1,081,000 [32] 1,367,124 (2000)1,705,000 [33] 55 [34] 1,362,000
Algeria 11,833,126 (1966) [35] 25,012,000 [36] 27,325,000 [32] 32,818,500 (2003)34,895,000 [37] [41] 74 [34] 23,061,874
The DRC/Zaire 16,353,000 [35] 35,562,000 [36] 42,552,000 [32] 55,225,478 (2003)70,916,439 [37] [42] 54 [34] 54,563,439
Egypt 30,083,419 (1966) [35] 53,153,000 [36] 58,326,000 [32] 70,712,345 (2003)79,089,650 [37] [43] [43] 72 [34] 49,006,231
Réunion (overseas region of France)418,000 [35] N/A [36] N/A [32] 720,934 (2003)827,000 (2009) [33] N/A [34] 409,000
The Falkland Islands (British Overseas Territory)2,500 [35] N/A [36] N/A [32] 2,967 (2003)3,140(2010) [44] N/A [34] 640
Chile 8,935,500 [35] 13,173,000 [36] 13,994,000 [32] 15,116,43517,224,200 (2011)77 [34] 8,288,700
Colombia 19,191,000 [35] 32,987,000 [36] 34,520,000 [32] 41,088,22745,925,397 (2010) [45] 73 [34] 26,734,397
Brazil 85,655,000 [35] 150,368,000 [36] 153,725,000 [32] 174,468,575 (2000)190,732,694 (2010) [46] 72 [34] 105,077,694
Mexico 45,671,000 [35] 86,154,000 [36] 93,008,000 [32] 103,400,165 (2000)112,322,757 (2010) [47] 76 [34] 66,651,757
Fiji 476,727 (1966) [35] 765,000 [36] 771,000 [32] 844,330 (2001)849,000 [41] (2010)70 [34] 372,273
Nauru 6,050 (1966) [35] 10,000 [36] N/A [32] 12,3299,322 (2011) [48] N/A [34] 3,272
Jamaica 1,876,000 [35] 2,420,000 [36] 2,429,000 [32] 2,695,867 (2003)2,847,232 [49] (2010)74 [34] 971,232
Australia 11,540,764 (1964) [35] 17,086,000 [36] 17,843,000 [32] 19,546,792 (2003)25,580,501 [50] (2010)82 [34] 10,066,508
Albania 1,965,500 (1964) [35] 3,250,000 [36] 3,414,000 [32] 3,510,4842,986,952 (July 2010 est.) [31] [51] 78 [34] 1,021,452
Poland 31,944,000 [35] 38,180,000 [36] 38,554,000 [32] 38,626,349 (2001)38,192,000 (2010) [52] 75 [34] 6,248,000
Hungary 10,212,000 [35] 10,553,000 [36] 10,261,000 [32] 10,106,0179,979,000 (2010) [53] 73 [34] -142,000
Bulgaria 8,226,564 (1965) [35] 8,980,000 [36] 8,443,000 [32] 7,707,495(2000)7,351,234 (2011) [54] 73 [34] -875,330
United Kingdom 55,068,000 (1966) [35] 57,411,000 [36] 58,091,000 [32] 58,789,19462,008,048 (2010) [55] 79 [34] 7,020,048
Ireland 2,884,002 (1966) [35] 3,503,000 [36] 3,571,000 [32] 3,840,838 (2000)4,470,700 [56] (2010)78 [34] 1,586,698
People's Republic of China 720,000,000 [35] 1,139,060,000 [36] 1,208,841,000 [32] 1,286,975,468 (2004)1,339,724,852 (2010) [57] 73 [34] 619,724,852
Japan98,274,961 (1965) [35] 123,537,000 [36] 124,961,000 [32] 127,333,002127,420,000 (2010) [58] 82 [34] 28,123,865
Ryukyu Islands (Once occupied by the United States)‡934,176 (1965) [35] N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
India#511,115,000 [35] 843,931,000 [36] 918,570,000 [32] 1,028,610,328 (2001)1,210,193,422 (2011) [59] 69 [34] 699,078,422
Singapore 1,956,000 (1967) [35] 3,003,000 (1990) [36] 2,930,000 (1994) [32] 4,452,732 (2002)5,076,700 (2010) [60] 82 (2008) [34] 3,120,700
Sikkim#183,000 (1967) [35] N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Monaco 24,000 (1967) [35] 29,000 (1990) [36] N/A (1994) [32] 31,842 (2000)35,586 [61] (2010)(2008) [34] 11,586
Greece 8,716,000 (1967) [35] 10,123,000 (1990) [36] 10,426,000 (1994) [32] 10,964,020 (2001) [62] 11,305,118 (2011) [63] N/A (2008) [34] 2,589,118
Faroe Islands (Danish dependency)38,000 (1967) [35] N/A (1990) [36] N/A (1994) [32] 46,345 (2000)48,917 (2010) [64] N/A (2008) [34] 18,917
Liechtenstein 20,000 (1967) [35] 29,000 (1990) [36] N/A (1994) [32] 33,307 (2000)35,789 (2009) [65] (2008) [34] 15,789
South Korea 29,207,856 (1966) [35] 42,793,000 (1990) [36] 44,453,000 (1994) [32] 48,324,000 (2003)48,875,000 (2010) [66] (2008) [34] 19,667,144
North Korea 12,700,000 (1967) [35] 21,773,000 (1990) [36] 23,483,000 (1994) [32] 22,224,195 (2002)24,051,218 (2010) [67] (2008) [34] 11,351,218
Brunei 107,200 (1967) [35] 266,000 (1990) [36] 280,000 (1994) [32] 332,844 (2001)401,890 (2011) [68] 76 (2008) [34] 306,609
Malaysia 10,671,000 (1967) [35] 17,861,000 (1990) [36] 19,489,000 (1994) [32] 21,793,293 (2002)27,565,821 (2010) [69] (2008) [34] 16,894,821
Thailand 32,680,000 (1967) [35] 57,196,000 (1990) [36] 59,396,000 (1994) [32] 60,606,947 (2000) [70] 63,878,267 (2011) [71] (2008) [34] 31,198,267
Lebanon 2,520,000 (1967) [35] 2,701,000 (1990) [36] 2,915,000 (1994) [32] 3,727,703 [72] (2003)4,224,000 [33] (2009)- (2008) [34]
Syria 5,600,000 (1967) [35] 12,116,000 (1990) [36] 13,844,000 (1994) [32] 17,585,540 (2003)22,457,763 (2011) [73] -(2008) [34]
Bahrain 182,00 (1967) [35] 503,000 (1990) [36] 549,000 (1994) [32] 667,238 (2003)1,234,596 [74] (2010)75 (2008) [34]
Sri Lanka 11,741,000 (1967) [35] 16,993,000 (1990) [36] 17,685,000 (1994) [32] 19,607,519 (2002)20,238,000 [41] (2009)- (2008) [34]
Switzerland 6,050,000 (1967) [35] 6.712,000 (1990) [36] 6,994,000 (1994) [32] 7,261,200 (2002)7,866,500 [75] (2010)- (2008) [34]
Luxembourg 335,000 (1967) [35] 381,000 (1990) [36] 401,000 (1994) [32] 439,539 (2001)511,840 (2011) [76] - (2008) [34]
Romania 19,105,056 (1966) [35] 23,200,000 (1990) [36] 22,736,000 (1994) [32] 21,680,974 (2002)21,466,174 [77] (2011)- (2008) [34]
Niue (associated state of New Zealand)1,900 (1966) [35] N/A (1990) [36] N/A (1994) [32] 2,134 (2002)1,398 (2009) [78] N/A (2008) [34] -502
Tokelau (New Zealand territory)5,194 (1966) [35] N/A (1990) [36] N/A (1994) [32] 1,445 (2001)1,416 (2009)N/A (2008) [34] -3,778
Jamaica 1,876,000 (1967) [35] 2,420,000 (1990) [36] 2,429,000 (1994) [32] 2,695,867 (2003)2,847,232 [49] (2010)74 (2008) [34] 971,232
Argentina 32,031,000 (1967) [35] 32,322,000 (1990) [36] 34,180,000 (1994) [32] 37,812,817 (2002)40,091,359 (2010)74 (2008) [34] 8,060,359
France 49,890,660 (1967) [35] 56,440,000 (1990) [36] 57,747,000 (1994) [32] 59,551,000 (2001)63,136,180 (2011) [79] 81 (2008) [34]
Italy 52,334,000 (1967) [35] 57,662,000 (1990) [36] 57,193,000 (1994) [32] 56,995,744 (2002)60,605,053 [80] (2011)80 (2008) [34]
Mauritius 774,000 (1967) [35] 1,075,000 (1990) [36] 1,104,000 (1994) [32] 1,179,137 (2000)1,288,000 (2009) [41] 75 (2008) [34] 514,000
Guatemala 4,717,000 (1967) [35] 9,197,000 (1990) [36] 10,322,000 (1994) [32] 12,974,361 (2000)13,276,517 (2009)70 (2008) [34] 8,559,517
Cuba 8,033,000 (1967) [35] 10,609,000 (1990) [36] 10,960,000 (1994) [32] 11,177,743 (2002)11,239,363 (2009) [81] 77 (2008) [34]
Barbados 246,000 (1967) [35] 255,000 (1990) [36] 261,000 (1994) [32] 250,012 (2001)284,589 (2010) [31] 73 (2008) [34] 18,589
Samoa 131,377 (1967) [35] 164,000 (1990) [36] 164,000 (1994) [32] 178,173 (2003)179,000 (2009) [33] N/A (2008) [34]
Sweden 7,765,981 (1967) [35] 8,559,000 (1990) [36] 8,794,000 (1994) [32] 8,920,705 (2002)9,354,462 (2009)81 (2008) [34]
Finland 4,664,000 (1967) [35] 4,986,000 (1990) [36] 5,095,000 (1994) [32] 5,175,783 (2002)5,374,781 (2010)N/A (2008) [34]
Portugal 9,440,000 (1967) [35] 10,525,000 (1990) [36] 9,830,000 (1994) [32] 10,355,824 (2001)10,647,763 [82] (2011)N/A (2008) [34]
Austria 7,323,981 (1967) [35] 7,712,000 (1990) [36] 8,031,000 (1994) [32] 8,032,926 (2001)8,404,252 (2011)N/A (2008) [34]
Libya 1,738,000 (1967) [35] 4,545,000 (1990) [36] 5,225,000(1994) [32] 5,499,074 (2002)6,420,000 (2009) [33] 77 (2008) [34]
Peru 12,385,000 (1967) [35] 21,550,000 (1990) [36] 23,080,000(1994) [32] 27,949,639 (2002)29,496,000 (2010)70 (2008) [34]
Guinea Bissau 528,000 (1967) [35] 965,000 (1990) [36] 1,050,000 (1994) [32] 1,345,479 (2002)1,647,000 [33] (2009)48 (2008) [34]
Angola 5,203,066 (1967) [35] 10,020,000 (1990) [36] 10,674,000 (1994) [32] 10,766,500 (2003)18,498,000 [41] [83] (2009)38 (2008) [34]
Equatorial Guinea 277,000 (1967) [35] 348,000 (1990) [36] 389,000 (1994) [32] 474,214 (2000)676,000 (2009) [41] 61 (2008) [34]
Benin 2,505,000 (1967) [35] 4,736,000 (1990) [36] 5,246,000 (1994) [32] 8,500,500 (2002)8,791,832 (2009)59 (2008) [34]
Laos 2,770,000 (1967) [35] 4,139,000 (1990) [36] 4,742,000 (1994) [32] 5,635,967 (2002)6,800,000 [84] (2011)56 (2008) [34]
Nepal 10,500,000 (1967) [35] 18,961,000 (1990) [36] 21,360,000 (1994) [32] 25,284,463 (2002)29,331,000 [41] (2009)- (2008) [34]
Iran 25,781,090 (1966) [35] 54,608,000 (1990) [36] 59,778,000 (1994) [32] 66,622,704 (2002)75,330,000 (2010) [85] 71 (2008) [34] 49,548,910
Canada 20,014,880 (1966) [35] 26,603,000 (1990) [36] 29,248,000(1994) [32] 31,081,900 (2001)32,623,490 (2011) [86] 81 (2008) [34]
United States 199,118,000 (1967) [35] 249,995,000 (1990) [36] 260,650,00(1994) [32] 281,421,906 (2000)308,745,538 (2010) [87] 78 (2008) [34]
Uganda 7,931,000 (1967) [35] 18,795,000 (1990) [36] 20,621,000 (1994) [32] 24,227,297 (2002)32,369,558 (2009)52 (2008) [34]
Notes
* Eritrea left Ethiopia in 1991.
Split into the nations of Sudan and South Sudan during 2011.
Japan and the Ryukyu Islands merged in 1972.
# India and Sikkim merged in 1975.
Population growth 1990–2012 (%) [88]
Africa 73.3%
Middle East 68.2%
Asia (excl. China)42.8%
China19.0%
OECD Americas 27.9%
Non-OECD Americas36.6%
OECD Europe 11.5%
OECD Asia Oceania 11.1%
Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia -0.8%
Thousands of scooters make their way through the city of Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. Overpopulation in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.JPG
Thousands of scooters make their way through the city of Hồ Chí Minh, Vietnam.

Growth comparison between Africa and Europe

Population growth rates vary by world region, with the highest growth rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and the lowest in Europe. For example, from 1950 to 2010, Sub-Saharan Africa grew over three and a half times, from about 186 million to 856 million. On the other hand, Europe only increased by 35%, from 547 million in 1950 to 738 million in 2010. As a result of these varying population growths, Sub-Saharan Africa changed from 7.4% of world population in 1950 to 12.4% in 2010, while Europe declined from 22% to 11% in the same time period. [89]

Into the future

Estimated size of human population from 10,000 BCE to 2000 CE. Population curve.svg
Estimated size of human population from 10,000 BCE to 2000 CE.
The majority of world population growth today is occurring in less developed countries. Comparing Population Growth By Country's Development, 2002.svg
The majority of world population growth today is occurring in less developed countries.

According to the UN's 2017 revision to its population projections, world population is projected to reach 11.2 billion by 2100 compared to 7.6 billion in 2017. [90] [91] In 2011, Indian economist Sanjeev Sanyal disputed the UN's figures and argued that birth rates will fall below replacement rates in the 2020s. According to his projections, population growth will be only sustained till the 2040s by rising longevity, but will peak below 9 bn by 2050. [27] Conversely, a 2014 paper by demographers from several universities and the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population would reach about 10.9 billion in 2100 and continue growing thereafter. [92] One of its authors, Adrian Raftery, a University of Washington professor of statistics and of sociology, says "The consensus over the past 20 years or so was that world population, which is currently around 7 billion, would go up to 9 billion and level off or probably decline. We found there’s a 70 percent probability the world population will not stabilize this century. Population, which had sort of fallen off the world’s agenda, remains a very important issue." [93]

The German Foundation for World Population reported in December 2019 that the global human population grows by 2.6 people every second, and could reach 8 billion by 2023. [94]

See also

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The following is an overview of the demographics of Myanmar, including statistics such as population, ethnicity, language, education level and religious affiliation.

Demographics of Nepal Wikimedia list article

In the 2011 census, Nepal's population was approximately 26 million people with a population growth rate of 1.35% and a median age of 21.6 years. In 2016, the female median age was approximately 25 years old and the male median age was approximately 22 years old. Only 4.4% of the population is estimated to be more than 65 years old, comprising 681,252 females and 597,628 males. 61% of the population is between 15 and 64 years old, and 34.6% is younger than 14 years. In 2011, the Birth rate is estimated to be 22.17 births per 1,000 people with an infant mortality rate of 46 deaths per 1,000 live births. Compared to the infant mortality rate in 2006 of 48 deaths per 1000 live births, the 2011 IMR is a slight decrease within that 5-year period. Infant mortality rate in Nepal is higher in rural regions at 44 deaths per 1000 live births, whereas in urban regions the IMR is lower at 40 deaths per 1000 live births. This difference is due to a lack of delivery assistance services in rural communities compared to their urban counterparts who have better access to hospitals and neonatal clinics. Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 67.44 years for females and 64.94 years for males. The mortality rate is estimated to be 681 deaths per 100,000 people. Net migration rate is estimated to be 61 migrants per 100,000 people. According to the 2011 census, 65.9% of the total population is literate.

Nigeria is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, with approximately 200 million people in an area of 923,768 km2 (356,669 sq mi), and is also the country with the largest population in Africa and the seventh largest population in the world.

Demographics of China Aspect of human geography in China

The demographics of China demonstrate a large population with a relatively small youth component, partially a result of China's one-child policy. China's population reached 1 billion in 1982.

Demographics of Saudi Arabia

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the second largest state in the Arab world, with a reported population of 33,413,660 as of 2018. A significant percentage of the nation's inhabitants are immigrants seeking economic opportunity, making up 37% of the total Saudi population. Saudi Arabia has experienced a population explosion in the last 40 years, and continues to grow at a rate of 1.63% per year.

Demographics of Sri Lanka

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Sri Lanka, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demography The science that deals with populations and their structures, statistically and theoretically

Demography is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.

This article is about the demographic features of Guyana, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Bhutan

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Bhutan, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of the Gambia

The demographic characteristics of the population of The Gambia are known through national censuses, conducted in ten-year intervals and analyzed by The Gambian Bureau of Statistics (GBOS) since 1963. The latest census was conducted in 2013. The population of The Gambia at the 2013 census was 1.8 million. The population density is 176.1 per square kilometer, and the overall life expectancy in The Gambia is 64.1 years. Since the first census of 1963, the population of The Gambia has increased every ten years by an average of 43.2 percent. Since 1950s, the birth rate has constantly exceeded the death rate; the natural growth rate is positive. The Gambia is in the second stage of demographic transition. In terms of age structure, The Gambia is dominated by 15- to 64-year-old segment (57.6%). The median age of the population is 19.9 years, and the gender ratio of the total population is 0.98 males per female.

Mortality rate Measure of the number of deaths in a population from a given cause, scaled by population, in a set period of time

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.5 in a population of 1,000 would mean 9.5 deaths per year in that entire population, or 0.95% out of the total. It is distinct from "morbidity", which is either the prevalence or incidence of a disease, and also from the incidence rate.

Human overpopulation Condition where human numbers exceed the short or long-term carrying capacity of the environment

Human overpopulation is when there are too many people for the environment to sustain. In more scientific terms, there is overshoot when the ecological footprint of a human population in a geographical area exceeds that place's carrying capacity, damaging the environment faster than it can be repaired by nature, potentially leading to an ecological and societal collapse. Overpopulation could apply to the population of a specific region, or to world population as a whole.

Demographics of Africa

The population of Africa has grown rapidly over the past century and consequently shows a large youth bulge, further reinforced by a low life expectancy of below 50 years in some African countries. Total population as of 2020 is estimated at more than 1.341 billion, with a growth rate of more than 2.5% p.a. The total fertility rate for Sub-Saharan Africa is 4.7 as of 2018, the highest in the world according to the World Bank. The most populous African country is Nigeria with 191 million inhabitants as of 2017 and a growth rate of 2.6% p.a.

World population The total number of living humans on Earth

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.8 billion people as of March 2020. It took over 200,000 years of human history for the world's population to reach 1 billion, and only 200 years more to reach 7 billion.

The Earth has a population of 7.75 billion, with an overall population density of 50 people per km², excluding Antarctica. Nearly two-thirds of the world's population lives in Asia, with more than 2.5 billion in the countries of China and India combined. The world's literacy rate has increased dramatically in the last 40 years, from 66.7% in 1979 to 86.3% today. This low rate is mostly attributable to poverty. Lower literacy rates are mostly found in South Asia, West Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The world's largest ethnic group is Han Chinese, with Mandarin being the world's most spoken language in terms of native speakers.

Projections of population growth World population growth projections

Population projections are attempts to show how the human population living today will change in the future. These projections are an important input to forecasts of the population’s impact on this planet and humanity’s future well-being.

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