In 1610, the warlord Tokugawa Ieyasu, a retainer of Oda Nobunaga, moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu to Nagoya. This period saw the renovation of Nagoya Castle. Nagoya was proclaimed a city in 1889, during the Meiji Restoration, and became a major industrial hub for Japan. The traditional manufactures of timepieces, bicycles, and sewing machines were followed by the production of special steels, chemicals, oil, and petrochemicals, as the area's automobile, aviation, and shipbuilding industries flourished. Nagoya was impacted by bombing from US air raids during World War II.
Oda Nobunaga and his protégés Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were powerful warlords based in the Nagoya area who gradually succeeded in unifying Japan. In 1610, Tokugawa Ieyasu moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu, about seven kilometers (4.3 miles) away, to a more strategic location in present-day Nagoya.
During this period Nagoya Castle was constructed, built partly from materials taken from Kiyosu Castle. During the construction, the entire town around Kiyosu Castle, consisting of around 60,000 people, moved from Kiyosu to the newly planned town around Nagoya Castle. Around the same time, the nearby ancient Atsuta Shrine was designated as a waystation, called Miya (the Shrine), on the important Tōkaidō road, which linked the two capitals of Kyoto and Edo (now Tokyo). A town developed around the temple to support travelers. The castle and shrine towns formed the city.
During the Meiji Restoration Japan's provinces were restructured into prefectures and the government changed from family to bureaucratic rule. Nagoya was proclaimed a city on October 1, 1889, and designated a city on September 1, 1956, by government ordinance.
Mitsubishi Aircraft Company was established in 1920 in Nagoya and became one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in Japan. The availability of space and the central location of the region and the well-established connectivity were some of the major factors that lead to the establishment of the aviation industry there.
Nagoya was the target of US air raids during World War II. The population of Nagoya at this time was estimated to be 1.5 million, fourth among Japanese cities and one of the three largest centers of the Japanese aircraft industry. It was estimated that 25% of its workers were engaged in aircraft production. Important Japanese aircraft targets (numbers 193, 194, 198, 2010, and 1729) were within the city itself, while others (notably 240 and 1833) were to the north of Kagamigahara. It was estimated that they produced between 40% and 50% of Japanese combat aircraft and engines, such as the vital Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter. The Nagoya area also produced machine tools, bearings, railway equipment, metal alloys, tanks, motor vehicles and processed foods during World War II.
Air raids began on April 18, 1942, with an attack on a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries aircraft works, the Matsuhigecho oil warehouse, the Nagoya Castle military barracks and the Nagoya war industries plant. The bombing continued through the spring of 1945, and included large-scale firebombing. Nagoya was the target of two of Bomber Command’s attacks. These incendiary attacks, one by day and one by night, devastated 15.3 square kilometres (5.9sqmi) . The XXI Bomber Command established a new U.S. Army Air Force record with the greatest tonnage ever released on a single target in one mission—3,162 tons of incendiaries. It also destroyed or damaged twenty-eight of the numbered targets and raised the area burned to almost one-fourth of the entire city.[full citation needed] Nagoya Castle, which was being used as a military command post, was hit and mostly destroyed on May 14, 1945., followed by the Yokkaichi Bombing in June 1945. Reconstruction of the main building was completed in 1959. Later in the same year on July 26th, 1945 the Enola Gay also dropped a conventional pumpkin bomb in the Yagoto area of Nagoya as part of a bombing raid in order to train for their mission to Hiroshima.
Nagoya lies north of Ise Bay on the Nōbi Plain. The city was built on low-level plateaus to ward off floodwaters. The plain is one of the nation's most fertile areas. The Kiso River flows to the west along the city border, and the Shōnai River comes from the northeast and turns south towards the bay at Nishi Ward. The man-made Hori River was constructed as a canal in 1610. It flows from north to south, as part of the Shōnai River system. The rivers allowed for trade with the hinterland. The Tempaku River feeds from a number of smaller river in the east, flows briefly south at Nonami and then west at Ōdaka into the bay.
The city's location and its position in the centre of Japan allowed it to develop economically and politically.
One of the earliest censuses, carried out in 1889, counted 157,496 residents. The population reached the 1 million mark in 1934 and as of December 2010 had an estimated population of 2,259,993 with a population density of 6,923 inhabitants per square kilometre (17,930/sqmi). Also as of December2010[update] an estimated 1,019,859 households resided there—a significant increase from 153,370 at the end of World War II in 1945.
The area is 326.45 square kilometres (126.04sqmi). Its metropolitan area extends into the Mie and Gifu prefectures, with a total population of about 10 million people, surpassed only by Osaka and Tokyo.
The aviation history has historically been of importance since the industrialization. During the war the Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter was constructed in Nagoya. The aviation tradition continues with Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation headquartered in the Nagoya Airfield's terminal building in Komaki. The Mitsubishi Regional Jet (MRJ) aircraft is produced at a factory adjacent to the airport. The MRJ is a partnership between majority owner Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Toyota with design assistance from Toyota affiliate Fuji Heavy Industries, already a manufacturer of aircraft. It is the first airliner designed and produced in Japan since the NAMC YS-11 of the 1960s. The MRJ's first flight was on November 11, 2015.
Toyoraku ware continued on until the Taishō era under the 8th generation. Colourful pieces and gorgeous tea utensils were highly valued. Sasashima ware also experienced its heyday during this time. Colourful and soft ceramic items such as sake and tea utensils and objects were produced and intently collected.
An early type of manufactured production was the blue-and-white Kawana ware. With the advent of industrialization during the Meiji era of the late 19th century, some export wares were produced. Industrial-scale export porcelain was made by old Noritake, also Nagoya E-tsuke (名古屋絵付) became popular.
Production of industrial ceramics continues to be an important economic factor with companies such as INAX, NGK, and NGK Insulators.
Nagoya was a major trading city and political seat of the Owari lords, the most important house of the Tokugawa clan. They encouraged trade and the arts under their patronage, especially Tokugawa Muneharu, the 7th lord, who took a keen interest in drama and plays and lived lavishly. Under his rule, actors and actresses began to visit Nagoya. Arts and culture was further supported by the city's wealthy merchants. Culture flourished after the feudal Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji era. During World War II many old buildings and artefacts were destroyed. The region's economic and financial power in the post-war years rekindled the artistic and cultural scene.
Nagoya has multiple museums, including traditional and modern art, handicrafts to industrial high-tech, natural and scientific museums.
Nagoya Castle's collection is from the Owari Tokugawa era. The main tower is a museum that details the history of the castle and the city. The Honmaru Palace, destroyed in World War II, is slated for reconstruction by 2016 and will again be a prime example of the Shoin-zukuri architecture of the feudal era. Tokugawa Art Museum is a private museum belonging to the Owari Tokugawa, who lived in Nagoya castle for 16 generations. Among other things, it contains 10 designated national Treasures of Japan, including some of the oldest scrolls of The Tale of Genji. The Nagoya Noh Theatre houses various precious objects of Noh theatre. The Nagoya City Museum showcases the history of the town.
Yōki-sō is a villa and gardens located in Chikusa-ku, close to Nittai-ji. It was constructed in the Taishō era for Ito Jirozaemon Suketami XV, the first president of Matsuzakaya.
The civic authorities promote tourism and have taken steps to safeguard architectural heritage by earmarking them as cultural assets. Apart from the castle, temples, shrines and museums in the city, a "Cultural Path" was instituted in the 1980s, located between the Tokugawa Art Museum and Nagoya Castle. This residential area has historic buildings such as the Nagoya City Archives, the Nagoya City Hall main building, the Aichi Prefectural Office main building, the Futaba Museum, the former residence of Sasuke Toyoda, the former residence of Tetsujiro Haruta and the Chikaramachi Catholic Church. Most buildings date from the Meiji and Taishō era and are protected.
The Tokugawa Art Museum, which houses some of the finest art treasures of Japan
Textile Machinery Pavilion in the Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology
The Nagoya obi, the most popular type for kimono throughout Japan
Nō and Kyōgen theatre date back to the feudal times of the Owari Tokugawa lords. The Nagoya Noh Theater at Nagoya Castle continues that tradition and is a prominent feature in the cultural life of the city, with monthly performances.
Developed during the Edo period, one of Japan's kabuki grand stages is Misono-za, which also hosts various other Japanese entertainment such as concerts.
In 1912, the musician Gorō Morita invented the Nagoya harp music instrument.
Major events include the June Atsuta Festival, the July Port Festival, the August Nagoya Castle Summer Festival Castle and the October Nagoya Festival. Wards and areas host local festivals such as the Daidō-chōnin Matsuri (大須大道町人祭, Street Performer's Festival) in Ōsu.
The Nagoya dialect (名古屋弁, Nagoya-ben) is spoken in the western half of Aichi Prefecture, centering on Nagoya. It is also called Owari dialect (尾張弁, Owari-ben). The Nagoya dialect is relatively close to standard Japanese and to the Kansai dialect, differing in pronunciation and vocabulary.
Arimatsu and Narumi dye: during the construction of Nagoya Castle in the 17th century, the lords of Owari called in skilled craftsmen from Bungo Province in Kyushu, known for their tie-dyed fabrics. These craftsmen and their families were treated generously by the Owari and settled in the Arimatsu und Narumi neighbourhoods. Only the base fabric is dyed, leaving parts that were knotted as white spots. This highly specialised process requires 6–12 months to complete.
Getaclog straps: wooden clogs called geta were the shoes of the feudal era. The Owari devised a unique pattern for the cotton straps of the clogs and ordered them to be made by local weavers. The technique has developed over the generations. The straps became stronger and more resilient but more comfortable for the feet with the discovery of cotton velvet.
Shippo: the technique for enamelware called shippo arrived from the Netherlands towards the end of the Edo period. The patterns appear almost transparent and are often used on pottery.
Candles: wax is taken from a wax tree and painted around a rope made of grass and Japanese paper (washi) over and over again into layers. When cut in half, the candle looks as if it grew like a tree with rings. Japanese candles produce less smoke and are harder to blow out, since the wick tends to be larger. Artists paint the candles in coloured patterns.
Yuzen: the art of silk dyeing was introduced by craftsmen from Kyoto during the rule of Owari Togukawa. The initial designs were extravagant and brightly coloured, but over time became more muted and light-coloured.
Sekku Ningyo: festival dolls were introduced by markets during the Meiji era. Nagoya craftsmen rank among the top producers.
The city also gave its name to a type of obi, the sash that is used to tie a kimono. The term Nagoya obi can refer to an older type of obi used centuries ago. This type was cord-like. The current Nagoya obi (名古屋帯?) – or to differentiate from the fukuro Nagoya obi, also called kyūsun Nagoya obi (九寸名古屋帯?, "nine-inch nagoya obi") – is the most-used obi type today. It was developed by a seamstress living in Nagoya at the end of the 1920s. The new, easy-to-use obi gained popularity among Tokyo's geisha, from whom it then was adopted by fashionable city women for their everyday wear. The Nagoya obi was originally for everyday wear, not for ceremonial outfits, but one made from exquisite brocade can be accepted as semi-ceremonial wear. A more formal version is called the Fukuro Nagoya obi (袋名古屋帯?) or hassun Nagoya obi (八寸名古屋帯?, "eight-inch Nagoya obi"), which is more formal.
In 2007, the Chunichi Dragons won the Japan Series baseball championship. In 2010, Nagoya Grampus won the J. League championship, their first in team history. Nagoya is also the home of the Nagoya Barbarians semi-pro rugby football club.
In September 2016 the city was awarded the right to host the 2026 Asian Games after it was the only city to lodge a bid. It will be the third time Japan hosts the event after Tokyo in 1958 and Hiroshima in 1994.
Nagoya Castle was built in 1612. Although a large part of it burned down during World War II, the castle was restored in 1959, adding amenities such as elevators. The castle is famous for two magnificent Golden tiger-headed carp (金の鯱, Kin no Shachihoko) on the roof, often used as the symbol of Nagoya.
The Noritake factory: The home of Noritake fine chinaware is open to visitors and allows people to learn about the history of the establishment. It includes a cafe, information/technology displays, and shopping facilities, so visitors can spend a whole day wandering through the displays and grounds. It also holds a few unrestored areas that serve as reminders of devastation caused by the final stages of World War II.
Seto is a city located in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 October 2019, the city had an estimated population of 127,659 in 56,573 households, and a population density of 1,146 persons per km². The total area was 111.40 square kilometres (43.01 sq mi).
Nagoya Castle is a Japanese castle located in Nagoya, Japan.
Aichi Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region of Honshū. Aichi Prefecture has a population of 7,552,873 and a geographic area of 5,172.92 square kilometres (1,997.28 sq mi) with a population density of 1,460 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,800/sq mi). Aichi Prefecture borders Mie Prefecture to the west, Gifu Prefecture and Nagano Prefecture to the north, and Shizuoka Prefecture to the east.
Nishi-ku is one of the 16 wards in the city of Nagoya in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 October 2019, the ward has an estimated population of 150,480 and a population density of 8,393 persons per km². The total area is 17.93 km².
Nagoya Gakuin University is a private university located in Nagoya, Japan (名古屋市). Founded in 1887 by Dr. Frederick C. Klein, an American Methodist minister, as Aichi English School; the present-day university was established in 1964 with the Faculty of Economics. Nagoya Gakuin University follows the spirit of the school's motto “Fear God, Love People.”.
The Owari Domain was a feudal domain of Japan in the Edo period. Located in what is now the western part of Aichi Prefecture, it encompassed parts of Owari, Mino, and Shinano provinces. Its headquarters were at Nagoya Castle. At its peak, it was rated at 619,500 koku, and was the largest holding of the Tokugawa clan apart from the shogunal lands. The Daimyō of Owari was the Owari Tokugawa family, the first in rank among the gosanke. The domain was also known as Nagoya Domain (名古屋藩)
The Owari Tokugawa family is a branch of the Tokugawa clan, and it is the seniormost house of the Gosanke.
Nagoya City University, abbreviated to Meishidai (名市大), is a public university in Japan. The main campus (Kawasumi) is located in Mizuho-ku, Nagoya City. Other three campuses are also located in the city. Nagoya City University has been ranked the highest among public universities which is also one of leading universities in Japan.
Doho University is a private university in Nakamura-ku, Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1826, and it was chartered in 1950. It includes the Nagoya College of Music, also known locally as Meion (名音). The university is affiliated with the Jōdo Shinshū sect of Buddhism.
Meijo University is a private university in Japan. Its main campus is in Tempaku-ku, Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan and it has two other campuses in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture. It has 2 Nobel laureates as the faculty members as of 2021.
Nagoya College of Music is a private university at Nakamura-ku, Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The school was founded as a junior college in 1965 and became a four-year college in 1976. The school is also known locally as Meion (名音). It is part of Doho University.
Nagoya Bunri University is a private university in Inazawa, Aichi, Japan. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1941.
Nagoya Daigaku Station is a railway station in Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan.
Nagoya College is a private women's junior college in the city of Toyoake in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Although actually in Toyoake, the school is very close to the city of Nagoya. The predecessor of the school, a women's school, was founded in 1923, and it was chartered as a junior college in 1955.
Nagoya Management Junior College is a private junior college located in the city of Owariasahi, very close to the city of Nagoya in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Originally established as a women's junior college in 1965, the school became coeducational in 2000.
The ŌzoneOshitayashiki, sometimes also read as Shimoyashiki (下屋敷), is a former residence of the Owari branch of the Tokugawa clan, located in Ōzone in Higashi ward in Nagoya, central Japan.
The Nagoya City Museum is a museum of the city of Nagoya in Aichi Prefecture, Japan.
Nagoya Seirei Junior College was a private junior college in the city of Seto, Aichi Prefecture, Japan.
Nagoya Meitoku Junior College was a private junior college in the city of Tōkai in Aichi Prefecture, Japan.
Masaki Sōzaburō was a Japanese samurai and potter during the Edo period from Owari Province.
↑ Campbell, Richard H. (2005). The Silverplate Bombers: A History and Registry of the Enola Gay and Other B-29's Configured to Carry Atomic Bombs. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN0-7864-2139-8.
↑ 平成22年12月1日現在の世帯数と人口(全市・区別)[Population and Number of Households as of 1 December, Heisei 22] (in Japanese). Nagoya City. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 15 January 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2011.