Nagoya

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Nagoya

名古屋市
City of Nagoya [1]
Meieki from Heiwa Park Aqua Tower.jpg
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Nagoya TV Tower & Spaceship-Aqua, Higashisakura Higashi Ward Nagoya 2020.jpg
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Arimatsu Historic Townscape, Midori Ward Nagoya 2014.JPG
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Aquarium + Giant wheel + Fuji Icebreaker - view from the lighthouse - Nagoya Port - Japan (15676490678).jpg
Flag of Nagoya, Aichi.svg
Flag
Emblem of Nagoya, Aichi.svg
Nagoya
Nagoya in Aichi Prefecture Ja.svg
Location of Nagoya in Aichi Prefecture
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Nagoya
 
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Nagoya
Nagoya (Japan)
Coordinates: 35°11′N136°54′E / 35.183°N 136.900°E / 35.183; 136.900 Coordinates: 35°11′N136°54′E / 35.183°N 136.900°E / 35.183; 136.900
Country Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
Region Chūbu (Tōkai)
Prefecture Aichi Prefecture
First official recorded199 AD
City SettledNovember 1, 1889
Government
  Mayor Takashi Kawamura (Genzei Nippon)
   Representatives 5
Area
   Designated city 326.45 km2 (126.04 sq mi)
Population
 (October 1, 2019)
   Designated city 2,327,557 (3rd)
   Metro
[2]
10,240,000 (3rd)
Time zone UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
- TreeCamphor laurel
(Cinnamomum camphora)
- Flower Lilium
Phone number052-972-2017
Address3-1-1 Sannomaru, Naka-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 460-0001
Website www.city.nagoya.jp
[3]
Nagoya
Nagoya (Chinese characters).svg
"Nagoya" in kanji
Japanese name
Kanji 名古屋
Hiragana なごや
Katakana ナゴヤ

Nagoya (名古屋市, Nagoya-shi) is the largest city in the Chūbu region of Japan. It is Japan's fourth-largest incorporated city and the third most populous urban area. Located on the Pacific coast on central Honshu, it is the capital of Aichi Prefecture and is one of Japan's major ports along with those of Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Yokohama, and Chiba. It is also the center of Japan's third-largest metropolitan region, known as the Chūkyō metropolitan area. As of 1 October 2019, 2,327,557 people lived in the city, part of Chūkyō metropolitan Area's 10.11 million people, [4] making it one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.

Contents

Overview

In 1610, the warlord Tokugawa Ieyasu, a retainer of Oda Nobunaga, moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu to Nagoya. This period saw the renovation of Nagoya Castle. Nagoya was proclaimed a city in 1889, during the Meiji Restoration, and became a major industrial hub for Japan. The traditional manufactures of timepieces, bicycles, and sewing machines were followed by the production of special steels, chemicals, oil, and petrochemicals, as the area's automobile, aviation, and shipbuilding industries flourished. [5] Nagoya was impacted by bombing from US air raids during World War II.

After the war, Nagoya developed into a major port and transport center. The Shinkansen high-speed line connecting Tokyo and Osaka converges on Nagoya. Nagoya is served by two airports: Chubu Centrair International Airport in nearby Tokoname, and Nagoya Airfield, home to Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation. Nagoya remains an important center for the automotive, aviation, and ceramic industries, hosting the headquarters of Brother Industries, Ibanez, Lexus, and Toyota Tsusho, among others.

Nagoya is home to Nagoya University, the Nagoya Institute of Technology, and Nagoya City University. It is also the location of numerous cultural institutions, including the Tokugawa Art Museum, Atsuta Shrine, Higashiyama Zoo and Botanical Gardens, Aichi Arts Center, and Misono-za. Nagoya TV Tower is the oldest TV tower in Japan.

Etymology

The city's name was historically written as 那古野 or 名護屋 (both read as Nagoya). One possible origin is the adjective nagoyaka (なごやか), meaning 'peaceful'. [6]

The name Chūkyō (中京), consisting of chū (middle) + kyō (capital) is also used to refer to Nagoya. Notable examples of the use of the name Chūkyō include the Chūkyō Industrial Area, Chūkyō Metropolitan Area, Chūkyō Television Broadcasting, Chukyo University and the Chukyo Racecourse.

History

The Great Atsuta Shrine, which dates back to c. 100 AD and houses the holy sword Kusanagi, one of the imperial regalia of Japan Atsuta Shrine.jpg
The Great Atsuta Shrine, which dates back to c. 100 AD and houses the holy sword Kusanagi, one of the imperial regalia of Japan
Osu Kannon is a Buddhist temple, originally built in 1333 Osu Kannon panorama.jpg
Ōsu Kannon is a Buddhist temple, originally built in 1333

Origins

Oda Nobunaga and his protégés Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were powerful warlords based in the Nagoya area who gradually succeeded in unifying Japan. In 1610, Tokugawa Ieyasu moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu, about seven kilometers (4.3 miles) away, to a more strategic location in present-day Nagoya.

In May–June 1560, the Battle of Okehazama took place in Dengakuhazama, Owari Province which was just outside of what would become Nagoya city. In this battle, Oda Nobunaga defeated Imagawa Yoshimoto and established himself as one of the leading warlords in the Sengoku period. [7]

Edo period

During this period Nagoya Castle was constructed, built partly from materials taken from Kiyosu Castle. During the construction, the entire town around Kiyosu Castle, consisting of around 60,000 people, moved from Kiyosu to the newly planned town around Nagoya Castle. [8] Around the same time, the nearby ancient Atsuta Shrine was designated as a waystation, called Miya (the Shrine), on the important Tōkaidō road, which linked the two capitals of Kyoto and Edo (now Tokyo). A town developed around the temple to support travelers. The castle and shrine towns formed the city.

Industrialization

During the Meiji Restoration Japan's provinces were restructured into prefectures and the government changed from family to bureaucratic rule. Nagoya was proclaimed a city on October 1, 1889, and designated a city on September 1, 1956, by government ordinance.

Nagoya became an industrial hub for the region. Its economic sphere included the famous pottery towns of Tokoname, Tajimi and Seto, as well as Okazaki, one of the only places where gunpowder was produced under the shogunate. Other industries included cotton and complex mechanical dolls called karakuri ningyō .

Mitsubishi Aircraft Company was established in 1920 in Nagoya and became one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in Japan. The availability of space and the central location of the region and the well-established connectivity were some of the major factors that lead to the establishment of the aviation industry there.

World War II and later

Nagoya was the target of US air raids during World War II. The population of Nagoya at this time was estimated to be 1.5 million, fourth among Japanese cities and one of the three largest centers of the Japanese aircraft industry. It was estimated that 25% of its workers were engaged in aircraft production. Important Japanese aircraft targets (numbers 193, 194, 198, 2010, and 1729) were within the city itself, while others (notably 240 and 1833) were to the north of Kagamigahara. It was estimated that they produced between 40% and 50% of Japanese combat aircraft and engines, such as the vital Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter. The Nagoya area also produced machine tools, bearings, railway equipment, metal alloys, tanks, motor vehicles and processed foods during World War II.

Air raids began on April 18, 1942, with an attack on a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries aircraft works, the Matsuhigecho oil warehouse, the Nagoya Castle military barracks and the Nagoya war industries plant. [9] The bombing continued through the spring of 1945, and included large-scale firebombing. Nagoya was the target of two of Bomber Command’s attacks. These incendiary attacks, one by day and one by night, devastated 15.3 square kilometres (5.9 sq mi) . The XXI Bomber Command established a new U.S. Army Air Force record with the greatest tonnage ever released on a single target in one mission—3,162 tons of incendiaries. It also destroyed or damaged twenty-eight of the numbered targets and raised the area burned to almost one-fourth of the entire city. [10] [ full citation needed ] Nagoya Castle, which was being used as a military command post, was hit and mostly destroyed on May 14, 1945., [11] followed by the Yokkaichi Bombing in June 1945. Reconstruction of the main building was completed in 1959. Later in the same year on July 26th, 1945 the Enola Gay also dropped a conventional pumpkin bomb in the Yagoto area of Nagoya as part of a bombing raid in order to train for their mission to Hiroshima. [12]

In 1959, the city was flooded and severely damaged by the Ise-wan Typhoon.

After the war the city was able to rebuild and take up its role again as one of the country's leading industrial and manufacturing centres. It also plays an increasing role in the meetings, incentives, conferencing, exhibitions (MICE) industry, hosting the Expo 2005 and the Nagoya Protocol conference in 2010.

Geography and administrative divisions

Satellite picture of Nagoya Nagoya by Sentinel-2, 2020-10-27.jpg
Satellite picture of Nagoya

Geography

Nagoya lies north of Ise Bay on the Nōbi Plain. The city was built on low-level plateaus to ward off floodwaters. The plain is one of the nation's most fertile areas. The Kiso River flows to the west along the city border, and the Shōnai River comes from the northeast and turns south towards the bay at Nishi Ward. The man-made Hori River was constructed as a canal in 1610. It flows from north to south, as part of the Shōnai River system. The rivers allowed for trade with the hinterland. The Tempaku River feeds from a number of smaller river in the east, flows briefly south at Nonami and then west at Ōdaka into the bay.

The city's location and its position in the centre of Japan allowed it to develop economically and politically.

Climate

Nagoya has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) with hot, humid summers and cool winters. The summer is noticeably wetter than the winter, although rain falls throughout the year.

Climate data for Nagoya, Aichi (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)21.0
(69.8)
23.5
(74.3)
25.8
(78.4)
30.5
(86.9)
34.8
(94.6)
35.8
(96.4)
39.6
(103.3)
40.3
(104.5)
38.0
(100.4)
32.7
(90.9)
27.2
(81.0)
22.6
(72.7)
40.3
(104.5)
Average high °C (°F)9.0
(48.2)
10.1
(50.2)
13.9
(57.0)
19.9
(67.8)
24.1
(75.4)
27.2
(81.0)
30.8
(87.4)
32.8
(91.0)
28.6
(83.5)
22.8
(73.0)
17.0
(62.6)
11.6
(52.9)
20.7
(69.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)4.5
(40.1)
5.2
(41.4)
8.7
(47.7)
14.4
(57.9)
18.9
(66.0)
22.7
(72.9)
26.4
(79.5)
27.8
(82.0)
24.1
(75.4)
18.1
(64.6)
12.2
(54.0)
7.0
(44.6)
15.8
(60.4)
Average low °C (°F)0.8
(33.4)
1.1
(34.0)
4.2
(39.6)
9.6
(49.3)
14.5
(58.1)
19.0
(66.2)
23.0
(73.4)
24.3
(75.7)
20.7
(69.3)
14.1
(57.4)
8.1
(46.6)
3.1
(37.6)
11.9
(53.4)
Record low °C (°F)−10.3
(13.5)
−9.5
(14.9)
−6.8
(19.8)
−2.1
(28.2)
2.8
(37.0)
8.2
(46.8)
14.0
(57.2)
14.4
(57.9)
9.5
(49.1)
1.5
(34.7)
−2.7
(27.1)
−7.2
(19.0)
−10.3
(13.5)
Average rainfall mm (inches)48.4
(1.91)
65.6
(2.58)
121.8
(4.80)
124.8
(4.91)
156.5
(6.16)
201.0
(7.91)
203.6
(8.02)
126.3
(4.97)
234.4
(9.23)
128.3
(5.05)
79.7
(3.14)
45.0
(1.77)
1,535.3
(60.44)
Average snowfall cm (inches)5
(2.0)
8
(3.1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3
(1.2)
16
(6.3)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.5 mm)6.87.510.210.411.412.813.08.711.99.57.26.9116.2
Average snowy days6.45.42.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.02.616.6
Average relative humidity (%)64615960657174707168666566
Mean monthly sunshine hours 170.1170.0189.1196.6197.5149.9164.3200.4151.0169.0162.7172.22,091.6
Average ultraviolet index 2467910101086326
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency [13] (records) [14] and Weather Atlas [15]

Wards

Nagoya City Hall Nagoya City Hall 2011-10-28.jpg
Nagoya City Hall

Nagoya has 16 wards.

Wards of Nagoya
Place NameMap of Nagoya
Rōmaji Kanji PopulationLand area in km2Pop. density per km2
1 Atsuta-ku 熱田区66,3188.208,088
A map of Nagoya's Wards Nagoya Wards.png
A map of Nagoya's Wards
2 Chikusa-ku 千種区165,86318.189,123
3 Higashi-ku 東区82,9397.7110,757
4 Kita-ku 北区163,55517.539,330
5 Meitō-ku 名東区165,28719.458,498
6 Midori-ku 緑区247,47537.916,528
7 Minami-ku 南区136,01518.467,368
8 Minato-ku 港区143,91345.643,153
9 Mizuho-ku 瑞穂区107,62211.229,592
10 Moriyama-ku 守山区176,29834.015,184
11 Naka-ku - administrative center中区90,9189.389,693
12 Nakagawa-ku 中川区220,78232.026,895
13 Nakamura-ku 中村区135,13416.308,290
14 Nishi-ku 西区150,48017.938,393
15 Shōwa-ku 昭和区110,43610.9410,095
16 Tenpaku-ku 天白区164,52221.587,624

Cityscape

Demographics

Nagoya metropolitan employment area as of 2015 Nagoya Metropolitan Employment Area 2015.png
Nagoya metropolitan employment area as of 2015

One of the earliest censuses, carried out in 1889, counted 157,496 residents. The population reached the 1 million mark in 1934 and as of December 2010 had an estimated population of 2,259,993 with a population density of 6,923 inhabitants per square kilometre (17,930/sq mi). Also as of December 2010 an estimated 1,019,859 households resided there—a significant increase from 153,370 at the end of World War II in 1945. [16]

The area is 326.45 square kilometres (126.04 sq mi). Its metropolitan area extends into the Mie and Gifu prefectures, with a total population of about 10 million people, surpassed only by Osaka and Tokyo.

Surrounding municipalities

Aichi Prefecture

Economy

Lexus LFA in Midland Square Lexus LFA Blue 1101.jpg
Lexus LFA in Midland Square
Nagoya Castle and the Meieki district with skyscrapers (2018) 180324 Nagoya Castle & Skyscrapers in Meieki.jpg
Nagoya Castle and the Meieki district with skyscrapers (2018)
Nagoya Stock Exchange in the Isemachi district Nagoya Stock Exchange 01.JPG
Nagoya Stock Exchange in the Isemachi district
The first MRJ prototype at Nagoya Airfield in Komaki (2015) JA21MJ TAXI TEST.jpg
The first MRJ prototype at Nagoya Airfield in Komaki (2015)
Brother Industries Brother Industries Nagoya HQ 20110709-001.jpg
Brother Industries
Matsuzakaya Matsuzakaya-minamikan.JPG
Matsuzakaya
Nagoya Congress Center Nagoya Congress Center, at Atsuta-nishimachi, Atsuta, Nagoya (2018-06-01) 08.jpg
Nagoya Congress Center

Nagoya is the center of Greater Nagoya, which earned nearly 70 percent of Japan's 2003 trade surplus. [17]

Automotive industry

Nagoya's main industry is automotive. Toyota's luxury brand Lexus, Denso, Aisin Seiki Co., Toyota Industries, JTEKT and Toyota Boshoku have their headquarters in or near Nagoya. Mitsubishi Motors has an R&D division in the suburb of Okazaki. Major component suppliers such as Magna International and PPG also have a strong presence here. Spark plug maker NGK and Nippon Sharyo, known for manufacturing rolling stock including the Shinkansen are headquartered there.

Aviation industry

The aviation history has historically been of importance since the industrialization. During the war the Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter was constructed in Nagoya. The aviation tradition continues with Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation headquartered in the Nagoya Airfield's terminal building in Komaki. The Mitsubishi Regional Jet (MRJ) aircraft is produced at a factory adjacent to the airport. [18] The MRJ is a partnership between majority owner Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Toyota [19] with design assistance from Toyota affiliate Fuji Heavy Industries, already a manufacturer of aircraft. It is the first airliner designed and produced in Japan since the NAMC YS-11 of the 1960s. [20] [21] The MRJ's first flight was on November 11, 2015. [22] [23]

Ceramics

Japanese pottery and porcelain has a long tradition due to suitable clay being available in Owari Province. Before and during the Edo period there were two main kilns in the region: Seto and Tokoname. In Nagoya Castle a type of oniwa-yaki (literally "garden ware") called Ofukei ware was produced by the feudal lord's court. Almost every feudal lord had his own oniwa-yaki, also to have gifts made. In the town itself Toyoraku ware and Sasashima ware Japanese tea utensils were made with refined tastes. Ofukei ware started under the first Owari lord Tokugawa Yoshinao and was interrupted once, but continued on until the end of the Edo period. It became widely known in Japan. The lord's taste in ceramics was also imitated by other Owari samurai, such as Hirasawa Kurō and Masaki Sōzaburō, who made their own pieces.

Toyoraku ware continued on until the Taishō era under the 8th generation. Colourful pieces and gorgeous tea utensils were highly valued. Sasashima ware also experienced its heyday during this time. Colourful and soft ceramic items such as sake and tea utensils and objects were produced and intently collected.

An early type of manufactured production was the blue-and-white Kawana ware. With the advent of industrialization during the Meiji era of the late 19th century, some export wares were produced. Industrial-scale export porcelain was made by old Noritake, also Nagoya E-tsuke (名古屋絵付) became popular. [24]

Production of industrial ceramics continues to be an important economic factor with companies such as INAX, NGK, and NGK Insulators.

MICE

The city has an increasing role in the meetings, incentives, conferencing, exhibitions (MICE) industry. It hosted in 1989 the World Design Expo (世界デザイン博覧会) for which the Nagoya Congress Center was constructed. [25] It hosted the Expo 2005 and the Nagoya Protocol conference in 2010, as well as the G20 Aichi-Nagoya Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in November 2019, which was held at the Nagoya Kanko Hotel and Kawabun. [26] [27]

Technology

Mechanized puppets, called "karakuri ningyō", are a traditional craft from the area. Robot technology is another rapidly developing industry.

A materials engineering industry is developing. [28]

Brother Industries, which is known for office electronics such as multifunction printers is based in Nagoya, as is Hoshizaki Electric, which is known for commercial ice machines and refrigeration equipment. Many small machine tool and electronics companies are also based in the area. [29]

The World Expo 2005, also known as Aichi Expo was held near Nagoya in the neighboring cities of Nagakute and Seto from March 25 to September 25, 2005.

Retail

Retail is of importance in the city. Traditional department stores with roots in Nagoya are Matsuzakaya, Maruei and the Meitetsu Department Store. Oriental Nakamura was bought by Mitsukoshi from Tokyo in 1977.

Arts and crafts

The Owari province was historically well known for the cloisonné art form. The Ando Cloisonné Company continues the long tradition.

Others

The confectionery company Marukawa is well known.

The city offers venues for conferences and congresses such as the Nagoya Congress Center and the Nagoya International Exhibition Hall.

Transportation

Chubu Centrair International Airport, constructed on an artificial island Nagoya Airport view from promenade.jpg
Chubu Centrair International Airport, constructed on an artificial island
Meitetsu's mSky Limited Express Meitetsu 2000 system and 2200 system trains.jpg
Meitetsu's μSky Limited Express
Map of Nagoya Subway system Nagoya Subway Network.png
Map of Nagoya Subway system

Airways

Airport

Nagoya is served by Chubu Centrair International Airport (NGO), built on an artificial island in Tokoname. The airport has international flights and a high volume of domestic flights.

A second airport is Nagoya Airfield (Komaki Airport, NKM) near the city's boundary with Komaki and Kasugai. On February 17, 2005, Nagoya Airport's commercial international flights moved to Centrair Airport. Nagoya Airfield is now used for general aviation and as an airbase and is the main Fuji Dream Airlines hub.

Railways

Nagoya Station, the world's largest train station by floor area, is on the Tōkaidō Shinkansen line, the Tōkaidō Main Line, and the Chūō Main Line, among others. JR Central, which operates the Tōkaidō Shinkansen, has its headquarters there. Meitetsu is also based in Nagoya, and along with Kintetsu provides regional rail service to the Tōkai and Kansai regions.

Subways

Nagoya Subway provides urban transit service.

Roads

Expressways

Japan National Route

Seaways

Seaport

Nagoya Port is the largest port by international trade value in Japan. Toyota Motor Corporation exports via this port.

Nagoya is known for its orderly grid street plan for which the shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu is ultimately responsible. [30]

Education

The old Nagoya Court of Appeals building, today the city archive Nagoya City Archives 2016.3.25.jpg
The old Nagoya Court of Appeals building, today the city archive
Nagoya University campus in Higashiyama. The university has produced six Nobel Prize laureates in science. Nagoya University dk4591.jpg
Nagoya University campus in Higashiyama. The university has produced six Nobel Prize laureates in science.
Nanzan University main campus, designed by renowned architect Antonin Raymond in the 1960s. Nanzan b.jpg
Nanzan University main campus, designed by renowned architect Antonin Raymond in the 1960s.

Nagoya has mostly state-run primary and secondary schools. The area in the city limits includes international schools such as the Nagoya International School and Colégio Brasil Japão Prof. Shinoda Brazilian school. [31]

State and private colleges and universities primarily located in the eastern area. Some Western-style institutions were founded early in the Meiji era, with more opening during the Taishō and Shōwa eras. Nagoya University was set up in 1871 as a medical school and has produced six Nobel Prize laureates in science. [32] Nanzan University was established by the Roman Catholic Society of the Divine Word in 1932 as a high school and expanded to include Nanzan Junior College and the Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture. The main campus was designed in the 1960s by the renowned architect Antonin Raymond. Some universities specialise in engineering and technology, such as Nagoya University Engineering school, Nagoya Institute of Technology and Toyota Technological Institute; these universities receive support and grants from companies such as Toyota.

Other colleges and universities include: Aichi Prefectural College of Nursing & Health, Aichi Shukutoku Junior College, Aichi Toho University, Chukyo University, Daido University, Doho University, Kinjo Gakuin University, Kinjo Gakuin University Junior College, Meijo University, Nagoya City University, Nagoya College of Music, Nagoya Future Culture College, Nagoya Gakuin University, Nagoya Management Junior College, Nagoya Women's University, St. Mary's College, Nagoya, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, Sugiyama Jogakuen University Junior College, Tokai Gakuen Women's College. Various universities from outside Nagoya have set up satellite campuses, such as Tokyo University of Social Welfare.

The Hōsa Library dates to the 17th century and houses 110,000 items, including books of classic literature such as historic editions of The Tale of Genji that are an heirloom of the Owari Tokugawa and were bequeathed to the city. The Nagoya City Archives store a large collection of documents and books. Tsuruma Central Library is a public library and Nagoya International Center has a collection of foreign-language books.

National Universities
Prefectural University
Private Universities

Nagoya was a major trading city and political seat of the Owari lords, the most important house of the Tokugawa clan. They encouraged trade and the arts under their patronage, especially Tokugawa Muneharu, the 7th lord, who took a keen interest in drama and plays and lived lavishly. Under his rule, actors and actresses began to visit Nagoya. Arts and culture was further supported by the city's wealthy merchants. Culture flourished after the feudal Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji era. During World War II many old buildings and artefacts were destroyed. The region's economic and financial power in the post-war years rekindled the artistic and cultural scene.

Museums

Nagoya has multiple museums, including traditional and modern art, handicrafts to industrial high-tech, natural and scientific museums.

Nagoya Castle's collection is from the Owari Tokugawa era. The main tower is a museum that details the history of the castle and the city. The Honmaru Palace, destroyed in World War II, is slated for reconstruction by 2016 and will again be a prime example of the Shoin-zukuri architecture of the feudal era. Tokugawa Art Museum is a private museum belonging to the Owari Tokugawa, who lived in Nagoya castle for 16 generations. Among other things, it contains 10 designated national Treasures of Japan, including some of the oldest scrolls of The Tale of Genji . [33] The Nagoya Noh Theatre houses various precious objects of Noh theatre. The Nagoya City Museum showcases the history of the town.

Yōki-sō is a villa and gardens located in Chikusa-ku, close to Nittai-ji. It was constructed in the Taishō era for Ito Jirozaemon Suketami XV, the first president of Matsuzakaya.

Paintings and sculpture are exhibited at the Nagoya City Art Museum. Modern art is displayed at the Aichi Arts Center. The Aichi Arts Center also is the venue of rotating exhibitions. The city is also home to the Nagoya/Boston Museum of Fine Arts, a sister museum to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, which was founded to bring aspects of the MFA's collection to Japan.

The art of porcelain and ceramics can be seen at the Noritake Garden. Toyota has two museums in the city, the Toyota Automobile Museum which shows vintage cars, and the Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology, which showcases company history, including its start as a textile mill.

The Nagoya City Tram & Subway Museum has trams and subway cars, as well as the Nagoya City Science Museum. The SCMaglev and Railway Park opened in March 2011 with various trains from the Central Japan Railway Company.

Other art museums in Aichi prefecture are the Aichi Prefectural Ceramic Museum and the Toyota Municipal Museum of Art. Meiji Mura is an open-air museum with salvaged buildings from the Meiji, Taishō and Showa eras. Another museum in Nagoya is the Mandolin Melodies Museum.

Other museums in the city include the International Design Centre Nagoya, the Japan Spinning Top Museum and the Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ Money Museum.

The civic authorities promote tourism and have taken steps to safeguard architectural heritage by earmarking them as cultural assets. Apart from the castle, temples, shrines and museums in the city, a "Cultural Path" was instituted in the 1980s, located between the Tokugawa Art Museum and Nagoya Castle. This residential area has historic buildings such as the Nagoya City Archives, the Nagoya City Hall main building, the Aichi Prefectural Office main building, the Futaba Museum, the former residence of Sasuke Toyoda, the former residence of Tetsujiro Haruta and the Chikaramachi Catholic Church. Most buildings date from the Meiji and Taishō era and are protected.

Culture

Theatres

and Kyōgen theatre date back to the feudal times of the Owari Tokugawa lords. The Nagoya Noh Theater at Nagoya Castle continues that tradition and is a prominent feature in the cultural life of the city, with monthly performances.

Developed during the Edo period, one of Japan's kabuki grand stages is Misono-za, which also hosts various other Japanese entertainment such as concerts.

In 1912, the musician Gorō Morita invented the Nagoya harp music instrument.

In 1992, the large, modern Aichi Arts Center was opened in Sakae. It is the main venue for performing arts, featuring a main hall that can be used for opera and theatre and a concert hall. The Nagoya Philharmonic Orchestra performs there, as well as many visiting guest orchestras.

Ikebana

Ishida-ryū (石田流) is a school of Ikebana , or Japanese floral art. It was founded in 1922 and is headquartered in Nagoya.

Festivals

Apart from the main national festivals and holidays, other festivals in Nagoya are unique to the city/region.

Major events include the June Atsuta Festival, the July Port Festival, the August Nagoya Castle Summer Festival Castle and the October Nagoya Festival. Wards and areas host local festivals such as the Daidō-chōnin Matsuri (大須大道町人祭, Street Performer's Festival) in Ōsu.

Dialect

The Nagoya dialect (名古屋弁, Nagoya-ben) is spoken in the western half of Aichi Prefecture, centering on Nagoya. It is also called Owari dialect (尾張弁, Owari-ben). The Nagoya dialect is relatively close to standard Japanese and to the Kansai dialect, differing in pronunciation and vocabulary.

Handicrafts

The industry of Japanese handicrafts in the city is centuries old.

Cuisine

The city and the region are known for its unique local Nagoya cuisine (名古屋めし, Nagoya meshi). Dishes include:

The world premier of the first Godzilla movie was in Nagoya on October 27, 1954. [37] The city, especially Nagoya Castle, has been featured in three other Godzilla movies: King Kong vs. Godzilla , Mothra vs. Godzilla , and Godzilla vs. Mothra . The city is also featured in Gamera vs. Gyaos and is the main setting of 2003 film Gozu. The 1995 film The Hunted starring Christopher Lambert and the 1992 film Mr. Baseball starring Tom Selleck were also filmed in the city.

The city was the setting for the 2007 movie Ashita e no yuigon (translated as Best Wishes for Tomorrow), in which a Japanese war criminal sets out to take responsibility for the execution of U.S. airmen. [38] The anime The Wind Rises by Hayao Miyazaki, released in 2013, is a highly fictionalized biography of the Mitsubishi A6M Zero's chief engineer Jiro Horikoshi and takes mostly place in Nagoya of the 1920s and 1930s. [39] [40] Nagoya is also the setting for the manga and anime series Yatogame-chan Kansatsu Nikki, which highlights many of the sites and traditions of the city.

Sports

Nagoya is home to several professional sports teams:

ClubSportLeagueVenueEstablished
Chunichi Dragons Baseball Central League Nagoya Dome, Nagoya Stadium 1936
Nagoya Diamond Dolphins Basketball B.League Aichi Prefectural Gymnasium, Nagoya Higashi sport center1950
Toyotsu Fighting Eagles Nagoya Basketball B.League Biwajima sport center1957
Daido Steel Phenix Handball Japan Handball League Daido Steel Hoshizaki Gym1964
Daido Steel Red Star Volleyball V.LEAGUEDaido Steel Hoshizaki Gym1968
Nagoya Cyclones American football X-League Nagoya Minato Stadium 1980
Nagoya Frater Field hockey Hockey Japan League Shōnai Greens 1985
Nagoya Grampus Soccer J. League Mizuho Athletic Stadium, Toyota Stadium 1993
Nagoya Oceans Futsal F. League Takeda Teva Ocean Arena 2006

In 2007, the Chunichi Dragons won the Japan Series baseball championship. In 2010, Nagoya Grampus won the J. League championship, their first in team history. Nagoya is also the home of the Nagoya Barbarians semi-pro rugby football club.

A honbasho sumo tournament is held every July at the Aichi Prefectural Gymnasium. The city has hosted The Crowns golf tournament since 1960 and the women's Nagoya Marathon since 1984.

In September 2016 the city was awarded the right to host the 2026 Asian Games after it was the only city to lodge a bid. It will be the third time Japan hosts the event after Tokyo in 1958 and Hiroshima in 1994. [41]

The city hosted the official 1979 Asian Basketball Championship. Later, it became one of the host cities of the official Women's Volleyball World Championship for its 1998, 2006 and 2010 editions.

International relations

Nagoya International Center Nagoya International Center Building01.JPG
Nagoya International Center

The Nagoya International Center promotes international exchange in the local community. It houses the U.S. Consulate on the 6th floor and the United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) on the 7th floor.

Twin towns – Sister cities

Nagoya is twinned with: [42]

  • Flag of the United States.svg Los Angeles, United States (affiliated April 1, 1959)
  • Flag of the United States.svg Houston, United States (affiliated May 20, 1963)
  • Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico City, Mexico (affiliated February 16, 1978)
  • Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Nanjing, China (affiliated December 21, 1978)
  • Flag of Australia (converted).svg Sydney, Australia (affiliated September 16, 1980)
  • Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Birmingham, United Kingdom (affiliated June 10, 1993)
  • Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Montreal, Canada (affiliated October 8, 1996)
  • Flag of Italy.svg Turin, Italy (affiliated May 27, 2005) [43]
  • Flag of Germany.svg Stuttgart, Germany (affiliated September 6, 2006)
  • Flag of France.svg Reims, France (affiliated October 20, 2017)

The sister city relationship with Nanjing, China was suspended on February 21, 2012, [44] following public comments by Nagoya mayor Takashi Kawamura denying the Nanking Massacre. [45]

Partner cities

Sister ports

Nagoya's sister ports are:

Sister Airport

Nagoya's sister Airport is:

Notable people

Historical figures

The three samurais who unified Japan in the 16th century all have strong links to Nagoya.

Other samurai

Inventors and industrialists

Executive officers

Writers

Musicians and composers

Actors

Athletes

Manga artists

Sightseeing

Tokugawa Garden Tokugawaen1.JPG
Tokugawa Garden

Nagoya's two most famous sightseeing spots are Atsuta Shrine and Nagoya Castle. [48]

Other attractions include:

Surrounding area

Nagoya is a starting point for visits to the surrounding area, such as Inuyama, Little World Museum of Man, Meiji Mura, Tokoname, Himakajima, Tahara, Toyohashi and Toyokawa and Hamamatsu. Reachable with at most a two-hour journey are Gifu, Gujo Hachiman, Gifu, Ise Shrine, Takayama, Gifu, Gero Onsen and the hill stations in the Kiso Valley Magome and Tsumago.

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Nagoya Castle Japanese castle located in Nagoya, central Japan

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The Owari Domain was a feudal domain of Japan in the Edo period. Located in what is now the western part of Aichi Prefecture, it encompassed parts of Owari, Mino, and Shinano provinces. Its headquarters were at Nagoya Castle. At its peak, it was rated at 619,500 koku, and was the largest holding of the Tokugawa clan apart from the shogunal lands. The Daimyō of Owari was the Owari Tokugawa family, the first in rank among the gosanke. The domain was also known as Nagoya Domain (名古屋藩)

Owari Tokugawa family

The Owari Tokugawa family is a branch of the Tokugawa clan, and it is the seniormost house of the Gosanke.

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Doho University is a private university in Nakamura-ku, Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1826, and it was chartered in 1950. It includes the Nagoya College of Music, also known locally as Meion (名音). The university is affiliated with the Jōdo Shinshū sect of Buddhism.

Meijo University

Meijo University is a private university in Japan. Its main campus is in Tempaku-ku, Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan and it has two other campuses in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture. It has 2 Nobel laureates as the faculty members as of 2021.

Nagoya College of Music is a private university at Nakamura-ku, Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The school was founded as a junior college in 1965 and became a four-year college in 1976. The school is also known locally as Meion (名音). It is part of Doho University.

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Nagoya Management Junior College is a private junior college located in the city of Owariasahi, very close to the city of Nagoya in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Originally established as a women's junior college in 1965, the school became coeducational in 2000.

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Bibliography