Hachinohe

Last updated
Hachinohe

八戸市
Nei Wan 1.jpg
Skyline of Hachinohe
Flag of Hachinohe, Aomori.svg
Flag
Symbol of Hachinohe Aomori.svg
Seal
Hachinohe
Location of Hachinohe in Aomori Prefecture
Hachinohe in Aomori Prefecture Ja.svg
Japan location map with side map of the Ryukyu Islands.svg
Red pog.svg
Hachinohe
 
Coordinates: 40°30′44.2″N141°29′18.2″E / 40.512278°N 141.488389°E / 40.512278; 141.488389 Coordinates: 40°30′44.2″N141°29′18.2″E / 40.512278°N 141.488389°E / 40.512278; 141.488389
Country Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
Region Tōhoku
Prefecture Aomori
Government
  MayorMakoto Kobayashi
Area
  Total305.56 km2 (117.98 sq mi)
Population
 (April 1, 2020)
  Total226,541
  Density740/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
City symbols 
- Tree Japanese yew
- Flower Chrysanthemum
- Bird Black-tailed gull
Phone number0178-43-2111
Address1-1-1 Uchimaru, Hachinohe-shi, Aomori-ken 031-8686
Expressways E4A Expressway (Japan).png E4A Expressway (Japan).png E45 Expressway (Japan).png
Website Official website
Hachinohe City Hall Hachinohe city hall.jpg
Hachinohe City Hall
Downtown Hachinohe Hachinohe-centertarminal1-3.png
Downtown Hachinohe
Tanesashi Beach TanesashiBeachFromAshigezakiObservatory.JPG
Tanesashi Beach

Hachinohe (八戸市, Hachinohe-shi) is a city located in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 July 2020, the city had an estimated population of 221,459, and a population density of 725 persons per km² in 96,092 households, [1] making it Aomori Prefecture's second largest city by population. The city has a total area of 305.56 square kilometres (117.98 sq mi).

Contents

History

The area around Hachinohe has been occupied since prehistoric times, and was a major population center for the Emishi people. Numerous Jōmon period remains have been discovered within the borders of Hachinohe. The area was nominally under control of the Northern Fujiwara in the Heian period, and became part of the holdings granted to the Nanbu clan after the defeat of the North Fujiwara by Minamoto no Yoritomo in the Kamakura period. The Nanbu established numerous horse ranches, accompanied by numbered fortified settlements. During the Edo period, it was initially part of Morioka Domain, but in 1664 the Tokugawa shogunate authorized the creation of a separate 20,000 koku Hachinohe Domain for a junior line of the Nanbu clan. The town prospered as a castle town centered on Hachinohe Castle, and served as a small commercial centre and port for the fishing grounds off southeastern Hokkaido. Today, the port still serves the fishing industry and a number of international cargo vessels.

After the Meiji Restoration, Hachinohe Domain was abolished, and replaced by Hachinohe Prefecture, which was subsequently merged into Aomori Prefecture. Initially, there was a debate as to whether the capital of newly formed Aomori Prefecture should be at Hachinohe or Hirosaki; however, due to strong rivalry between the former Nanbu domain and former Tsugaru Domain, the Meiji government decided to build a new town called Aomori in a central location, and to designate it as the capital of the prefecture.

Per the Meiji period establishment of the modern municipalities system on April 1, 1889, the town of Hachinohe was created within Sannohe District. In 1901, it merged with neighboring Chōja, and on May 1, 1929, with neighboring Konakano, Minato and Same villages to form the city of Hachinohe. The city further expanded by annexing the village of Shimonaganawashiro in 1942, Korekawa in 1954, Ichikawa, Kaminaganawashiro, Tachi and Toyosaki in 1955 and Odate in 1958.

On March 31, 2005, the village of Nangō (from Sannohe District) was also merged into Hachinohe.

During the American occupation of Japan following World War II, a United States Army base, Camp Haugen, was located in Hachinohe, and was the home of the Seventh Division. An Armed Forces Radio Service radio station was located on the base; it was known as AFRS Hachinohe. In 1950, after the North Korean invasion of South Korea, troops from Camp Haugen left for Korea. AFRS Hachinohe altered its broadcasts to include coverage of South Korea so Americans could benefit from its news and entertainment programs. With the final withdrawal of American forces from Hachinohe in 1956, the base was turned over to the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force and was officially re-designated JGSDF Camp Hachinohe. [2]

In March 2011, the city was one of those hit by the 2011 Japanese tsunami. The tsunami tossed many huge fishing boats ashore and heavily damaged the port area. About 100 homes were destroyed. [3] Divers from the United States Navy ship Safeguard joined with Japanese workers to help clear the port to facilitate the delivery of relief supplies via the city. [4]

On January 1, 2017, Hachinohe was given core city status, [5] with increased local autonomy.

Geography

Hachinohe is located in the flatlands on the southeast coast of Aomori Prefecture, facing the Pacific Ocean. Both the Oirase River and the Mabechi River flow through Hachinohe. A portion of the coastal areas of the city were within the borders of the Tanesashi Kaigan Hashikamidake Prefectural Natural Park, which was incorporated into the Sanriku Fukkō National Park in 2013. [6] [7]

Climate

Hachinohe has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), with warm summers and cold and snowy winters. Summers are considerably milder than in other parts of Honshu because the city is very close to the open sea, while winters if distinctly cold are much less snowy than in Aomori city or Sapporo or Wakkanai, although snowfall is higher than in Kushiro.The average annual temperature in Hachinohe is 9.9 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1165 mm with September as the wettest month. The temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 22.7 °C, and lowest in January, at around -1.9 °C. [8]

Climate data for Hachinohe (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)15.0
(59.0)
19.0
(66.2)
22.1
(71.8)
29.7
(85.5)
34.3
(93.7)
34.5
(94.1)
36.5
(97.7)
37.0
(98.6)
35.4
(95.7)
30.4
(86.7)
24.9
(76.8)
19.7
(67.5)
37.0
(98.6)
Average high °C (°F)2.6
(36.7)
3.2
(37.8)
7.0
(44.6)
13.7
(56.7)
18.3
(64.9)
20.6
(69.1)
24.3
(75.7)
26.5
(79.7)
23.1
(73.6)
17.9
(64.2)
11.6
(52.9)
5.5
(41.9)
14.5
(58.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)−0.9
(30.4)
−0.5
(31.1)
2.7
(36.9)
8.5
(47.3)
13.1
(55.6)
16.2
(61.2)
20.1
(68.2)
22.5
(72.5)
18.9
(66.0)
13.0
(55.4)
6.9
(44.4)
1.8
(35.2)
10.2
(50.4)
Average low °C (°F)−4.2
(24.4)
−4
(25)
−1.3
(29.7)
3.8
(38.8)
8.7
(47.7)
12.8
(55.0)
17.1
(62.8)
19.3
(66.7)
15.2
(59.4)
8.5
(47.3)
2.6
(36.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
6.4
(43.5)
Record low °C (°F)−15.7
(3.7)
−15.5
(4.1)
−12.3
(9.9)
−5.5
(22.1)
−2.6
(27.3)
0.4
(32.7)
5.0
(41.0)
9.4
(48.9)
4.8
(40.6)
−2.6
(27.3)
−6.3
(20.7)
−13.4
(7.9)
−15.7
(3.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)42.8
(1.69)
40.1
(1.58)
52.0
(2.05)
64.3
(2.53)
89.3
(3.52)
105.8
(4.17)
136.1
(5.36)
128.8
(5.07)
167.6
(6.60)
87.2
(3.43)
62.0
(2.44)
49.1
(1.93)
1,025.1
(40.37)
Average snowfall cm (inches)77
(30)
75
(30)
47
(19)
3
(1.2)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
6
(2.4)
40
(16)
248
(98.6)
Average relative humidity (%)70706765718183827973707073
Mean monthly sunshine hours 130.8129.6168.1188.9197.0167.7148.5167.1143.6161.3133.3124.51,860.4
Source 1: Japan Meteorological Agency
Source 2: Extreme for Hachinohe

Neighbouring municipalities

Aomori Prefecture

Iwate Prefecture

Demographics

Per Japanese census data: [9]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1960 184,680    
1970 216,955+17.5%
1980 245,617+13.2%
1990 247,983+1.0%
2000 248,608+0.3%
2010 237,473−4.5%

Government

Hachinohe has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 32 members. Hachinohe contributes eight members to the Aomori Prefectural Assembly. In terms of national politics, the town is part of Aomori 2nd district of the lower house of the Diet of Japan.

Economy

Hachinohe is the largest city in eastern Aomori Prefecture, and serves as the regional industrial and commercial center. Commercial fishing still plays a major role in the local economy, with Hachinohe port having one of the largest volumes of landed fish in Japan. However, since its designation as a new industrial city in 1964, Hachinohe has developed a large coastal industrial belt with a diverse range of chemical, steel, cement and fertilizer products. Major industrial parks include the Hachinohe High Tech Park and Hachinohe North-Interchange Industrial Complex. The Hachinohe Thermal Power Station, an LNG-fired power plant operated by Tohoku Electric is located in the city. Hachinohe Port is a major international port for northern Japan.

Education

Colleges and universities

Primary and secondary education

Hachinohe has 43 public elementary schools and 24 public junior high schools operated by the city government, and one private middle school. The city has eight public high schools operated by the Aomori Prefectural Board of Education, and one public high school operated by the national government. There are also eight private high schools. The city also has three special education schools. [10]

Transportation

Railway

JR logo (east).svg East Japan Railway Company (JR East) - Tōhoku Shinkansen

JR logo (east).svg East Japan Railway Company (JR East) - Hachinohe Line

Aoimori Logo.jpeg Aoimori Railway Company - Aoimori Railway Line

Hachinohe Rinkai Railway (freight only)

Highway

Seaports

Local attractions

Traditional handicrafts

Local sights

Entrance to Kabushima Shrine, with Umineko Kabushima02.jpg
Entrance to Kabushima Shrine, with Umineko

Local festivals

National Historic Sites

Other

Sports

Sister city relations

Notable people from Hachinohe

Other

There is a main-belt asteroid named Hachinohe. [21]

Related Research Articles

Aomori Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Aomori Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan in the Tōhoku region. The prefecture's capital, largest city, and namesake is the city of Aomori. Aomori is the northernmost prefecture on Japan's main island, Honshu, and is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the east, Iwate Prefecture to the southeast, Akita Prefecture to the southwest, the Sea of Japan to the west, and Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait to the north. Aomori Prefecture is the 8th-largest prefecture, with an area of 9,645.64 square kilometers (3,724.20 sq mi), and the 31st-most populous prefecture, with more than 1.2 million people. Approximately 45 percent of Aomori Prefecture's residents live in its two core cities, Aomori and Hachinohe, which lie on coastal plains. The majority of the prefecture is covered in forested mountain ranges, with population centers occupying valleys and plains. Aomori is the third-most populous prefecture in the Tōhoku region, after Miyagi Prefecture and Fukushima Prefecture. Mount Iwaki, an active stratovolcano, is the prefecture's highest point, at almost 1,624.7 meters.

Ninohe, Iwate City in Tōhoku, Japan

Ninohe is a city located in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. As of 31 March 2020, the city had an estimated population of 26,344, and a population density of 63 persons per km2 in 11,803 households. The total area of the city is 420.42 square kilometres (162.33 sq mi).

Aoimori Railway Line

The Aoimori Railway Line is a regional rail line in Aomori Prefecture, Japan that is operated by the Aoimori Railway Company. It connects the terminal station of the Iwate Galaxy Railway Line, Metoki Station, in the town of Sannohe to Aomori Station, the terminus of several rail lines in the city of Aomori. The Aoimori and Iwate Galaxy Railway Lines are former sections of the Tōhoku Main Line that connected Tokyo to Aomori that were rendered obsolete for long-distance passenger services by the completion of the high-speed Tōhoku Shinkansen between Tokyo and Shin-Aomori stations. Though local passenger services are run on the line by the Aoimori Railway Company, the East Japan Railway Company continues to operate limited services, such as the sightseeing train Resort Asunaro, along the line, and the Japan Freight Railway Company transports freight along the line.

Shichinohe, Aomori Town in Tōhoku, Japan

Shichinohe is a town located in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 April 2020, the town had an estimated population of 15,286, and a population density of 45 persons per km2, in 6,797 households. The total area of the town is 337.23 square kilometers (130.21 sq mi).

Sannohe, Aomori Town in Tōhoku, Japan

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Gonohe, Aomori Town in Tōhoku, Japan

Gonohe is a town located in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 April 2020, the town had an estimated population of 16,880, and a population density of 95 persons per km2 in 7,006 households. The total area of the town is 177.67 square kilometres (68.60 sq mi).

Nanbu, Aomori Town in Tōhoku, Japan

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Hashikami, Aomori Town in Tōhoku, Japan

Hashikami is a town located in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 April 2020, the town had an estimated population of 13,494, and a population density of 140 persons per km2 in 5,950 households. The total area of the town is 94.01 square kilometres (36.30 sq mi).

Sannohe District, Aomori

Sannohe District is a district located in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. It occupies the southeast corner of the prefecture, bordering Iwate Prefecture.

Hirono, Iwate Town in Tōhoku, Japan

Hirono is a town located in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 June 2019, the town had an estimated population of 15,398, and a population density of 51 persons per km² in 6,858 households. The total area of the town is 302.92 square kilometres (116.96 sq mi).

Sannohe Station Railway station in Sannohe, Aomori Prefecture, Japan

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Hachinohe Sansha Taisai

Hachinohe Sansha Taisai (八戸三社大祭) is a Japanese festival celebrated from July 31 to August 4 in Hachinohe, Aomori Prefecture, Japan. Its rites center on three Shinto shrines: Ogami (霊神社), Shinra (新羅神社), and Shinmei (神明宮) shrines. There is a procession of twenty-seven floats and three mikoshi are also borne through the streets. It has a two hundred and ninety-year history and in 2004 was designated an Important Intangible Folk Cultural Property.

Tanesashi Coast

The Tanesashi Coast is section of the coastline on the Pacific Ocean, located in the southern portion of the city of Hachinohe, Aomori Prefecture, in the Tōhoku region of northern Japan. It is extends for 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the island of Kabushima south towards the city of Kuji in Iwate Prefecture. The coast was nationally designated a Place of Scenic Beauty in 1937.

Ne Castle

Ne Castle is a Muromachi period Motte-and-bailey-style Japanese castle located in what is now the city of Hachinohe, Aomori Prefecture, in the Tōhoku region of far northern Japan. It has been protected by the central government as a National Historic Site since 1941. It was extensively reconstructed in 1994.

Shōjujidate Castle

Shōjojidate Castle was a Muromachi period Japanese castle located in what is now the town of Nanbu, in Sannohe District of Aomori Prefecture, in the Tōhoku region of far northern Japan. It was also known as the Moto-Sannohe Castle. It was located at a strategic junction of the Ōshū Kaidō with the Kakuno Kaidō and the Mabechi River.The site of the castle, as well as the Buddhist temple of Sankō-ji, and the Moto-Sannohe Hachiman-gu Shinto Shrine collectively received protection as a National Historic Site on 30 September 2004. Portions of the site are now on private lands occupied by local farm houses and fruit orchards.

Sannohe Castle

Sannohe Castle was a Muromachi period Japanese castle located in what is now the town of Sannohe, in Sannohe District of Aomori Prefecture, in the Tōhoku region of far northern Japan. It was located on a river terrace of the Mabechi River, which formed part of its natural defenses.

Korekawa Site

The Korekawa Site is an archaeological site in the city of Hachinohe, Aomori Prefecture, in the Tōhoku region of northern Japan containing the ruins of a middle to late Jōmon period settlement. The remains were designated a National Historic Site in 1957 by the Japanese government. It is also referred to as the "Korekawa Stone Age site", although the remains discovered are from the Jōmon period, rather than the Japanese Paleolithic period.

Korekawa Archaeological Institution (Korekawa Jōmon Kan)

Korekawa Archaeological Institution , more literally the Hachinohe City Buried Cultural Property Center, opened in Hachinohe, Aomori Prefecture, Japan in 2011. It exhibits Jōmon materials from the nearby Korekawa Site and Kazahari I Site (風張1遺跡), finds at the latter including the "Palms Together Dogū" (合掌土偶) that has been designated a National Treasure.

Dogū with palms pressed together Japanese clay figurine

The so-called "dogū with palms pressed together" is a Japanese dogū or clay figurine of the late Jōmon period. Excavated from the Kazahari I Site in Hachinohe, Aomori Prefecture, it is exhibited at the nearby Korekawa Jōmon Kan. Alongside "Hollow Dogū" from Hokkaidō, "Jōmon Goddess" from Yamagata Prefecture, and "Jōmon Venus" and "Masked Goddess" from Nagano Prefecture, it is one of five dogū that have been designated National Treasures.

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  12. 種差海岸. Agency for Cultural Affairs . Retrieved 10 February 2012.
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