National Capital Region (India)

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National Capital Region
Region
National Capital Region (India).svg
Map of National Capital Region
Coordinates: 28°39′38″N77°06′32″E / 28.66056°N 77.10889°E / 28.66056; 77.10889 Coordinates: 28°39′38″N77°06′32″E / 28.66056°N 77.10889°E / 28.66056; 77.10889
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
States Delhi
Haryana
Uttar Pradesh
Rajasthan
Major Cities Delhi, Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurugram, Noida
Government
  Regional authority National Capital Region Planning Board
Area
  Total54,984 km2 (21,229 sq mi)
Population
 (2011) [1] :6
  Total46,069,000
  Density840/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
Website ncrpb.nic.in

The National Capital Region (NCR) is a central planning region centred upon the National Capital Territory in India. It encompasses the entire NCT of Delhi and several districts surrounding it from the states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. [2] The NCR and the associated National Capital Region Planning Board were created in 1985 to plan the development of the region and to evolve harmonized policies for the control of land-uses and development of infrastructure in the region. [3] Prominent cities of NCR include Delhi, Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurugram and Noida.

Contents

The NCR is a rural-urban region, with a population of over 46,069,000 and an urbanization level of 62.6%. [1] As well as the cities and towns, the NCR contains ecologically sensitive areas like the Aravalli ridge, forests, wildlife and bird sanctuaries. [4] The Delhi Extended Urban Agglomeration, a part of the NCR, had an estimated GDP of $370 billion (measured in terms of GDP PPP) in 2015–16. [5]

History

The National Capital Region (NCR) and its planning board were created under the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985. [6] That 1985 Act defined the NCR as being the whole of NCT of Delhi; the Haryana districts of Gurugram, Faridabad and Sonipat, Rohtak (then including Jhajjar tehsil) and the Rewari tehsil then in Mahendragarh district; and the Uttar Pradesh districts of Bulandshahr, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut (then including Baghpat tehsil), and Ghaziabad (then including Hapur tehsil), and some part of the Rajasthan district of Alwar. [7] [3] The 1985 boundary of the NCR covered an area of 34,144 km2. [1] :3

Gautam Budh Nagar district was created in 1997 out of the existing NCR districts of Ghaziabad and Bulandshahr. The city of Noida was the location of the new district's headquarters. [8] Also in 1997 Baghpat district was created from Baghpat tehsil of Meerut district. [9]

In July 2013, NCR was expanded to include three more districts, Bhiwani, and Mahendragarh in the state of Haryana, as well as Bharatpur in the state of Rajasthan. This brought the number of districts in the NCR to 19 (outside Delhi NCT), with the total NCR area increasing 34% to 45,887 km2. [10] [11] Subsequently, Charkhi Dadri district was separated from Bhiwani district in 2016. [12]

On 9 June 2015 the Government of India approved the inclusion of three more districts in NCR – Jind, Panipat, Karnal in the state of Haryana and Muzaffarnagar in U.P. [13] [14] [15] [16] covering a total area of 50,566 km2. [17] Shamli district of U.P. was added to the NCR in December 2017. [18] There are now a total of 24 districts in the NCR (outside Delhi NCT).

On 9 January 2018 the government of Uttar Pradesh formally proposed the extension of the NCR to cover the districts Aligarh, Bijnor, Hathras and Mathura. [19] It is also pushing to have the district of Agra included in the NCR. Punjab is also forcing to have Patiala, and Mohali included in the NCR. Outskirts of Rajasthan like Bhadra are also included in the Future Extension plans.

Prior to the creation of the NCR, an area described as the Delhi Metropolitan Area (DMA) was described in the 1962 Master Plan for Delhi. That plan defined the DMA as comprising the Union Territory and the ring towns of Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Ballabhgarh, Gurugram, Bahadurgarh and Loni, also certain rural areas, which had a population of the somewhat less than 2.1 million in 1951. [20] The following "Master Plan for Delhi", approved in August 1990, added Noida, Bahadurgarh and the then-proposed township of Kundli to the DMA, which consequently covered an area of 3,182 km2. [21]

Component districts

A total of 24 districts in three neighbouring states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan along with whole of the National Capital Territory constitute the National Capital Region (NCR) of India. [22]

The areas and populations (per 2011 census, prior to the addition of Muzaffarnagar, Jind, Karnal and Shamli) of these component districts are set out below: [2] [1] :3,6

StateDistrictsAreaPopulation
(in thousands)
Uttar Pradesh Baghpat 14,72714,576
Bulandshahr
Gautam Buddh Nagar
Ghaziabad
Hapur
Meerut
Muzaffarnagar
Shamli
Haryana Bhiwani 25,32711,031
Charkhi Dadri
Faridabad
Gurugram
Jhajjar
Jind
Karnal
Mahendragarh
Nuh
Palwal
Panipat
Rewari
Rohtak
Sonipat
Rajasthan Alwar 13,447
[17]
3,674
Bharatpur
NCT of Delhi NCT of Delhi 1,48316,788
Total54,98446,069

Regional planning

The planning body for the region is the National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB). It has issued two regional plans, the "Regional Plan 2001, National Capital Region" approved in 1988, [23] and the "Regional Plan 2021, National Capital Region" approved in 2005. [24] Topics covered by the 2001 plan included transport, telecommunications, power and water supply, waste and sewerage, education, health, the environment, housing and the "counter magnet" areas. The 2021 plan extended these with the additional topics of social infrastructure, heritage, tourism, rural development, and disaster management.

The 51% of pollution in NCR is caused by the industrial pollution, 27% by vehicles and 8% by crop burning, consequently there are plans to create a 1,600 km long and 5 km wide The Great Green Wall of Aravalli green ecological corridor along Aravalli range from Gujarat to Delhi to be connected to Shivalik hill range with the planting of 1.35 billion (135 crore) new native trees over 10 years. [25] About 46% of the National Capital Region, home to 40 to 50 million people, is not connected to sewage networks. Sewage from these areas flows into stormwater drains that empty directly into the Yamuna. [26]

Central National Capital Region

The 2001 regional plan defined the "Delhi Metropolitan Area" (DMA) as including Ghaziabad, Noida, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Kundli and Sonipat. The 2021 plan renamed the area as the "Central National Capital Region" (CNCR), covering about 2,000 km2 in addition to the 1,483 km2 of NCT Delhi. [27]

The 2021 plan estimated the 2001 population of the CNCR outside of Delhi NCT to be over 2.8 million, while Delhi NCT's population was 13.8 million, yielding a total CNCR population of 16.6 million. [28] As of 2016 the most recent population estimates have spanned 25.7 to 26.5 million people. [29] [30]

Counter magnets

The 1985 Act (§2.c and §8.f) gives the NCRCB has the ability to select districts outside of the NCR to act as counter magnets, with a view to developing them further. [3] :2,10Counter-magnet cities are identified as those that can be developed as alternative centres of growth and attract migrants to them rather than Delhi. [23] :121 The criteria for selecting counter magnet towns are: that they should have their own established roots and potential of growth, [23] :121 and should not be centres of either religious, strategic or environmental importance.[ citation needed ] The counter magnet cities should be given priority when allocating funding for development of land, housing and infrastructure. [23] :126

These cities, with their distances from the Delhi, are: [2]

In Haryana state

In Madhya Pradesh state

In Punjab state

In Rajasthan state

In Uttar Pradesh state

In Uttarakhand

See also

Related Research Articles

Haryana State in northern India

Haryana is one of the 28 states in India, located in the northern part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on a linguistic basis. It is ranked 22nd in terms of area, with less than 1.4% of India's land area. Chandigarh is the state capital, Faridabad in National Capital Region is the most populous city of the state, and Gurugram is a leading financial hub of the NCR, with major Fortune 500 companies located in it. Haryana has 6 administrative divisions, 22 districts, 72 sub-divisions, 93 revenue tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 community development blocks, 154 cities and towns, 6,848 villages, and 6222 villages panchayats.

Delhi Megacity and union territory of India, containing the national capital

Delhi, officially known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. It is bordered by the state of Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million, the second-highest in India after Mumbai, while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundaries, and include the neighbouring satellite cities of Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in an area called the National Capital Region (NCR) and had an estimated 2016 population of over 26 million people, making it the world's second-largest urban area according to the United Nations. Recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires. Delhi ranks fifth among the Indian states and union territories in human development index. Delhi has the second-highest GDP per capita in India. Delhi is of great historical significance as an important commercial, transport, and cultural hub, as well as the political centre of India.

Bharatpur, Rajasthan City in Rajasthan, India

Bharatpur is a city and a Municipal Corporation in the Indian state of Rajasthan with 65 wards. The city is situated 180 km south of India's capital, New Delhi, 178 km from Rajasthan's capital Jaipur, 55 km west of Agra of Uttar Pradesh and 38 km from Mathura of Uttar Pradesh. It is also the administrative headquarters of Bharatpur District and the headquarters of Bharatpur Division of Rajasthan State. Bharatpur is part of National Capital Region (NCR) of India. the city was the capital of the erstwhile, Bharatpur State.

Ghaziabad Metropolis in Uttar Pradesh, India

Ghaziabad is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and a part of the National Capital Region of Delhi. It is the administrative headquarters of Ghaziabad district and is the largest city in western Uttar Pradesh, with a population of 1,729,000. Ghaziabad Municipal Corporation is divided into 5 zones - City Zone, Kavi Nagar Zone, Vijay Nagar Zone, Mohan Nagar Zone and Vasundhara Zone. The Municipal Corporation comprises 100 wards. Well connected by roads and railways, it is a major rail junction for North India. It is sometimes referred to as the "Gateway of Uttar Pradesh" because it is close to New Delhi, on the main route into Uttar Pradesh. Recent construction works have led to the city being described by a City Mayors Foundation survey as the second fastest-growing in the world. Situated in the Upper Gangetic Plains, the city has two major divisions separated by the Hindon River, namely Trans-Hindon on the west and Cis-Hindon on the east.

Northern Railway zone northernmost zone of Indian Railways

The Northern Railway is one of the 18 Railway zones of India and the northernmost zone of the Indian Railways. Its headquarter is New Delhi Baroda House near India Gate.

Rewari City in Haryana, India

Rewari is a city and a municipal council in Rewari district in the Indian state of Haryana. It is located in south-west Haryana 82 km from Delhi and 51 km from Gurugram.

Rohtak Municipal Corporation in Haryana, India

Rohtak is a city and the administrative headquarters of the Rohtak district in the Indian state of Haryana. It lies 70 kilometres (43 mi) north-west of New Delhi and 250 kilometres (160 mi) south of the state capital Chandigarh on NH 9(old NH 10). Rohtak forms a part of the National Capital Region (NCR), so it can obtain cheap loans for infrastructure development from the NCR Planning Board.

Baghpat City in Uttar Pradesh, India

Baghpat is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of Bagpat district, which was established in 1997. It is part of the National Capital Region.

Behror Municipal Town / Semi-urban Area in Rajasthan, India

Behror is a municipal town in the Alwar district of Rajasthan. It serves as the administrative headquarters of eponymous Behror Tehsil. Situated 120 km south-west of national capital New Delhi and being a part of National Capital Region, it also comes under National Capital Region Planning Board which is a federal authority for urban planning purposes in NCR. It is clubbed under Shahjahanpur-Neemrana-Behror (SNB) Complex in NCR-which includes 137 revenue villages. In this cluster Behror municipality is the largest urban conglomeration. This region is also known as 'Ahirwal region' and serves as an industrial hub for the state of Rajasthan. Behror municipality spread out in an area of 15 km2 is divided into four revenue villages namely Behror tarf Gangabishan, Behror tarf Doongrasi, Behror tarf Nainsukh, Behror tarf Balram.

The Delhi–Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project (DMIC) is a planned industrial development project between India's capital, Delhi and its financial hub, Mumbai. The DMIC project was launched in pursuance of an MOU signed between the Government of India and the Government of Japan in December 2006. It is one of the world's largest infrastructure projects with an estimated investment of US$90 billion and is planned as a high-tech industrial zone spread across six states, as well as Delhi, the national capital and itself a Union Territory. The investments will be spread across the 1,500 km long Western Dedicated Freight Corridor which will serve as the industrial corridor's transportation backbone.

Administrative divisions of Haryana Regional divisions in Harayana

Haryana, formed on 1 November 1966, is a state in North India. It is divided into 6 revenue divisions, 5 Police Ranges and 3 Police Commissionerates.

Eastern Peripheral Expressway or Kundli–Ghaziabad–Palwal (KGP) Expressway or National Expressway 2 is a 135 km (84 mi) long, 6-lane expressway passing through the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The expressway starts from the Western Peripheral Expressway at Kundli, Sonipat, passing through Baghpat, Ghaziabad and Noida districts in UP and Faridabad district in Haryana before rejoining the Western Peripheral Expressway near Dholagarh, Palwal. Eastern Peripheral Expressway along with Western Peripheral Expressway completes the largest Ring Road around Delhi. Eastern Peripheral Expressway was declared as National Expressway 2 in 2006.

Karoli, Rewari village in Haryana, India

Karoli is a village located in Kosli Tehsil, Rewari District, Haryana, India. It is on the 1.5-kilometre approach road boarded to Bahu-Jholri on the Kosli–Kanina road and is 12 kilometres from Kosli and 7 kilometres from Kanina. The villages is 125 kilometres from Delhi, the capital of India. It is a large village with an approximate population of 5,000 to 5,500. There is an average of one person in the army from each family. Smt. Kamala Devi is second ladies sarpanch of the village after Smt. Bhoori Devi. There are numerous temples in the village, of which that of Baba Thakur Ji has a special importance. All the villagers used to have dinner in the temple on Holi. The village school was earlier up to class 10 and due to excellent results in the entire district, the school has been upgraded to Senior Secondary School. The village was the birthplace of Hari Ram Arya, the Chairman of Haryana Azad Hind Fouj who participated in the Indian Independence Movement.

Hapur district District of Uttar Pradesh in India

Hapur district is a recently-formed district in Uttar Pradesh state of India with a population of 1,338,211 at the 2011 Census. This district on the Ganges river is 60 kilometres (37 mi) from New Delhi.

National Capital Region Transport Corporation

The National Capital Region Transport Corporation (NCRTC) - a Joint Venture company of Government of India and States of Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh is mandated for implementing the Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS) project across the National Capital Region (NCR), ensuring a balanced and sustainable urban development through better connectivity and access.

Forests Department, Haryana is a Ministry and department of the Government of Haryana in India.

The Punjab Land Alienation Act of 1900 was a piece of legislation introduced by the British Raj with the aim of limiting the transfer of land ownership in Punjab Province. It created a an "agricultural tribes" category, the membership of which was almost compulsory to buy or sell land.

Delhi–Alwar Regional Rapid Transit System

Delhi–Alwar Regional Rapid Transit System is a proposed 164 km long, semi-high speed rail corridor connecting Delhi, Gurugram, Rewari and Alwar. It is one of the three rapid-rail corridors planned under Phase-1 of the Rapid Rail Transport System of the National Capital Region Transport Corporation (NCRTC). With maximum speed of 160 km/h and average speed of 105 km/h, the distance between Delhi and Alwar will be covered in 104 minutes. The project is expected to cost 37,000 crores.

Railway in Haryana

Rail network in the state of Haryana in India, is covered by 5 rail divisions under 3 rail zones, namely, North Western Railway zone, Northern Railway zone and North Central Railway zone.

References

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