|Leader||Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren|
|Founded||20 August 1905|
|Dissolved||25 August 1912|
|Merger of|| Revive China Society |
|Ideology|| Chinese nationalism |
|Advisory Council (1909)|
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The Tongmenghui of China (or T'ung-meng Hui,variously translated as Chinese United League,United League,Chinese Revolutionary Alliance,Chinese Alliance,United Allegiance Society,中國同盟會) was a secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen,Song Jiaoren,and others in Tokyo,Japan,on 20 August 1905,with the goal of overthrowing China's Qing dynasty.It was formed from the merger of multiple late Qing Dynasty Chinese revolutionary groups.
The Tongmenghui was created through the unification of Sun Yat-sen's Xingzhonghui (Revive China Society),the Guangfuhui (Restoration Society) and many other Chinese revolutionary groups. Among the Tongmenghui's members were Huang Xing,Li Zongren,Zhang Binglin,Chen Tianhua,Wang Jingwei,Hu Hanmin,Tao Chengzhang,Cai Yuanpei,Li Shizeng,Zhang Renjie,and Qiu Jin.
In 1906,a branch of the Tongmenghui was formed in Singapore,following Sun's visit there;this was called the Nanyang branch and served as headquarters of the organization for Southeast Asia. The members of the branch included Wong Hong-kui (黃康衢;Huang Kangqu), [ unreliable source? ] Tan Chor Lam (陳楚楠;Chen Chu'nan;1884–1971)[ citation needed ] and Teo Eng Hock (張永福;Zhang Yongfu;originally a rubber shoe manufacturer).[ citation needed ] Tan Chor Lam,Teo Eng Hock and Chan Po-yin (陳步賢;Chen Buxian;1883–1965) started the revolution-related Chong Shing Chinese Daily Newspaper (中興日報,中興meaning China revival),[ citation needed ] with the inaugural issue on 20 August 1907 and a daily distribution of 1,000 copies. The newspaper ended in 1910,presumably due to the Xinhai Revolution in 1911. Working with other Cantonese people,Tan,Teo and Chan opened the revolution-related Kai Ming Bookstore (開明書報社,開明meaning open wisdom) in Singapore. For the revolution,Chan Po-yin raised over 30,000 yuan for the purchase and shipment (from Singapore to China) of military equipment and for the support of the expenses of people travelling from Singapore to China for revolutionary work. [ page needed ] [ unreliable source? ]
In 1909,the headquarters of the Nanyang Tongmenghui was transferred to Penang. Sun Yat-Sen himself was based in Penang from July to December 1910. During this time,the 1910 Penang Conference was held to plan the Second Guangzhou Uprising. The high-powered Preparatory Meeting of Dr. Sun Yat Sen's supporters was subsequently held in Ipoh - at the villa of Teh Lay Seng,chairman of Tungmenghui Ipoh at Jalan Sungai Pari - to raise funds. [ citation needed ]The Ipoh leaders were Teh Lay Seng,Wong I Ek,Lee Guan Swee and Lee Hau Cheong. The leaders launched a major drive for donations across the Malay Peninsula. An amount of $47,683 Straits Settlement Dollars was raised. The Tongmenghui also started a newspaper,the Kwong Wah Jit Poh,with the first issue published in December 1910 from 120 Armenian Street,Penang.
In Henan,some Chinese Muslims were members of the Tongmenghui.
After Shanghai was occupied by the revolutionaries in November 1911,the Tongmenghui moved its headquarters to Shanghai. After the Nanjing Provisional Government was established,the headquarters was moved to Nanjing. A general meeting was held in Nanjing on 20 January 1912,with thousands of members attending. Hu Hanmin,who represented the Provisional President Sun Yat-sen,moved that the Tongmenghui oath be changed to "overthrow the Manchu government,consolidate the Republic of China,and implement the Min Sheng Chu I ". Wang Jingwei was elected as Chairman,succeeding Sun. Wang resigned the following month,and Sun resumed the chairmanship. [ page needed ]
After the establishment of the Republic of China,the Tongmenghui transformed itself into a political party on 3 March 1912,in preparation for participation in constitutional and parliamentary activities. It issued a Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China,which consisted of 34 articles,meaning it had 10 more than the constitutional proposal made when the Tongmenghui was a secret society. The leadership election was held on the same day,with Sun Yat-sen elected as Chairman,Huang Xing and Li Yuanhung as Vice-Chairmen. In May 1912,the Tongmenghui moved its headquarters to Beijing. At that time,the Tongmenghui was the largest party in China,with branches in Guangdong,Szechuan,Wuhan,Shanghai,Hangzhou,Suzhou,Anqing,Fuzhou and Tianjin. It had a membership of about 550,000. [ page needed ] In August 1912,the Tongmenghui formed the nucleus of the Kuomintang,the governing political party of the republic.[ citation needed ]
In 1904,by combining republican,nationalist,and socialist objectives,the Tongmenghui came up with their political goal:to expel the Manchu rulers,to revive Zhonghua,to establish a Republic,and to distribute land equally among the people. (驅除韃虜,恢復中華,創立民國,平均地權Qūchúdálǔ,huīfùZhōnghuá,chuànglìmínguó,píngjūn dìquán).The Three Principles of the People were created around the time of the merging of Revive China Society and the Tongmenghui.
Sun Yat-sen, also known as Sun Yat-sun, Sun Chung-shan, Sun Yi-hsien, Sun Wen, Sun Jih-hsin, Suen Yat-sen, Suen Yat-sun, Sun Yixian and Sun Rixin, was a Chinese statesman, physician, and political philosopher, who served as the first provisional president of the Republic of China and the first leader of the Kuomintang. He is called the "Father of the Nation" in the Republic of China, and the "Forerunner of the Revolution" in the People's Republic of China for his instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. Sun is unique among 20th-century Chinese leaders for being widely revered in both Mainland China and Taiwan.
The flag of the Republic of China, also known as the Blue Sky, White Sun, and a Wholly Red Earth (青天白日滿地紅) and retroactively the National Flag of China, consists of a red field with a blue canton bearing a white disk surrounded by twelve triangles; said symbols symbolize the sun and rays of light emanating from it, respectively.
The 1911 Revolution, also known as the Xinhai Revolution, ended China's last imperial dynasty, the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and led to the establishment of the Republic of China. The revolution was the culmination of a decade of agitation, revolts, and uprisings. Its success marked the collapse of the Chinese monarchy, the end of 2,132 years of imperial rule in China and 276 years of the Qing dynasty, and the beginning of China's early republican era.
Huang Xing or Huang Hsing was a Chinese revolutionary leader and politician, and the first commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Republic of China, his position was second only to Sun Yat-sen. Together they were known as Sun-Huang during the Xinhai Revolution. He was also known as the "Eight Fingered General" because of wounds sustained during war. His tomb is on Mount Yuelu, in Changsha, Hunan, China.
The Hsing Chung Hui, translated as the Revive China Society (興中會), the Society for Regenerating China, or the Proper China Society was founded by Sun Yat-sen on 24 November 1894 to forward the goal of establishing prosperity for China and as a platform for future revolutionary activities. It was formed during the First Sino-Japanese War, after a string of Chinese military defeats exposed corruption and incompetence within the imperial government of the Qing dynasty. The Revive China Society went through several political re-organizations in later years and eventually became the party known as the Kuomintang. As such, the contemporary Kuomintang considers its founding date to be the establishment of Revive China Society.
The Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall, also known as Wan Qing Yuan, and formerly as the Sun Yat Sen Villa, is a two-story colonial style villa in Balestier, Singapore. The villa is now a museum commemorating Sun Yat Sen (1866–1925), the founding father of the Republic of China who visited Singapore nine times between 1900 and 1911.
Kwong Wah Yit Poh or Kwong Wah Daily is a Malaysian Chinese daily that was founded on 20 December 1910 by Dr. Sun Yat-sen.
The Chinese People's Party is a small political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan that won three seats in the National Assembly election of 2005. It combines the Pan-Blue Coalition and Pan-Green Coalition platforms, upholding the Three Principles of the People while simultaneously aiming for Chinese unification. It operates on the principle "滅共復國" and its main electoral platform is to launch a large-scale military assault on Mainland China to reclaim it for the Republic of China.
Singapore in the Straits Settlements refers to a period in the history of Singapore between 1826 and 1942, during which Singapore was part of the Straits Settlements together with Penang and Malacca. Singapore was the capital and the seat of government of the Straits Settlement after it was moved from George Town in 1832.
The Second Guangzhou (Canton) Uprising, known in Chinese as the Yellow Flower Mound Uprising or the Guangzhou Xinhai Uprising, was a failed uprising took place in China led by Huang Xing and his fellow revolutionaries against the Qing dynasty in Canton (Guangzhou). It is honored in Guangzhou's Yellow Flower Mound or Huanghuagang Park.
The Progressive Party was a political party in the Republic of China from 1913 to 1916.
The Huaxinghui, commonly translated as the China Revival Society or China Arise Society, was founded by Huang Xing and Zhang Shizhao on 15 February 1904 with the election of Huang Xing as its president, in Changsha of Hunan for the explicit political goal of overthrowing the Qing dynasty and establishing a democratic and free country. Many of its members later became key figures of the Tongmenghui.
The Provisional Government of the Republic of China was a provisional government established during the Xinhai Revolution by the revolutionaries in 1912. After the success of the Wuchang uprising, revolutionary provincial assembly representatives held a conference in the district of Wuchang, China, which framed the organizational outline of the Provisional Government.
The 1910 Penang conference was a meeting held at 404 Dato' Kramat Road in Penang on 13 November 1910, by Sun Yat-sen to stage a major revolt. The following day, on 14 November 1910, Sun Yat-sen chaired an Emergency Meeting of the Tongmenghui at 120 Armenian Street, now the Sun Yat-sen Museum Penang, and raised Straits Dollars $8,000 on the spot. The meeting focused on fund raising and the planning of a final revolution to overthrow the Qing dynasty that would make or break the Tongmenghui.
Yau Lit (尢列), born Yau Kwai-bok (尢季博), courtesy name Tui-hau (推孝) or Ling-kwai (令季), was a Chinese revolutionary from Shuntak, Kwangtung. He is one of the Four Bandits, together with Sun Yat-sen, Chan siu-bak and Yeung Hok-ling.
The Sun Yat-sen Museum Penang formerly called the Sun Yat-sen Penang Base, is a museum in George Town, Penang, Malaysia. The museum is dedicated to Sun Yat-sen, a Chinese nationalist who established the Republic of China after his efforts in the Xinhai Revolution.
Zhang Ji, also known by his courtesy name Pu Quan (溥泉), was a Chinese anarchist and revolutionary who became a leading member of the right-wing faction of the Kuomintang.
Zhan Dabei (1888-1927) was a Chinese revolutionary and politician. He was an anti-Manchu rebel active at the time of the 1911 Revolution. He later became a left-wing member of the Nationalist Party, or KMT, and was executed as a Communist partisan in 1927.
The Second Revolution refers to a 1913 revolt by the governors of several southern Chinese provinces as well as supporters of Sun Yat Sen and the Kuomintang against the Beiyang Government of the Republic of China led by Yuan Shikai. It was quickly defeated by Yuan's armies and led to the continued consolidation of Yuan's powers as President of the Republic of China.