|Also known as||Chinese United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, United Allegiance Society|
|Leader||Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren|
|Foundation||20 August 1905|
|Dissolved||25 August 1912|
|Merger of||Revive China Society, Guangfuhui|
|Ideology|| Republicanism |
|Notable attacks||Xinhai Revolution|
The Tongmenghui (or T'ung-meng Hui, variously translated as Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance, United Allegiance Society, 中國同盟會) was a secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren, and others in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905.It was formed from the merger of multiple Chinese revolutionary groups in the late Qing dynasty.
The Tongmenghui was created through the unification of Sun Yat-sen's Xingzhonghui (Revive China Society), the Guangfuhui (Restoration Society) and many other Chinese revolutionary groups. Among the Tongmenghui's members were Huang Xing, Li Zongren, Zhang Binglin, Chen Tianhua, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin, Tao Chengzhang, Cai Yuanpei, Li Shizeng, Zhang Renjie, and Qiu Jin.
In 1906, a branch of the Tongmenghui was formed in Singapore, following Sun's visit there; this was called the Nanyang branch and served as headquarters of the organization for Southeast Asia. The members of the branch included Wong Hong-kui (黃康衢; Huang Kangqu), [ citation needed ] and Teo Eng Hock (張永福; Zhang Yongfu; originally a rubber shoe manufacturer).[ citation needed ] Tan Chor Lam, Teo Eng Hock and Chan Po-yin (陳步賢; Chen Buxian; 1883-1965) started the revolution-related Chong Shing Chinese Daily Newspaper (中興日報, 中興 meaning China revival),[ citation needed ] with the inaugural issue on 20 August 1907 and a daily distribution of 1,000 copies. The newspaper ended in 1910, presumably due to the Xinhai Revolution in 1911. Working with other Cantonese people, Tan, Teo and Chan opened the revolution-related Kai Ming Bookstore (開明書報社, 開明 meaning open wisdom) in Singapore. For the revolution, Chan Po-yin raised over 30,000 yuan for the purchase and shipment (from Singapore to China) of military equipment and for the support of the expenses of people travelling from Singapore to China for revolutionary work.Tan Chor Lam (陳楚楠; Chen Chu'nan; 1884-1971)
In 1909, the headquarters of the Nanyang Tongmenghui was transferred to Penang. Sun Yat-Sen himself was based in Penang from July to December 1910. During this time, the 1910 Penang Conference was held to plan the Second Guangzhou Uprising. The Tongmenghui also started a newspaper, the Kwong Wah Jit Poh, with the first issue published in December 1910 from 120 Armenian Street, Penang.
In Henan, some Chinese Muslims were members of the Tongmenghui.
After Shanghai was occupied by the revolutionaries in November 1911, the Tongmenghui moved its headquarters to Shanghai. After the Nanjing Provisional Government was established, the headquarters was moved to Nanjing. A general meeting was held in Nanjing on 20 January 1912, with thousands of members attending. Hu Hanmin, who represented the Provisional President Sun Yat-sen, moved that the Tongmenghui oath be changed to "overthrow the Manchu government, consolidate the Republic of China, and implement the Min Sheng Chu I ". Wang Jingwei was elected as Chairman, succeeding Sun. Wang resigned the following month, and Sun resumed the chairmanship.
After the establishment of the Republic of China, the Tongmenghui transformed itself into a political party on 3 March 1912, in preparation for participation in constitutional and parliamentary activities. It issued a Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China, which consisted of 34 articles, meaning it had 10 more than the constitutional proposal made when the Tongmenghui was a secret society. The leadership election was held on the same day, with Sun Yat-sen elected as Chairman, Huang Xing and Li Yuanhung as Vice-Chairmen. In May 1912, the Tongmenghui moved its headquarters to Beijing. At that time, the Tongmenghui was the largest party in China, with branches in Guangdong, Szechuan, Wuhan, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Suzhou, Anqing, Fuzhou and Tianjin. It had a membership of about 550,000.In August 1912, the Tongmenghui formed the nucleus of the Kuomintang, the governing political party of the republic.
In 1904, by combining republican, nationalist, and socialist objectives, the Tongmenghui came up with their political goal: to expel the Manchu people, to revive Zhonghua, to establish a Republic, and to distribute land equally among the people. (驅除韃虜, 恢復中華, 創立民國, 平均地權 Qūchú dálǔ, huīfù Zhōnghuá, chuànglì mínguó, píngjūn dì quán).The Three Principles of the People were created around the time of the merging of Revive China Society and the Tongmenghui.
Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese politician, physician, and political philosopher, who served as the provisional first president of the Republic of China and the first leader of the Kuomintang. He is referred as the "Father of the Nation" in the Republic of China, and as the "Forerunner of the Revolution" in the People’s Republic of China for his instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. Sun is unique among 20th-century Chinese leaders for being widely revered in both mainland China and Taiwan.
The 1911 Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Xinhai Revolution, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty and established the Republic of China (ROC). The revolution was named Xinhai (Hsin-hai) because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai (辛亥) stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle of the traditional Chinese calendar.
Huang Xing or Huang Hsing was a Chinese revolutionary leader and politician, and the first commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Republic of China, his position was second only to Sun Yat-sen. Together they were known as Sun-Huang during the Xinhai Revolution. He was also known as the "Eight Fingered General" because of wounds sustained during war. His tomb is on Mount Yuelu, in Changsha, Hunan, China.
The Hsing Chung Hui, translated as the Revive China Society (興中會), the Society for Regenerating China, or the Proper China Society was founded by Sun Yat-sen on 24 November 1894 to forward the goal of establishing prosperity for China and as a platform for future revolutionary activities. It was formed during the First Sino-Japanese War, after a string of Chinese military defeats exposed corruption and incompetence within the imperial government of the Qing dynasty. The Revive China Society went through several political re-organizations in later years and eventually became the party known as the Kuomintang. As such, the contemporary Kuomintang considers its founding date to be the establishment of Revive China Society.
Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum is situated at the foot of the second peak of Purple Mountain in Nanjing, China. Construction of the tomb started in January 1926, and was finished in spring of 1929. The architect was Lü Yanzhi, who died shortly after it was finished. His representative and project partner was his close friend Huang Tanpu.
The Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall, also known as Wan Qing Yuan, and formerly as the Sun Yat Sen Villa, is a two-story colonial style villa in Balestier, Singapore. The villa is now a museum commemorating Sun Yat Sen (1866–1925), the founding father of the Republic of China who visited Singapore nine times between 1900 and 1911.
Kwong Wah Yit Poh or Kwong Wah Daily is a Malaysian Chinese daily that was founded on 20 December 1910 by Dr. Sun Yat-sen.
Hu Hanmin was one of the early conservative right factional leaders in the Kuomintang (KMT) during revolutionary China.
The Fujian People's Government is the common name for the People's Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China (1933–1934), also known as the Fujian People's Government, was a short-lived anti-Kuomintang government in the Chinese Republic's Fujian Province. The rebellion that led to its formation and its collapse are known as the Fujian Incident or Fujian Rebellion.
Sun Yat-sen along with Tong Meng Hui were not all that successful in holding revolutionary activities in Malaya, which consists of present-day Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. The British colonial government maintained diplomatic relations with the Qing Government from the point of view of national relations, and the Qing embassies in Singapore and Penang became obstructions for the revolutionary activities. On the other side, the diplomats of the Qing Government visited areas of Malaya, and were welcomed by the local Chinese residents. These diplomats lobbied for local Chinese loyalty to the Qing Government; some of them sold government positions to achieve these goals. Hu Hanmin described the Chinese in the Southeast Asia as "Anyone that had some sort of official positions under the Manchus can go to Southeast Asia and bluff, saying "The three generations of my family were all first-grade officials, and I'm also a significant official with luxurious government headgear!", and these bluffs will create a sensation in the local Chinese to adore you. From Hu Hanmin's description, it is apparent that the Chinese in Malaya were still influenced by conservative ideas. These conservative ideas helped the royalists led by Kang Youwei to win responses from the local Chinese residents.
The Second Guangzhou Uprising, known in Chinese as the Yellow Flower Mound Uprising or the Guangzhou Xinhai Uprising, was a failed uprising led by Huang Xing and his fellow revolutionaries against the Qing Dynasty in Guangzhou. It is honored in Guangzhou's Yellow Flower Mound or Huanghuagang Park.
The Huaxinghui, commonly translated as the China Revival Society or China Arise Society, was founded by Huang Xing and Zhang Shizhao on 15 February 1904 with the election of Huang Xing as its president, in Changsha of Hunan for the explicit political goal of overthrowing the Qing dynasty and establishing a democratic and free country. Many of its members later became key figures of the Tongmenghui.
The Provisional Government of the Republic of China was a provisional government established during the Xinhai Revolution by the revolutionaries in 1912. After the success of the Wuchang uprising, revolutionary provincial assembly representatives held a conference in the district of Wuchang, China, which framed the organizational outline of the Provisional Government.
The 1910 Penang conference (庇能會議) was a meeting held in Penang 404 Dato' Kramat road on 13 November 1910, by Sun Yat-sen to stage a major revolt. The following day, on 14 November 1910, Sun Yat-sen chaired an Emergency Meeting of the Tongmenghui at 120 Armenian Street, now the Sun Yat Sen Museum Penang, and raised Straits Dollars $8,000 on the spot. The meeting focused on fund raising and the planning of a final revolution to overthrow the Qing government that would make or break the Tongmenghui.
Yau Lit (尢列), born Yau Kwai-bok (尢季博), courtesy name Tui-hau (推孝) or Ling-kwai (令季), was a Chinese revolutionary from Shuntak, Kwangtung. He is one of the Four Bandits, together with Sun Yat-sen, Chan siu-bak and Yeung Hok-ling.
1911 Revolution is a Chinese television series based on the events of the Xinhai Revolution, which brought an end to imperial rule in China in 1911. It was first broadcast on CCTV-1 during prime time on 27 September 2011. It was specially produced to mark the 100th anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution.
The Unity Party was a short-lived political party in the early of the Republican period of China from 1912 to 1913.
Zhang Ji was a revolutionist against the Qing dynasty and early Chinese anarchist who became a leading member of the right-wing in the Kuomintang.
The Second Revolution refers to a 1913 revolt by the governors of several southern Chinese provinces as well as supporters of Sun Yat Sen and the Kuomintang against the Beiyang Government of the Republic of China lead by Yuan Shikai. It was quickly defeated by Yuan's armies and led to the continued consolidation of Yuan's powers as President of the Republic of China.
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