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The United States was the second-largest energy consumer in 2010 after China.The country is ranked seventh in energy consumption per capita after Canada and several small nations. Not included is the significant amount of energy used overseas in the production of retail and industrial goods consumed in the United States.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.
Most of this energy comes from fossil fuels: in 2010, data showed that 25% of the nation's energy originates from petroleum, 22% from coal, and 22% from natural gas. Nuclear energy supplied 8.4% and renewable energy supplied 8%,mainly from hydroelectric dams and biomass; however, this also includes other renewable sources like wind, geothermal, and solar. As of 2006, energy consumption had increased more rapidly than domestic energy production over the last 50 years in the nation (when they were roughly equal). This difference was largely met through imports.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis. Such organisms and their resulting fossil fuels typically have an age of millions of years, and sometimes more than 650 million years. Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum, coal, and natural gas. Commonly used derivatives of fossil fuels include kerosene and propane. Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon-to-hydrogen ratios, to liquids, to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields either alone, associated with oil, or in the form of methane clathrates.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other elements; chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Coal is formed if dead plant matter decays into peat and over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial converts the peat into coal. Vast deposits of coal originates in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) and Permian times.
According to the Energy Information Administration's statistics, the per-capita energy consumption in the US has been somewhat consistent from the 1970s to the present time. The average was about 334 million British thermal unit s [BTU] (352 GJ ) per person from 1980 to 2010. One explanation suggested that the energy required to increase the nation's consumption of manufactured equipment, cars, and other goods has been shifted to other countries producing and transporting those goods to the US with a corresponding shift of green house gases and pollution. In comparison, the world average increased from 63.7 to 75 million BTU (67.2 to 79.1 GJ) per person between 1980 and 2008.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment. EIA programs cover data on coal, petroleum, natural gas, electric, renewable and nuclear energy. EIA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy.
The British thermal unit is a traditional unit of heat; it is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. It is also part of the United States customary units. Its counterpart in the metric system is the calorie, which is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. Heat is now known to be equivalent to energy, for which the SI unit is the joule; one BTU is about 1055 joules. While units of heat are often supplanted by energy units in scientific work, they are still used in many fields. As examples, in the United States the price of natural gas is quoted in dollars per million BTUs.
The joule is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units. It is equal to the energy transferred to an object when a force of one newton acts on that object in the direction of the force's motion through a distance of one metre. It is also the energy dissipated as heat when an electric current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second. It is named after the English physicist James Prescott Joule (1818–1889).
From its founding until the late 19th century, the United States was a largely agrarian country with abundant forests. During this period, energy consumption overwhelmingly focused on readily available firewood. Rapid industrialization of the economy, urbanization, and the growth of railroads led to increased use of coal, and by 1885 it had eclipsed wood as the nation's primary energy source.[ citation needed ]
Wood fuel is a fuel, such as firewood, charcoal, chips, sheets, pellets, and sawdust. The particular form used depends upon factors such as source, quantity, quality and application. In many areas, wood is the most easily available form of fuel, requiring no tools in the case of picking up dead wood, or few tools, although as in any industry, specialized tools, such as skidders and hydraulic wood splitters, have been developed to mechanize production. Sawmill waste and construction industry by-products also include various forms of lumber tailings. The discovery of how to make fire for the purpose of burning wood is regarded as one of humanity's most important advances. The use of wood as a fuel source for heating is much older than civilization and is assumed to have been used by Neanderthals. Today, burning of wood is the largest use of energy derived from a solid fuel biomass. Wood fuel can be used for cooking and heating, and occasionally for fueling steam engines and steam turbines that generate electricity. Wood may be used indoors in a furnace, stove, or fireplace, or outdoors in furnace, campfire, or bonfire.
Primary energy (PE) is an energy form found in nature that has not been subjected to any human engineered conversion process. It is energy contained in raw fuels, and other forms of energy received as input to a system. Primary energy can be non-renewable or renewable.
Coal remained dominant for the next seven decades, but by 1950, it was surpassed in turn by both petroleum and natural gas. The 1973 oil embargo precipitated an energy crisis in the United States. [ citation needed ]In 2007, coal consumption was the highest it has ever been, with it mostly being used to generate electricity. Natural gas has replaced coal as the preferred source of heating in homes, businesses, and industrial furnaces, which burns cleaner and is easier to transport.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo. The embargo was targeted at nations perceived as supporting Israel during the Yom Kippur War. The initial nations targeted were Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States with the embargo also later extended to Portugal, Rhodesia and South Africa. By the end of the embargo in March 1974, the price of oil had risen nearly 400%, from US$3 per barrel to nearly $12 globally; US prices were significantly higher. The embargo caused an oil crisis, or "shock", with many short- and long-term effects on global politics and the global economy. It was later called the "first oil shock", followed by the 1979 oil crisis, termed the "second oil shock."
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For electric utilities in the electric power industry, it is the first stage in the delivery of electricity to end users, the other stages being transmission, distribution, energy storage and recovery, using the pumped-storage method.
Although total energy use increased by approximately a factor of 50 between 1850 and 2000, energy use per capita increased only by a factor of four.[ citation needed ] As of 2009, United States per-capita energy use had declined to 7.075 tonnes of oil equivalent (296.2 GJ), 12% less than 2000, and in 2010, to levels not seen since the 1960s. At the beginning of the 20th century, petroleum was a minor resource used to manufacture lubricants and fuel for kerosene and oil lamps. One hundred years later it had become the preeminent energy source for the United States and the rest of the world. This rise closely paralleled the emergence of the automobile as a major force in American culture and the economy.
While petroleum is also used as a source for plastics and other chemicals, and powers various industrial processes, today two-thirds of oil consumption in the US is in the form of its derived transportation fuels. [ citation needed ]Oil's unique qualities for transportation fuels in terms of energy content, cost of production, and speed of refueling all contributed to it being used over other fuels.
In June 2010, the American Energy Innovation Council, a group which includes Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft; Jeffrey R. Immelt, chief executive of General Electric; and John Doerr, —to $16 billion a year. Gates endorsed the administration's goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, but said that was not possible with today's technology or politicism. He said that the only way to find such disruptive new technology was to pour large sums of money at the problem.[ citation needed ] The group notes that the federal government spends less than $5 billion a year on energy research and development, not counting one-time stimulus projects. About $30 billion is spent annually on health research and more than $80 billion on military research and development.[ citation needed ] They advocate for a jump in spending on basic energy research.has urged the government to more than triple spending on energy research and development
| Mtoe = 41,868 TJ>, Prim. energy includes energy losses that are 2/3 for nuclear power |
2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated
|Supply sources||Percent of source||Demand sectors||Percent of sector|
5% Residential and commercial
1% Electric power
3% Natural gas
5% Renewable energy
28% Residential and commercial
34% Electric power
45% Natural gas
12% Renewable energy
<1% Residential and commercial
91% Electric power
|Residential and commercial|
76% Natural gas
8% Renewable energy
7% Residential and commercial
57% Electric power
26% Natural gas
17% Renewable energy
23% Nuclear electric power
|Nuclear electric power|
|100% Electric power|
Note: Sum of components may not equal 100% due to independent rounding.
Primary energy use in the United States was 90,558 petajoules [PJ] (25,155 TWh ) or about 294,480 megajoule s [MJ] (81,800 kWh ) per person in 2009. Primary energy use was 3,960 PJ (1,100 TWh) less in the United States than in China in 2009. The share of energy import was 26% of the primary energy use. The energy import declined about 22% and the annual CO2 emissions about 10% in 2009 compared to 2004.
|Fuel type||United States||World|
solar, wood, waste
Oil is one of the largest sources of energy in the United States. The United States influences world oil reserves for both growth and development.As the 20th century progressed, petroleum gained increasing importance by providing heating and electricity to the commercial and industrial sectors. Oil was also used in transportation; first for railroads and later for motor vehicles.
As automobiles became more affordable, demand for oil quickly rose. Since the rise of the automobile industry, oil price, demand, and production have all increased as well. Between 1900 and 1980, fuel was directly correlated with Gross National Product (GNP). Furthermore, oil shocks have often coincided with recessions, and the government has responded to oil shocks in several ways.In the 1920s, oil prices were peaking and many commentators believed that oil supplies were running out. Congress was confronted by requests to augment supplies, so a generous depletion allowance was enacted for producers in 1926, which increased investment returns substantially. This change induced additional exploration activity, and subsequently the discovery of large new oil reservoirs.
In the next decade the situation was reversed with prices low and dropping. This resulted in demands for more "orderly" competition and set minimum oil prices. Rather than repealing the previous policies enacted in the 1920s, Congress enacted a price-support system. Similar cycles have occurred in the 1950s and 1970s.
Natural gas was the largest source of energy production in the United States in 2016, representing 33% of all energy produced in the country.Natural gas has been the largest source of electrical generation in the United States since July 2015.
The United States has been the world's largest producer of natural gas since 2009, when it surpassed Russia. US natural gas production achieved new record highs for each year from 2011 through 2015. Marketed natural gas production in 2015 was 28.8 trillion cubic feet (820 billion cubic metres), a 5.4% increase over 2014, and a 52% increase over the production of 18.9 trillion cu ft (540 billion m3) per day in 2005.
Because of the greater supply, consumer prices for natural gas are significantly lower in the United States than in Europe and Japan.The low price of natural gas, together with its smaller carbon footprint compared to coal, has encouraged a rapid growth in electricity generated from natural gas.
Between 2005 and 2014, US production of natural gas liquids (NGLs) increased 70%, from 1.74 million barrels of oil equivalent (10.6 PJ) per day in 2005 to 2.96 million barrels of oil equivalent (18.1 PJ) per day in 2014. The US has been the world's leading producer of natural gas liquids since 2010, when US NGL production passed that of Saudi Arabia.
Although the United States leads the world in natural gas production, it is only fifth in proved reserves of natural gas, behind Russia, Iran, Qatar, and Turkmenistan.
Generation of electricity is the largest user of coal, although its use is in decline. About 50% of electric power was produced by coal in 2005, declining to 30% in 2016. 1 Electric utilities buy more than 90% of the coal consumed in the United States.:
The United States is a net exporter of coal. Coal exports, for which Europe is the largest customer, peaked in 2012 and have declined since. In 2015, the US exported 7.0% of mined coal.
Coal has been used to generate electricity in the United States since an Edison plant was built in New York City in 1882.The first AC power station was opened by General Electric in Ehrenfeld, Pennsylvania in 1902, servicing the Webster Coal and Coke Company. By the mid-20th century, coal had become the leading fuel for generating electricity in the US. The long, steady rise of coal-fired generation of electricity shifted to a decline after 2007. The decline has been linked to the increased availability of natural gas, decreased consumption, renewable electricity, and more stringent environmental regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency has advanced restrictions on coal plants to counteract mercury pollution, smog, and global warming.
The US Department of Energy tracks national energy consumption in four broad sectors: industrial, transportation, residential, and commercial. The industrial sector has long been the country's largest energy user, currently representing about 33% of the total. Next in importance is the transportation sector followed by the residential and commercial sectors.
|Sector name||Description||Major uses|
|Industrial||Facilities and equipment used for producing and processing goods.||22% chemical production|
16% petroleum refining
14% metal smelting/refining
|Transportation||Vehicles which transport people/goods on ground, air, or water.||61% gasoline fuel|
21% diesel fuel
|Residential||Living quarters for private households.||32% space heating|
13% water heating
11% air conditioning
5% wet-clean (mostly clothes dryers)
|Commercial||Service-providing facilities and equipment (businesses, government, other institutions).||25% lighting|
6% water heating
Household energy use varies significantly across the United States. An average home in the Pacific region (consisting of California, Oregon, and Washington) consumes 35% less energy than a home in the South Central region. Some of the regional differences can be explained by climate. The heavily populated coastal areas of the Pacific states experience generally mild winters and summers, reducing the need for both home heating and air conditioning. The warm, humid climates of the South Central and South Atlantic regions lead to higher electricity usage, while the cold winters experienced in the Northeast and North Central regions result in much higher consumption of natural gas and heating oil. The state with the lowest per-capita energy use is New York, at 205 million BTU (216 GJ) per year, and the highest is Wyoming, at slightly over 1 billion BTU (1,100 GJ) per year.
Other regional differences stem from energy efficiency measures taken at the local and state levels. California has some of the strictest environmental laws and building codes in the country, leading its per-household energy consumption to be lower than all other states except Hawaii.
The land-use decisions of cities and towns also explain some of the regional differences in energy use. Townhouses are more energy efficient than single-family homes because less heat, for example, is wasted per person. Similarly, areas with more homes in a compact neighborhood encourage walking, biking and transit, thereby reducing transportation energy use. A 2011 US EPA study found that multi-family homes in urban neighborhoods, with well-insulated buildings and fuel-efficient cars, can save more than 2/3 of the energy used by conventionally built single-family houses in suburban areas (with standard cars).
The United States is the world's second largest producer and consumer of electricity.It consumes about 20% of the world's electricity supply. This section provides a summary of the consumption and generation of the nation's electric industry, based on data mined from US DOE Energy Information Administration/Electric Power Annual 2017 files. Data was obtained from the most recent DOE Energy Information Agency (EIA) files. Consumption is detailed from the residential, commercial, industrial, and other user communities. Generation is detailed for the major fuel sources of coal, natural gas, nuclear, petroleum, hydro, and the other renewables of wind, wood, other biomass, geothermal, and solar. Changes to the electrical energy fuel mix and other trends are identified. Progress in wind and solar contributing to the energy mix are addressed. Expected changes in the generation environment during the next 5 years are discussed.
Electricity consumption data in this section is based upon data mined from US DOE Energy Information Administration/Electric Power Annual 2017 files 4,090.6 terawatt-hours [TWh] (14,726 PJ). Consumption was essentially down from 2016 with a reduction of 45.5 TWh (164 PJ) or 1.0% drop. This is broken down as:In 2017, the total US consumption of electricity was
In addition to consumption from the electrical grid, the US consumers consumed an estimated additional 23.99 TWh (86.4 PJ) from small-scale solar systems. This will be included in the per-capita data below.
Electricity consumption per capita is based upon data mined from US DOE Energy Information Administration/Electric Power Annual 2017 files 12,632 kWh (45,480 MJ). This is down 229 kWh (820 MJ) from 2016, down 7.5% from a decade ago, and down 8.0% from its peak in 2007. The following table shows the yearly US per-capita consumption from 2013 to 2017.Population data is from Demographics of the United States. Per-capita consumption in 2017 is
|Year||Population (Millions)||Per-capita consumption (kWh)|
A profile of the electric energy consumption 295 TWh (1,060 PJ) to the July peak of 410 TWh (1,500 PJ) shows the monthly range of consumption variations.for 2017 is shown in the following graph. The February minimum of
The United States has an installed summer electricity generation capacity of 1,072.46 GW in 2017, down 1.8 GW from 2016. 4,034.3 TWh (14,523 PJ) in 2017. The US's net imports were 56.31 TWh (202.7 PJ), for a total of 4,090.6 TWh (14,726 PJ) of electrical energy use. Electrical energy generated from coal was 1,205.84 TWh or 4,341.0 PJ (29.48%); natural and other gases, 1,3908.89 TWh (32.0%); nuclear, 804.95 TWh or 2,897.8 PJ (19.68%); hydro, 300.33 TWh or 1,081.2 PJ (7.34%); Renewables (other than hydro), 386.28 TWh or 1,390.6 PJ (9.45%); imports less exports, 56.31 TWh or 202.7 PJ (1.38%); petroleum, 21.39 TWh or 77.0 PJ (0.52%); and miscellaneous (including pumped storage), 6.59 TWh or 23.7 PJ (0.16%). The US's renewable sources (hydro reported separately) are wind, 254.30 TWh or 915.5 PJ (6.22%); wood, 41.15 TWh or 148.1 PJ (1.01%); other biomass, 21.61 TWh or 77.8 PJ (0.53% ); geothermal, 15.93 TWh or 57.3 PJ (0.39%) and solar, 53.29 TWh or 191.8 PJ (1.3%). Small-scale solar is estimated to have produced an additional 23.99 TWh (86.4 PJ). Natural gas electricity generation exceeded generation from coal for the first time in 2016 and continued in 2017.The US electricity generation was
The following tables summarize the electrical energy generated by fuel source for the United States. Data from Electric Power Annual 2017was used throughout this section.
|Power source||Generators||Summer capacity (GW)||% of total capacity||Capacity factor||Annual energy (TWh)||% of total US|
|Power source||Summer capacity (GW)||% of renewable capacity||% of total capacity||Capacity factor||Total generation (TWh)||% of renewable energy||% of total|
Note: Biomass includes wood and wood derived fuel, landfill gas, biogenic municipal solid waste, and other waste biomass.
Notes: 1 Gas includes natural gas and other gases. 2 Hydro excludes pumped storage (not an energy source, used by all sources, other than hydro). 3 Solar includes photovoltaics and thermal. 4 Bio other includes waste, landfill gas, and other. 5 Misc. includes misc. generation, pumped storage, and net imports. 6 Total includes net imports. 7 2018 data is from Electric Power Monthly and is preliminary.
Individual states have very diverse electric generation systems, and their new initiatives to expand their generation base are equally diverse. Coupled with consumption disparages, it leads to a mix of "have" and "have not" electric energy states. Using the data from the US DOE Energy Information Administration/Electric Power Annual 2017 files.Data was obtained from the most recent DOE Energy Information Agency (EIA) full year files. Full use of the excellent EIA data browser permits easy access to the plethora of data available.
The following table, derived from data mined from Electric Power Annual, identifies those states which must import electrical energy from neighboring states to meet their consumption needs. Each state's total electric generation for 2017 is compared with the state's consumption, and its share of the system loss and the difference between the generated electric energy and its total consumption (including its share of the system loss) is the amount of energy it imports. For Hawaii, total consumption equals generated energy. For the other states, multiplying their direct consumption by 1.098744069 (4080770384/3714031773), results in the US's supply (including net imports) being equal to its total consumption.
|Retail sales (MWh)||Total usage (MWh)||MWh||% 2017||% 2016||Change|
The following table, derived from data mined from Electric Power Annual,identifies those states which generate more electrical energy than they need to meet their consumption needs. They supply those that need additional energy. Each state's total electric generation for 2017 is compared with the state's consumption, and its share of the system loses and the difference between the generated electric energy and its total consumption (including its share of the system losses) is the amount of energy it exports. For Hawaii, total consumption equals generated energy. For the other states, multiplying their direct consumption by 1.098744069 (4080770384/3714031773) results in the US's supply (including net imports) being equal to its total consumption usage. A state exported energy is determined by subtracting the state's total consumption from its generation.
|Retail sales (MWh)||Total usage (MWh)||MWh||% 2017||% 2016||Change|
Renewable energy in the United States accounted for 13.2% of the domestically produced electricity in 2014,and 11.2% of total energy generation. As of 2014, more than 143,000 people work in the solar industry and 43 states deploy net metering, where energy utilities buy back excess energy generated by solar arrays.
Renewable energy reached a major milestone in the first quarter of 2011, when it contributed 11.7% of total US energy production (2.245 quadrillion BTU or 2.369 EJ of energy), surpassing nuclear energy production (2.125 quadrillion BTU or 2.242 EJ). 2011 was the first year since 1997 that renewables exceeded nuclear in total US energy production.
Hydroelectric power is currently the largest producer of renewable energy in the US. It produced around 6.2% of the nation's total electricity in 2010 which was 60.2% of the total renewable energy in the US.The United States is the fourth largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world after China, Canada, and Brazil. The Grand Coulee Dam is the 5th largest hydroelectric power station in the world.
US wind power's installed capacity now exceeds 65,000 MW and supplies 4% of the nation's electric power.Texas is firmly established as the leader in wind power development followed by Iowa and California.
The United States has some of the largest solar farms in the world. Solar Star is a 579-megawatt (MWAC) farm near Rosamond, California.The Desert Sunlight Solar Farm is a 550-megawatt solar power plant in Riverside County, California and the Topaz Solar Farm, a 550 MW photovoltaic power plant, is in San Luis Obispo County, California. The solar thermal SEGS group of plants in the Mojave Desert has a total generating capacity of 354 MW.
The Geysers in Northern California is the largest complex of geothermal energy production in the world.
The development of renewable energy and efficient energy use marks "a new era of energy exploration" in the United States, according to President Barack Obama.Studies suggest that if there is enough political will, it is feasible to supply the whole United States with 100% renewable energy by 2050.
In 2015, electrical energy usage in the United States was 1.6% more than in 2005 and 1% less than the peak in 2007. Per-capita consumption has decreased about 7% since its peak in 2007 and every year since has shown a decrease in individual consumption. Conservation efforts are helping. At least, for the next decade, coal, natural gas, and nuclear will remain the top three fuels for electric energy generation in the USA. Coal will continuously decrease its contribution, with natural gas increasing its contribution. Nuclear will have some downs (decommissionings) and ups (new online plants) but probably remain about constant. Hydro will maintain. Petroleum will continue to decrease in importance. Wind and solar will continue to grow in importance; their combined generation was 5.29% of US electric generation for 2015 or 5.20% of total US consumption.
From the beginning of the United States until 1973, total energy (including electrical) use increased by about 3% per year, while population increased an average of 2.2% per year. Per-capita energy use from 1730 to 1870 was about 100 million BTU (110 GJ) per person. In the 20th century this increased to around 300 million BTU or 320 GJ (332 million BTU or 350 GJ per person per year in 1981).
In 2001, Vice President Dick Cheney said the US would need "at least 1,300 new power plants over the next 20 years."
Efficiency improvements could cause energy use to drop considerably.
A concentrating solar array (CSP) with thermal storage has a practical capacity factor of 33% 98 million acres or 400,000 square kilometres (an area larger than the state of Montana) that was open to proposals for solar power installations. To streamline consideration of applications, the BLM produced a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). By the subsequent Record of Decision in October 2012, the BLM withdrew 78% of its land from possible solar development, leaving 19 million acres (77,000 km2) still open to applications for solar installations, an area nearly as large as South Carolina. Of the area left open to solar proposals, the BLM has identified 285,000 acres (115,000 ha ) in highly favorable areas it calls Solar Energy Zones. In Spain, with natural gas backups, CSP has reached a capacity factor of 66%, with 75% being a theoretical maximum. [ failed verification ]and could provide power 24 hours a day. Prior to 2012, in six southwestern states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah) the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) owned nearly
Energy in Japan refers to energy and electricity production, consumption, import and export in Japan. The country's primary energy consumption was 477.6 Mtoe in 2011, a decrease of 5% over the previous year.
The energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state, and local entities in the United States, which address issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption, such as building codes and gas mileage standards. Energy policy may include legislation, international treaties, subsidies and incentives to investment, guidelines for energy conservation, taxation and other public policy techniques.
Electric energy consumption is the form of energy consumption that uses electric energy. Electric energy consumption is the actual energy demand made on existing electricity supply.
The energy policy of India is largely defined by the country's expanding energy deficit and increased focus on developing alternative sources of energy, particularly nuclear, solar and wind energy. India ranks 81 position in overall energy self-sufficiency at 66% in 2014.
World energy consumption is the total energy produced and used by the entire human civilization. Typically measured per year, it involves all energy harnessed from every energy source applied towards humanity's endeavors across every single industrial and technological sector, across every country. It does not include energy from food, and the extent to which direct biomass burning has been accounted for is poorly documented. Being the power source metric of civilization, world energy consumption has deep implications for humanity's socio-economic-political sphere.
Renewable energy accounted for 12.2 % of total primary energy consumption and 14.94 % of the domestically produced electricity in the United States in 2016. Hydroelectric power is currently the largest producer of renewable electricity in the country, generating around 6.5% of the nation's total electricity in 2016 as well as 45.71% of the total renewable electricity generation. The United States is the fourth largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world after China, Canada and Brazil.
Ensuring adequate energy supply to sustain economic growth has been a core concern of the Chinese government since 1949. Primary energy use in China was 26,250 TWh and 20 TWh per million persons in 2009. According to the International Energy Agency, the primary energy use grew 40% and electricity use 70% from 2004 to 2009.
Energy markets are commodity markets that deal specifically with the trade and supply of energy. Energy market may refer to an electricity market, but can also refer to other sources of energy. Typically energy development is the result of a government creating an energy policy that encourages the development of an energy industry in a competitive manner.
Italy consumed about 185 Mtoe of primary energy in 2010. This came mostly from fossil fuels. Among the most used resources are petroleum, natural gas, coal and renewables.
The electricity sector of the United States includes a large array of stakeholders that provide services through electricity generation, transmission, distribution and marketing for industrial, commercial, public and residential customers. It also includes many public institutions that regulate the sector. In 1996, there were 3,195 electric utilities in the United States, of which fewer than 1,000 were engaged in power generation. This leaves a large number of mostly smaller utilities engaged only in power distribution. There were also 65 power marketers. Of all utilities, 2,020 were publicly owned, 932 were rural electric cooperatives, and 243 were investor-owned utilities. The electricity transmission network is controlled by Independent System Operators or Regional Transmission Organizations, which are not-for-profit organizations that are obliged to provide indiscriminate access to various suppliers in order to promote competition.
The United Kingdom has a National Grid that covers most of mainland Great Britain and several of the surrounding islands, as well as some connectivity to other countries. As of 2017 the electricity sector in the United Kingdom generation uses around 50% fossil fuelled power, roughly 20% nuclear power and 30% renewable power. Renewable power is showing strong growth, while fossil fuel generator use in general and coal use in particular is shrinking, with coal generators now mainly being run in winter due to pollution and costs.
The electricity sector in Italy describes the production, sale, and use of electrical power in Italy. The country's total electricity consumption was 297.3 TWh in 2013, of which 278.8 TWh (93.7%) was produced domestically.
Energy in Ukraine describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Ukraine. As an industry it is part of the Fuel and Energy Complex that combines smaller industries such as power generation and distribution, coal, oil and gas mining industries as well as transportation of resources. Ukraine's geographic position and proximity to Russia explain its importance as a natural gas and petroleum liquids transit country.
Energy in Portugal describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Portugal. Energy policy of Portugal will describe the politics of Portugal related to energy more in detail. Electricity sector in Portugal is the main article of electricity in Portugal.
Total primary energy supply (TPES) in Slovenia was 6.67 Mtoe in 2014. In the same year, electricity consumption was 13.87 TWh.
Energy in Hawaii is complicated by the state's isolated location and lack of fossil fuel resources. The state relies heavily on imports of petroleum and coal for power although renewable energy is increasing. Hawaii is the state with the highest share of petroleum use in the United States, with about 62% of electricity coming from oil in 2017. As of 2016, 26.6% of electricity was from renewable sources, including solar, wind, hydro and geothermal.
California is the state with the largest population and the largest economy in the United States. However, it is second in energy consumption after Texas. California's energy consumption per capita are some of the lowest in the United States as a result of a long term policy of energy efficiency.
Most energy in Israel comes from hydrocarbon fuels. The country's total primary energy demand is significantly higher than its total primary energy production, relying heavily on imports to meet its energy needs. Total primary energy consumption was 1.037 quad (304 TWh) in 2016, or 26.2 Mtoe.
Worldwide energy supply is the global production and preparation of fuel, generation of electricity, and energy transport. Energy supply is a vast industry, powering the world economy. More than 10% of the world expenditures is used for energy purposes.
Increased competition from cheap natural gas is responsible for 49% of the decline in domestic US coal consumption. Lower-than-expected demand is responsible for 26 percent, and the growth in renewable energy is responsible for 18 percent.