The Democratic Republic of the Congo was a net energy exporter in 2008. Most energy was consumed domestically in 2008. According to the IEA statistics the energy export was in 2008 small and less than from the Republic of Congo.2010 population figures were 3.8 million for the RC compared to CDR 67.8 Million.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo has reserves of petroleum, natural gas, coal, and a potential hydroelectric power generating capacity of around 100,000 MW. The Inga Dam on the Congo River has the potential capacity to generate 40,000 to 45,000 MW of electric power, sufficient to supply the electricity needs of the whole Southern Africa region. Ongoing uncertainties in the political arena, and a resulting lack of interest from investors has meant that the Inga Dam's potential has been limited.
In 2001, the dam was estimated to have an installed generating capacity of 2,473 MW. It is estimated that the dam is capable of producing no more than 650–750 MW, because two-thirds of the facility's turbines do not work. The African Development bank agreed to supply $8 million towards dam expansion. The government has also agreed to strengthen the Inga-kolwezi and Inga-South Africa interconnections and to construct a 2nd power line to supply power to Kinshasa.
In 2007, the DR Congo had a gross production of public and self-produced electricity of 8,302 million kWh. The DR Congo imported 78 million kWh of electricity in 2007. The DR Congo is also an exporter of electric power. In 2003, electric power exports came to 1.3 TWh, with power transmitted to the Republic of Congo and its capital, Brazzaville, as well as to Zambia and South Africa. There were plans to build the Western Power Corridor (Westcor) to supply electricity from Inga III hydroelectric power plant to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Namibia, Botswana and South Africa.
The national power company is Société nationale d'électricité (SNEL).
Only 13% of the country has access to electricity.As of 2003, 98.2% of electricity was produced by hydroelectric power.
The DRC a member of three electrical power pools: SAPP (Southern African Power Pool), EAPP (East African Power Pool), and CAPP (Central African Power Pool).
The DROC has crude oil reserves that are second only to Angola's in southern Africa. As of 2009, the DROC’s crude oil reserves came to 180 million barrels (29,000,000 m3). In 2008, the DROC produced 19,960 barrels (3,173 m3) of oil per day and consumed 11,000 barrels per day (1,700 m3/d). As of 2007, the DROC exported 20,090 barrels per day (3,194 m3/d) and imported 11,350 barrels per day (1,805 m3/d).
In 2007, the DROC produced 836,000 metric tons of crude petroleum, exported 836,000 metric tons and had a reserve of 25,000,000 metric tons. The DROC had no refining capacity as of January 1, 2005, and must import refined petroleum products. In 2002, imports of refined petroleum products totaled 8,180 barrels per day (1,301 m3/d).
Oil product imports consist of gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, aviation gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas. Oil products are exported and imported by Cohydro and Dalbit Petroleum. Dalbit Petroleum is a Kenya based energy company that supplies products to Lubumbashi and North Eastern DRC. As of 2008, the DROC had natural gas reserves of 991.1 million cu m. There was no production, consumption or importation or exportation of natural gas. Galaxy Moriah Oil is the government contracted supplier of oil for the DROC.
As of July 2005, the DROC is reported to have coal reserves of 97 million short tons. Domestic coal production and consumption in 2003 totaled 0.11 million short tons and 0.26 million shorts tons, respectively.
ICTs for climate change mitigation
One of the UN Millennium Development Goals is to make the benefits of new technologies - especially information and communications technologies (ICTs) – available to both industrialized nations and developing regions. In light of these goals, several projects have been founded by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), and other organisations in order to explore ICTs and climate change.
Climate Change Legislation
DRC has no national climate change policy and strategy which can present the DRC’s current and future efforts to effectively address its climate change vulnerability and adaptation. It currently relies on environment-related policies and action plans to implement climate change initiatives and activities. Nevertheless, several NGOs and donor agencies have been active in the DRC to develop an administrative structure to address the needs of environmental protection and natural resources management.
The DRC is in a very high level sun belt that makes the installation of photovoltaic systems and the use of thermal solar systems viable throughout the country. Currently there are 836 solar power systems, with a total power of 83 kW, located in Equateur (167), Katanga (159), Nord-Kivu (170), the two Kasaï provinces (170), and Bas-Congo (170). There is also the 148 Caritas network system, with a total power of 6.31 kW7. The potential for further solar development is high.
The DRC has a wide diversity of natural resources, allowing it to consider a significant growth in hydro, wind and solar energy. It has been called "a virtual continent." For the first time in Africa, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has adopted an interactive atlas of renewable energy sources.
This Atlas was created by the UNDP, Netherlands Development Organization SNV, and the Congolese Ministry of Water Resources and Electricity. It has 600 interactive maps and informs policymaking on decentralizing energy and encourages further renewable energy investments.
The economy of Niger is based largely on internal markets, subsistence agriculture, and the export of raw commodities: foodstuffs to neighbors and raw minerals to world markets. Niger, a landlocked West African nation that straddles the Sahel, has consistently been ranked on the bottom of the Human development index, with a relatively low GDP and per capita income, and ranks among the least developed and most heavily indebted countries in the world, despite having large raw commodities and a relatively stable government and society not currently affected by civil war or terrorism. Economic activity centers on subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry, re-export trade, and export of uranium.
The Inga Dams are two hydroelectric dams connected to one of the largest waterfalls in the world, Inga Falls. They are located in the western Democratic Republic of the Congo and 140 miles southwest of Kinshasa.
The energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state, and local entities in the United States, which address issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption, such as building codes and gas mileage standards. Energy policy may include legislation, international treaties, subsidies and incentives to investment, guidelines for energy conservation, taxation and other public policy techniques.
Burning of renewable resources provides approximately 90 percent of the energy in Uganda, though the government is attempting to become energy self-sufficient. While much of the hydroelectric potential of the country is untapped, the government decision to expedite the creation of domestic petroleum capacity coupled with the discovery of large petroleum reserves holds the promise of a significant change in Uganda's status as an energy-importing country.
Ghana generates electric power from hydropower, fossil-fuel, and renewable energy sources. Electricity generation is one of the key factors in order to achieve the development of the Ghanaian national economy, with aggressive and rapid industrialisation; Ghana's national electric energy consumption was 265 kilowatt hours per capita in 2009.
Vietnam is a dynamic developing economy, with a relatively high growth rate. The energy sector plays a key role in promoting the country's socio-economic development. Vietnam has a diverse energy fuel resource of various types such as coal, natural gas, petroleum, hydropower and renewable energy sources such as solar energy, biomass energy, wind energy, etc.
Morocco's energy policy is set independently by two agencies of the government: the Office of Hydrocarbons and Mining (ONHYM)which sets domestic oil policy, and the Office National de l'Electricité (ONE), which sets policy with regard to electricity. The two major weaknesses of the energy policy of Morocco are the lack of coordination between these two agencies and the lack of development of domestic energy sources.
Energy in Paraguay is the term for all the energy produced and used by the country of Paraguay. As Paraguay is landlocked and has no significant natural gas reserves, causing its citizens to burn firewood which contributes to deforestation, its energy consumption is a large issue. The government imports fuel to use, and state-owned Petróleos Paraguayos (Petropar) has a monopoly on all crude oil and petroleum product sales and imports in Paraguay. It operates Paraguay's sole refinery, the 7,500 bbl/d (1,190 m3/d) Villa Elisa facility.
Energy in Angola describes energy and electricity production, consumption and export from Angola. The energy policy of Angola reflects energy policy and the politics of Angola.
Benin is a coastal country located in the Gulf of Guinea in Western Africa, which is a resource rich region. Energy in Benin has a diverse energy mix and takes several forms including: solar, wind, hydropower, biomass, fossil resources, and mineral resources. Out of this energy mix, about 60% of energy comes from biomass. Benin is also dependent on energy imports from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. While power plants and other energy facilities were built in the 1950s and 1960s, the lack of investment has led to deterioration over time. Similarly, its location in the oil-rich Gulf of Guinea has led to an attempt of oil production starting in the late 1980s. However, due to unprofitable operations, oil production halted in 1998.
Energy in Burkina Faso is a growing industry with tremendous potential.
Energy in Cameroon is a growing industry with tremendous potential, especially with the hydroelectric industry. With a total installed capacity of 1,292 MW, the mix of energy production of Cameroon consists of 57% of hydraulic power source, 21% of thermal springs in the gas, 10% of heat source to light fuel oil and 13% of heat source to heavy fuel oil.
Energy in Burundi is a growing industry with tremendous potential.
Energy in the Central African Republic is a growing industry with plenty of potential. The country has a large potential to become a winner from the global transition to renewable energy; it is ranked no. 7 among 156 countries in the index of geopolitical gains and losses after energy transition.
Djibouti had no proven reserves of oil or natural gas, or refining capacity, Djibouti has no known reserves of coal. The country's electrical energy is supplied primarily by thermal plants and imported hydroelectricity from Ethiopia. However, the supplemental supply of power from Ethiopia does not always satisfy Djibouti’s demand for power. According to USAID's Energy sector overview for djibouti, Djibouti has the potential to generate more than 300MW of electrical power from renewable energy sources, and much more from other resources. Based on 2020 data, Djibouti’s national electrification rate reached 42%,.
This article describes the energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Egypt.
Energy in Equatorial Guinea is an industry with plenty of potential, especially in the fields of oil and natural gas.
Energy in Gabon comes from two main sources, fossil-fuels and hydroelectricity. Gabon also relies heavily on oil for its export revenues, exporting both crude oil and petroleum. In terms its oil reserves, the country is one of the richest in sub-Sharan Africa, ranking 5th after Nigeria, Angola, Sudan, South Sudan, and Uganda. Renewable energy in the form of solar power is virtually nonexistent.
Energy in Serbia describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Serbia.
This article describes energy and electricity production, consumption, import and export in Kenya. Kenya's current effective installed electricity capacity is 2,651 MW, with peak demand of 1,912 MW, as of November 2019. At that time, demand was rising at a calculated rate of 3.6 percent annually, given that peak demand was 1,770 MW, at the beginning of 2018. Electricity supply is mostly generated by renewable sources with the majority coming from geothermal power and hydroelectricity.