Culture of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

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The culture of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is extremely diverse, reflecting the great diversity and different customs which exist in the country. Congolese culture combines the influence of tradition to the region, but also combines influences from abroad which arrived during the era of colonization and has continued to have a strong influence, without destroying the individuality of many tribal' customs.

Contents

People, language and background

A map of the major Bantu languages in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Map - DR Congo, major languages.svg
A map of the major Bantu languages in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Like many African countries, the borders were drawn up by colonial powers, and bore little relation to the actual spread of ethno-linguistic groups. There are 242 languages spoken in the country, with perhaps a similar number of ethnic groups. Broadly speaking, there are four main population groups:

The above descriptions are by necessity simplified. Many Congolese are multilingual, and the language used depends on the context. For instance, a government official might use French to set a tone of formality and authority with another official, use Lingala when buying goods at a market, and the local language when in his home village. English is also spoken, especially in the east where eastern and southern African influences have spread in the post-Mobutu era. Among the slangs spoken in Congo, Indubil has been noted since around the 1960s, [5] and continues to evolve nowadays. [6]

Mixed marriages between ethnic groups are common, particularly in urban areas where many different groups live side by side. Europeans appear in small numbers throughout the country, as missionaries in the countryside, and as businessmen and traders in the cities. Also acting as merchants are small numbers of Lebanese and Pakistanis.

More information on the various peoples in Congo can be found in the Early Congolese History article.

Religion and belief

Branhamist worshippers in Kinshasa Ceremony in Lemba.jpg
Branhamist worshippers in Kinshasa

The main religions in the DRC are:[ citation needed ]

There are small communities of Jews and Hindus who work in commercial urban areas. Atheism is very rare.[ citation needed ]

Indigenous traditional beliefs

Though only 11.5 per cent of Congolese exclusively follow indigenous beliefs, these traditional belief systems are often intermingled with forms of Christianity, and are familiar to the majority of Congolese. Throughout the DRC the beliefs take on a number of forms, but they have a number of things in common:

Belief in Witchcraft is common, and sometimes intersects with the more fundamentalist and evangelical versions of Christianity. In recent years, these beliefs have gained adherents in urban areas, whereas before they were mainly confined to the countryside. The increasing beliefs in witches and sorcery have tended to mirror the social decay caused by war and poverty. Many of the street children that roam the Congo's cities have been cast out of their families after being denounced as witches. These homeless 'witch children' often live in cemeteries and only come out at night, and follow occult practices. See BBC News article on Kinshasa's street children. For comparison, see article on beliefs of Miami street children.

Catholic and Protestant Christianity

A Congolese Christian. Culture of DRC - religion.jpg
A Congolese Christian.

Christianity has a long history in Congo, dating back to 1484, when the Portuguese arrived and convinced the king and entourage of the Kongo people to convert. In 1506, a Portuguese-supported candidate for kingship, Alfonso I of Kongo won the throne. Alfonso (the Kongo royal family had begun to take on Portuguese names), established relations with the Vatican. More widespread conversion occurred during the Belgian colonial era. Christianity varies in its forms, and is in some ways surprisingly similar to native beliefs.

During the colonial period, a European-style Christianity was at first promoted by the authorities. Native Congolese generally attended different churches or services from whites. If they worshiped under the same roof, the native Congolese sat on benches at the back, while the whites sat in chairs at the front. Towards the end of the colonial era, more African elements were incorporated into Christianity, including songs and dances which were formerly condemned as pagan. Eventually, even native fables and myths were appropriated and merged into Congolese Christianity, in a similar process to that which occurred with Christianity in Europe.

Recent developments include the increasing popularity of the "Gospel of Prosperity" – a form of Christianity in which the emphasis is on wealth acquisition and born-again Christianity. Adherents are led to believe that instant wealth and magical prosperity will result from giving tithes to their charismatic preacher. The leaders often draw on the techniques of American televangelists, and the message is appealing to those living in extreme poverty.

Kimbanguism

In the first half of the 20th century, prophetic movements sprang up. Their nature was both anti-colonial and Christian, and led to a rigorous crackdown by the authorities.

Simon Kimbangu was the prophet of the largest of these movements. He was born in a village near Kinshasa, raised and educated by a Protestant Christian mission and trained to become a priest. In April 1921, at the age of 39, he reportedly had a religious vision of Jesus Christ, who called on him to reconvert his people and dedicate his life to Christ. Kimbangu chose to try to ignore the vision, and fled to Kinshasa where he abandoned his life as a priest and took to menial work. More visions came, and eventually he heeded the calling and returned to his home village and started to devote his life to Christ.

Soon after, he is reported to have healed a sick woman by laying his hands on her. Dozens of apparent miracles were subsequently performed by Kimbangu, and he gained followers from surrounding villages and towns. The official Catholic organizations protested to the authorities, and the Protestant church abandoned him. The economic effects of Kimbangu's ministry were being felt, with thousands of Congolese leaving their work to listen to Kimbangu speak. In June the Belgians arrested him for inciting revolution and civil disobedience. Four months later he was sentenced to death. After an international outcry, Albert I of Belgium commuted the sentence to life imprisonment. He died 30 years later in prison, in 1951.

Colonial authorities assumed his movement would wither after his imprisonment and death, but the church continued to flourish underground, and was an effective weapon in the fight against colonialism. In the post-colonial era, its record has been more mixed. Instead of banning the church, Mobutu used a far more effective method of neutralizing it: namely co-opting the church and giving it an official status. Kimbanguism has now spread across the country, and now has branches in nine of the surrounding countries, making it the most popular "native" form of Christianity in Africa. Followers do not smoke, drink alcohol and abhor violence. Monogamy is practiced.

Religion today

Article 22 of the constitution allows for religious freedom. These rights are generally respected by the government. Religious tension exists in some areas because of the link between prophetic groups and paramilitary organizations. In the turbulent eastern region, where the Second Congo War still simmers, some guerrilla groups have a major religious element, believing for instance that they are able to turn enemy bullets into water by wearing certain fetishes.

Cuisine

A woman carrying bananas. Culture of DRC - food1.jpg
A woman carrying bananas.

Only 2.86% of the land is cultivated, and most of this is used for subsistence farming. People gather wild fruit, mushrooms, and honey, as well as hunt and fish. They will often sell these crops at markets or by the roadside. Cattle breeding and the development of large-scale agricultural businesses has been hindered by the recent war and the poor quality of the road system.

Congo's farmland is the source of a wide variety of crops. These include maize, rice, cassava (manioc), sweet potato, yam, taro, plantain, tomato, pumpkin and varieties of peas and nuts. These foods are eaten throughout the country, but there are also regional dishes. The most important crops for export are coffee and palm oil.

Music

Congolese musicians, like Le Grand Kallé or TPOK Jazz with their emblematic lead singer Franco Luambo Makiadi, were extremely influential in pioneering the musical style of "African Rumba"', a blend of South American and modern African musical styles, more often known as Soukous in the years leading up to the independence of the Belgian Congo. After that, Congolese musicians were supported by the Mobutu regime in Zaire, and many Congolese musicians became very successful on the international market for African popular music.

Cinema

In the years following independence, the nascent Congolese film industry was held up by many years of war. However, the first Congolese feature film (La Vie est Belle by the celebrated director Mwezé Ngangura) was released in 1987. In recent years, Congolese cinema has reached a wider audience, though the growth of the industry is restricted by the small profits which directors can make (owing to unauthorized distribution) and rarity of credit. [7]

Zairian/Congolese writers

Traditional cultural heritage and contemporary fine art

Due to their distinctive styles and the global interest in African culture, Congolese art and artists are known on an international level. Traditional art of the more than 100 ethnic groups includes masks, wooden or ivory statues, textiles and other woven artifacts. Opened in November 2019, the new National Museum of the DRC presents both traditional and immaterial cultural heritage, such as music, as well as contemporary art. [8] [9]

Notable contemporary artists are Chéri Samba and Bodys Isek Kingelez. Apart from these, other successful artists are Lema Kusa (painting), Alfred Liyolo (sculpture), Roger Botembe (painting), Nshole (painting), Henri Kalama Akulez (painting), Mavinga (painting), Freddy Tsimba (sculpture), Claudy Khan (painting). Some are teaching at the Académie de Beaux-Arts de Kinshasa, which is the only fine arts academy on a university level in the country. From July 11, 2015 to January 10, 2016, the Fondation Cartier in Paris presented a retrospective exhibition of 90 years of Congolese modern and contemporary art, curated by French art collector André Magnin, with a catalogue entitled Beauté Congo. 1926-2015. Congo kitoko. [10]

See also

Related Research Articles

Discovered in the 1990’s, human remains in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been dated to approximately 90,000 years ago. The first real states, such as the Kongo, the Lunda, the Luba and Kuba, appeared southern Equatorial coastal forests|equatorial forest]] on the savannah from the 14th century onwards.

Demographics of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

This article is about the demographic features of the population of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, including ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Kinshasa Capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Kinshasa, formerly Léopoldville, is the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. With a total population of 15 million as of 2021, it is the most populous city in Africa.

Lingala Bantu language spoken in western Central Africa

Lingala (Ngala) is a Bantu language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and a large part of the Republic of the Congo. It is spoken to a lesser degree in Angola, the Central African Republic and southern South Sudan.

Democratic Republic of the Congo Country in Central Africa

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), also known as Congo-Kinshasa, DR Congo, the DROC, the DRC, or simply either Congo or the Congo, and formerly Zaire, is a country in Central Africa. It is, by area, the largest country in sub-Saharan Africa, the second-largest in all of Africa, and the 11th-largest in the world. With a population of around 105 million, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most populous officially Francophone country in the world, as well as the third-most populous country in Africa and the 14th-most populous country in the world. It is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, African Union, and COMESA. Since 2015, the Eastern DR Congo has been the site of an ongoing military conflict in Kivu. The capital and largest city is Kinshasa.

Music of the Democratic Republic of the Congo varies in its different forms. Outside Africa, most music from the Democratic Republic of Congo is called Soukous, which most accurately refers instead to a dance popular in the late 1960s. The term rumba or rock-rumba is also used generically to refer to Congolese music, though neither is precise nor accurately descriptive.

Bandundu Province Province in Democratic Republic of the Congo

Bandundu is one of eleven former provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It bordered the provinces of Kinshasa and Bas-Congo to the west, Équateur to the north, and Kasai-Occidental to the east. The provincial capital is also called Bandundu.

Kongo language Bantu language spoken in Angola and Kongo

Kongo or Kikongo is one of the Bantu languages spoken by the Kongo people living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo, Angola and Gabon. It is a tonal language. It was spoken by many of those who were taken from the region and sold as slaves in the Americas. For this reason, while Kongo still is spoken in the above-mentioned countries, creolized forms of the language are found in ritual speech of Afro-American religions, especially in Brazil, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic and Haiti. It is also one of the sources of the Gullah language and the Palenquero creole in Colombia. The vast majority of present-day speakers live in Africa. There are roughly seven million native speakers of Kongo, with perhaps two million more who use it as a second language.

Kongo people The largest ethnic group of the Democratic Republic of Congo, also found in Angola and ROC

The Kongo people are a Bantu ethnic group primarily defined as the speakers of Kikongo.

Congolese may refer to:

Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Languages of a geographic region

The Democratic Republic of the Congo is a multilingual country where an estimated total of 242 languages are spoken. Ethnologue lists 215 living languages. The official language, inherited from the colonial period, is French. Four indigenous languages have the status of national language: Kituba, Lingala, Swahili and Tshiluba.

Languages of Angola

Portuguese is the only official language of Angola, but 46 other languages are spoken in the country, mostly Bantu languages. Ethnologue considers six languages to benefit of an institutional status in Angola: Portuguese, Chokwe, Kikongo, Kimbundu, Oshiwambo and Umbundu.

Kituba is a widely used lingua franca in Central Africa. It is a creole language based on Kikongo, a Bantu language. It is a national language in Republic of the Congo and Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Index of Democratic Republic of the Congo–related articles Wikipedia index

Articles related to the Democratic Republic of the Congo include:

Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville) former sovereign state in Central Africa

The Republic of the Congo was a sovereign state in Central Africa, created with the independence of the Belgian Congo in 1960. From 1960 to 1966, the country was also known as Congo-Léopoldville to distinguish it from its northwestern neighbor, which is also called the Republic of the Congo, alternatively known as "Congo-Brazzaville". In 1964, the state's official name was changed to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, but the two countries continued to be distinguished by their capitals; with the renaming of Léopoldville as Kinshasa in 1966, it became also known as Congo-Kinshasa. After Joseph Désiré Mobutu, commander-in-chief of the national army, seized control of the country, it became the Republic of Zaire in 1971. It would again become the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1997. The period between 1960 and 1965 is referred to as the First Congolese Republic.

Religion in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Christianity is the majority religion in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. As of 2018, the US State Department reported that roughly 96 percent of the population are members of Christian denominations, with the remaining less than 5 percent following other non-Christian religions.

Revue Mfumu'eto is a comic magazine series first published in 1990 at Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) by Jaspe-Saphir Nkou-Ntoula under the pseudonym Papa Mfumu'Eto 1er, which he adopted as his brand along with many variations. He led a small creative team to publish a variety of extremely popular comic books in Kinshasa from 1989 to 2005. This series and others were written in urban Lingala and produced on inexpensive paper in the language of his neighborhood, explicitly to make it accessible to them. His comic books were self-produced using stencils, cut-and-paste (adhesive-taped) montages, photocopy machines, printed on lithographic presses, and distributed informally on the streets and in Kinshasa's open markets. The first story in the series, Nguma a meli mwasi na kati ya Kinshasa, seized readers’ attention in 1990 and was widely interpreted as a daring attack against the DRC's notorious dictator, Mobutu, bringing instant fame to the Revue and its creator.

The official language of the Republic of Congo is French. Other languages are mainly Bantu languages, and the two national languages in the country are Kituba and Lingala, followed by Bateke (16.9%), Mbochi (13.1%), and more than forty other languages, including languages spoken by Pygmies (1.4%), which are not Bantu languages.

Jaspe-Saphir Nkou-Ntoula was born in 1963 at Matadi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is best known by his pseudonym, Papa Mfumu'Eto 1er, which he adopted as a personal brand as a comic book creator in Kinshasa. He studied painting and interior design at the Académie des Beaux-Arts (Kinshasa) before in 1989 leading a small creative team, called Mpangala, in producing a variety of extremely popular, handmade and self-published comic books in Kinshasa. He is best known for the Revue Mfumu'eto which, like most of his work, is written in urban Lingala.

KOKOKO! is an experimental electronic music collective based in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Their sound is created through homemade, unconventional instruments made from scrap, and their lyrics focus on political problems within the country. The group performs in a variety of different languages, including Kikongo, French, Lingala, and Swahili.

References

  1. Jean-Claude Bruneau (2009). "Les nouvelles provinces de la République Démocratique du Congo : construction territoriale et ethnicités". Journals.openedition (in French) (7). doi:10.4000/espacepolitique.1296 . Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  2. Foreign Service Institute (U.S.) and Lloyd Balderston Swift, Kituba; Basic Course, Department of State, 1963, p.10
  3. Salikoko S. Mufwene, Kituba, Kileta, or Kikongo? What's in a name?, University of Chicago, In: Le nom des langues III. Le nom des langues en Afrique sub-saharienne : pratiques dénominations, catégorisations. Naming Languages in Sub-Saharan Africa: Practices, Names, Categorisations (sous la direction de C. de Féral), Louvain-la-Neuve, Peeters, BCILL 124, 2009, p. 211-222
  4. William J. Samarin. "Versions of Kituba's origin: Historiography and theory1" (PDF). University of Toronto, Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  5. "Ghetto Blaster : Et la rumba congolaise rythma les indépendances" . Retrieved 20 February 2011.
  6. Georges Mulumbwa Mutambwa. "The spread of Indubil through DR Congo: context and modalities". Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2011.
  7. "Le Congo, quel cinéma !" . Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  8. "National Museum of DRC National Museum of DRC". MoMAA | African Modern Online Art Gallery & Lifestyle. Retrieved 2021-08-16.
  9. The largest collection of the cultural heritage of the Congo, however, is presented, stored and studied at the Africa Museum in Belgium.
  10. "Beauté Congo 1926-2015 Congo Kitoko". Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain. Retrieved 2021-08-16.

Further reading