Health problems have been a long-standing issue limiting development in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo).
Medical facilities are severely limited, medical materials are in short supply. An adequate supply of prescription or over-the-counter drugs in local stores or pharmacies is also generally not available. Payment for any medical services is expected in cash in the DR Congo, in advance of treatment.[ citation needed ]
In 2018, the CIA estimated the average life expectancy in the DR Congo to be 60.3 years: 59 for the male population and 61.6 for females (est. 2017.)
Malaria is a major health problem in the DR Congo.Malaria is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality, accounting for more than 40 percent of all outpatient visits and for 19 percent of deaths among children under five years of age. Given that the majority of the population lives in high transmission zones, it has been estimated that the DRC accounts for 11 percent of all cases of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The National Malaria Control Strategic Plan 2016–2020 (NSP) introduced the stratification of provinces based on parasite prevalence as measured by the 2013 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). This approach allows the NSP to focus high-impact interventions in the areas that bear the greatest disease burden. In line with this strategy, international donors are concentrating their efforts in 9 out of 26 provinces (Kasai Oriental, Haut Katanga, Haut Lomami, Tanganyika, Lualaba, Sankuru, Lomami, Kasai Central, and Sud Kivu). According to the 2013 DHS, progress is being made in key malaria interventions, such as insecticide-treated net ownership and use. Additionally, mortality rates for children under five years of age fell by 34 percent and the incidence rate fell by 40 percent between 2010 and 2018.
Yellow fever and any other insect-borne illnesses are present as well.[ citation needed ]
HIV/Aids is the most serious health problem in the DR Congo due to the incurable nature of the disease. By the end of 2003, UNAIDS estimated that 1.1 million people were living with HIV/AIDS, for an overall adult HIV prevalence of 4.2%. Life expectancy in the DR Congo dropped 9% in the 1990s as a result of HIV/AIDS.According to UNAIDS, several factors fuel the spread of HIV in the DR Congo, including the movement of large numbers of refugees and soldiers, scarcity and high cost of safe blood transfusions in rural areas, a lack of counseling, few HIV testing sites, high levels of untreated sexually transmitted infections among sex workers and their clients, and low availability of condoms outside Kinshasa and one or two provincial capitals.[ citation needed ]
With an eventual end of hostilities and a government in transition, population movements associated with increased stability and economic revitalization will exacerbate the spread of HIV, which is now localized in areas most directly affected by the presence of troops and war-displaced populations. Consecutive wars have made it nearly impossible to conduct effective and sustainable HIV/AIDS prevention activities.[ citation needed ]
Although incidence and mortality from cholera can be difficult to estimate, particularly given the DRC's lack of resources and inadequate surveillance systems,several studies demonstrate that the DRC experiences a significant burden of disease. In 2015, 19,705 cases of cholera were reported in the DRC. Few cases are laboratory-confirmed, so the incidence of cholera can be under-estimated.
The highest annual attack rates occurred in 2011 in the Eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo that border the Great Lakes. These provinces are Orientale, North and South Kivu, Katanga and Kasai Oriental. North and South Kivu as well as Katanga had the highest attack rate with over 10 cases per 100,000 people, every year between 2000 and 2011. The high annual attack rates occurred in the Eastern provinces because there is an environmental reservoir for V. cholerae in the lakes of the rift valley. Additionally, there are seasonal peaks that usually occur during the first quarter of the year which also increases the attack rate. Furthermore, fishermen travel from the eastern lakes in the Democratic Republic of Congo to larger cities at the end of the dry season which gives way to seasonal variations in incidence of Cholera.Cross-border cholera remains difficult to track due to the lack of collaboration and communication between the Sub-Saharan countries.
There have been 10 outbreaks of the Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Additionally, hemorrhagic fever, polio, cholera, and typhoid, while tuberculosis is an increasingly serious health concern in the DR Congo.[ citation needed ]
In 2019 a measles outbreak claimed more deaths than Ebola.
People are at risk of onchocerciasis (River blindness) in parts of the DR Congo.[ citation needed ]
The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Democratic Republic of the Congo is 670. This is compared with 533.6 in 2008 and 550 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 199 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 26. In Democratic Republic of the Congo the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 2 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women 1 in 24.
The DRC nutritional situation is still alarming despite global health progress.More than half (69%) of its population suffers from undernutrition The prevalence of stunting is 43% among children under 5 years old, with 14% of women in childbearing age; 8% for wasting with 3% of Severe Acute Malnutrition in children under 5 years old and finally 23% for underweight in children of the same age group. Stunting prevalence still higher and remains the most common of undernutrition in the country according to the Demographic and Health Survey 2013–2014 of DRC. Undernutrition has significant long term impact on the cognitive development of children, particularly those under 5 years old and of women in childbearing age previously malnourished. Consequently, affect human capital and the country's economic productivity. Undernutrition common indicators recommended by WHO include anthropometric measurements, biochemical indicators and clinical signs of undernutrition. Micronutrient deficiencies in DRC are caused mostly by food deprivation and poverty, with a particularly high incidence of vitamin A deficiency 61%; iron deficiency with 47% among children under 5 years old, 38% among women in reproductive age and 23% men. The improvement of the nutritional status of the population, particularly those of children under 5 and women of childbearing age, would reduce the mortality rate in this age group and make progress on Health Outcome Indicators specially the achievement of objective 3 of sustainable development, which aims to ensure a healthy life and promote the well-being of all at all ages. Hence on human capital, economic productivity and development.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, including ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Konzo is an epidemic paralytic disease occurring among hunger-stricken rural populations in Africa where a diet dominated by insufficiently processed cassava results in simultaneous malnutrition and high dietary cyanide intake. Konzo was first described by Giovanni Trolli in 1938 who compiled the observations from eight doctors working in the Kwango area of the Belgian Congo.
In terms of available healthcare and health status Sierra Leone is rated very poorly. Globally, infant and maternal mortality rates remain among the highest. The major causes of illness within the country are preventable with modern technology and medical advances. Most deaths within the country are attributed to nutritional deficiencies, lack of access to clean water, pneumonia, diarrheal diseases, anemia, malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS.
Tropical diseases, especially malaria and tuberculosis, have long been a public health problem in Kenya. In recent years, infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), also has become a severe problem. Estimates of the incidence of infection differ widely.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo was one of the first African countries to recognize HIV, registering cases of HIV among hospital patients as early as 1983.
In precolonial Ghana, infectious diseases were the main cause of morbidity and mortality.
The quality of health in Cambodia is rising along with its growing economy. The public health care system has a high priority from the Cambodian government and with international help and assistance, Cambodia has seen some major and continuous improvements in the health profile of its population since the 1980s, with a steadily rising life expectancy.
Health in Angola is rated among the worst in the world. Only a fraction of the population receives even rudimentary medical attention.
Health in the Central African Republic has been degraded by years of internal conflict and economic turmoil since independence from France in 1960. One sixth of its population is in need of acute medical care. Endemic diseases also put a hide demand on the health infrastructure, which requires outside assistance to sustain itself.
The public medical services of Ivory Coast are more important than the small number of private physicians and clinics. As of 2004, there were an estimated 9 physicians, 31 nurses, and 15 midwives per 100,000 people. About 77 percent of the population had access to safe water in 2000. Total health care expenditures were estimated at 3.7 percent of GDP.
Most of the health services of Gabon are public, but there are some private institutions, of which the best known is the hospital established in 1913 in Lambaréné by Albert Schweitzer. The hospital is now partially subsidized by the Gabonese government.
Malawi ranks 170th out of 174 in the World Health Organization lifespan tables; 88% of the population live on less than £2.40 per day; and 50% are below the poverty line.
Health in Mozambique has a complex history, influenced by the social, economic, and political changes that the country has experienced. Before the Mozambican Civil War, healthcare was heavily influenced by the Portuguese. After the civil war, the conflict affected the country's health status and ability to provide services to its people, breeding the host of health challenges the country faces in present day.
The African country of Zambia faces a number of ongoing health challenges.
Expenditure on health in Senegal was 4.7% of GDP in 2014, US$107 per capita.
`Zimbabwe is a country that has been fighting against many diseases and their healthcare system has improved. They have been able to fight against strong epidemic diseases.
The United States intelligence community (IC) has a long history of producing assessments on infectious diseases. Most of these papers are distributed to government administrators and inform the choices of policymakers. Three of these assessments stand out as analytical products that have had important impact on the awareness, funding and treatment of infectious diseases around the world. The first paper is the National Intelligence Estimate on the Global Infectious Disease Threat, the second paper is the assessment on the Next Wave of HIV/AIDS, and the third paper was the assessment on SARS. This page summarizes the findings of these three papers and provides information about their impact.
Child health and nutrition in Africa is concerned with the health care of children through adolescents in the various countries of Africa. The right to health and a nutritious and sufficient diet are internationally recognized fundamental human rights protected by international treaties and conventions on the right to life, as well as in charters, strategies and declarations. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 1, 4, 5 and 6 highlight, respectively, how poverty, hunger, child mortality, maternal health, the eradication of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other diseases are of particular significance in the context of child health.
Poverty is widespread and unchecked across the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Despite being the second-largest country in Africa, with an approximate area of 2.3 million square kilometres (890,000 sq mi), and being endowed with rich natural resources, the DRC is the second-poorest country in the world. The average annual income is only $785 US dollars. In 2019, the United Nations (UN) Human Development Index (HDI) ranked the DRC as the 175th least-developed country out of 189 countries with an HDI of 0.480. More than 80% of Congolese people live on less than $1.25 a day, defined as the threshold for extreme poverty.
Crime in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is investigated by the DRC's police.