|United Nations Mission|
|Democratic Republic of the Congoportal|
Direct elections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo occur for the Presidency, National Assembly (lower house of the legislature), and provincial assemblies. The Senate, the upper house of the legislature, is elected indirectly by members of the provincial assemblies.
The 1960 elections, held just before independence, saw Patrice Lumumba become prime minister and Joseph Kasavubu president. In 1965 Mobutu Sese Seko seized power and declared himself president amid the Congo Crisis. He was formally elected to a seven-year term in 1970. Establishing the single-party Republic of Zaire, his presidency was renewed by show elections in 1977 and 1984 while legislative elections were abolished altogether by 1975. Mobutu ruled until 1997 when Laurent Kabila seized power after the First Congo War. When Laurent Kabila was killed in 2001, his son Joseph Kabila took over the presidency while the country was going through the Second Congo War (1998–2003). The Second Congo War was officially declared over in 2003. The period that followed was relatively peaceful, with the United Nations' largest peacekeeping force maintaining the peace. However, the Ituri Conflict marred the peace, with periods of violence in the northeastern Ituri Province. In December 2005 a referendum on a new constitution was held. It was approved, paving way for the first multiparty elections in 46 years.
The first multi-party elections in the country since 1960 took place in July 2006. Kabila was elected president and was reelected in 2011. His constitutionally-mandated term ended in 2016, but the government put off a new election, citing logistical problems and the ongoing conflict in the eastern DRC. The long delayed general election finally took place on 30 December 2018, which resulted in a surprise victory for Félix Tshisekedi, although this was questioned by election observers and led to accusations of voter fraud by another opposition candidate, Martin Fayulu. The Constitutional Court of the DRC dismissed Fayulu's challenge of the result, confirming Tshisekedi as the winner. Joseph Kabila stepped down in January 2019, with Tshisekedi being inaugurated as the 5th President of the DRC on January 24. This was the first democratic transition of power in the country since it gained independence in 1960.
|Félix Tshisekedi||Union for Democracy and Social Progress||7,051,013||38.57|
|Martin Fayulu||Dynamic of Congolese Political Opposition||6,366,732||34.83|
|Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary||Independent||4,357,359||23.84|
|Jean-Philibert Mabaya Gizi Amine||Rainbow of Congo|
|Marie-Josée Ifoku||Alliance of Elites for a New Congo|
|Radjabho Tebabho Soborabo||Congolese United for Reform|
|Pierre Honoré Kazadi Lukonda Ngube-Ngube||People's Front for Justice|
|Tryphon Kin-Kiey Mulumba||Independent|
|Sylvain Maurice Masheke||Independent|
|Theodore Ngoy Ilunga wa Nsenga||Independent|
|Alain Daniel Shekomba||Independent|
|Noel K Tshiani Muadiamvita||Independent|
|Gabriel Mokia Mandembo||Movement of Congolese Democrats|
|Yves Mpunga||Premier Political Force|
|Samy Badibanga||The Progressives|
|Source: Jeune Afrique|
|Party or alliance||Votes||%||Seats||+/–|
|People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy (PPRD)||52||56||108||46|
|Alliance of Democratic Forces of Congo and Allies (AFDC-A)||41||68||109||94|
|Union for Democracy and Social Progress-Tshisekedi (UDPS/Tshisekedi)||32||43||75||52|
|Alternative Action for Well-being and Change (AAB)||32||43||75||75|
|People's Party for Peace and Democracy (PPPD)||21||46||67||54|
|Social Movement (MS)||23||25||48||48|
|Alliance of Actors for Good Governance of Congo (AABC)||22||24||46||46|
|Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (MLC)||22||23||45||45|
|Alliance of Democrats for Renewal and Progress (ADRP)||21||24||45||45|
|Alliance of Movements of Kongo (AMK)||21||20||41||41|
|Group of 7 (G7)||10||26||36||36|
|Action of allies to improve living conditions for the Congolese (AAAC)||10||26||36||36|
|Alliance for Building an Emerging Congo (ABCE)||11||23||34||34|
|Future of Congo (ACO)||12||20||32||32|
|Rally for the Reconstruction of Congo (RRC)||11||23||34||23|
|CCU Political Alliance and Allies (ALLIANCE)||8||15||23||23|
|Alliance for Democratic Alternative (AAD)||7||15||22||22|
|Christian Democrat Party (PDC)||11||11||22||22|
|Congolese Party for Development (PCD)||11||11||22||22|
|Unified Lumumbist Party and allies (PALU-A)||17||20||37||20|
|Union for the Congolese Nation (UNC)||14||3|
|Dynamic of the Opposition (DO)|
|Social Movement for Renewal (MSR)|
|Together for Change (EPC)|
|Our Congo (CNB)|
|Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD)|
|Common Front for the Congo (PPRD-PPPD-AFDC-AAB-others)||337|
|Lamuka Coalition (DO-MLC-EPC-PALU-CNB-MSR)||94|
|Direction for Change Coalition (UDPS/Tshisekedi-UNC)||46||12|
|Source: Digital Congo|
|Alliance of Democratic Forces of Congo and Allies (AFDC-A)||68|
|People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy (PPRD)||56|
|People's Party for Peace and Democracy (PPPD)||46|
|Alternative Action for Well-being and Change (AAB)||45|
|Union for Democracy and Social Progress-Tshisekedi (UDPS-Tshisekedi)||43|
|Action of allies to improve living conditions for the Congolese (AAAC)||26|
|Group of Seven (G7)||26|
|Social Movement (MS)||25|
|Alliance of Actors for Good Governance of Congo (AABC)||24|
|Alliance of Democrats for Renewal and Progress (ADRP)||24|
|Alliance for Building an Emerging Congo (ABCE)||23|
|Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (MLC)||22|
|Rally for the Reconstruction of Congo (RRC)||22|
|Alliance of Movements of Kongo (AMK)||21|
|Unified Lumumbist Party and Allies (PALU-A)||20|
|Future of Congo (ACO)||20|
|CCU Political Alliance and Allies (ALLIANCE)||15|
|Alliance for Democratic Alternative (AAD)||15|
|Congolese Party for Development (PCD)||11|
|Blank or invalid votes|
|Common Front for the Congo||99|
|Coalition for Change||3||3|
|Senator for life||1||New|
transition; Last update August 1, 2006
Discovered in the 1990’s, human remains in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been dated to approximately 90,000 years ago. The first real states, such as the Kongo, the Lunda, the Luba and Kuba, appeared southern Equatorial coastal forests|equatorial forest]] on the savannah from the 14th century onwards.
Politics of the Democratic Republic of Congo take place in a framework of a republic in transition from a civil war to a semi-presidential republic.
Joseph Kabila Kabange is a Congolese politician who served as President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo between January 2001 and January 2019. He took office ten days after the assassination of his father, President Laurent-Désiré Kabila in the context of the Second Congo War. He was allowed to remain in power after the 2003 Sun City Agreement ended the war. He was elected as president in 2006 and re-elected in 2011 for a second term. Since stepping down after the 2018 election, Kabila, as a former president, will be a senator for life, according to the Constitution of the DRC.
Étienne Tshisekedi wa Mulumba was a Congolese politician and the leader of the Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS), the main opposing political party in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). A long-time opposition leader, he served as Prime Minister of the country on three brief occasions: in 1991, 1992–1993, and 1997.
The Movement for the Liberation of the Congo is a political party in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Formerly a rebel group operating in the Democratic Republic of Congo that fought the government throughout the Second Congo War, it subsequently took part in the transitional government and is one of the main opposition parties.
The Republican Guard of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly known as the Special Presidential Security Group, is maintained by President Félix Tshisekedi. Military of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) military officials state that the Garde Républicaine is not the responsibility of FARDC, but the Head of State. Apart from Article 140 of the Law on the Army and Defence, no legal stipulation on the DRC's Armed Forces makes provision for the GR as a distinct unit within the national army. In February 2005, President Joseph Kabila passed a decree which appointed the GR's commanding officer and 'repealed any previous provisions contrary' to that decree. The GR is more than 10,000 strong, and formerly consisted of three brigades, the 10th, at Kinshasa, the 15th, and the 16th, at Lubumbashi. It has better working conditions and is paid regularly, but still commits numerous crimes near their bases, including against United Nations officials.
Lemba is one of the 24 communes that are the administrative divisions of Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Senate elections were held in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on 14 March 2019 to elect the 108 Senators. Former DRC President Joseph Kabila, who stepped down from office in January 2019 following the inauguration of the recently elected Félix Tshisekedi, has also joined the upper house of the legislature as a senator for life, for a total of 109 seats.
General elections were held in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on 30 December 2018, to determine a successor to President Joseph Kabila, as well as for the 500 seats of the National Assembly and the 715 elected seats of the 26 provincial assemblies. Félix Tshisekedi (UDPS) won with 38.6% of the vote, defeating another opposition candidate, Martin Fayulu, and Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary, backed by the ruling party PPRD. Fayulu alleged that the vote was rigged against him in a deal made by Tshisekedi and outgoing President Kabila, challenging the result in the DRC's Constitutional Court. Different election observers, including those from the country's Roman Catholic Church, also cast doubt on the official result. Nonetheless on 20 January the Court rejected his appeal and declared Tshisekedi as the winner. Parties supporting President Kabila won the majority of seats in the National Assembly. Félix Tshisekedi was sworn in as the 5th President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo on 24 January 2019, making it the first peaceful transition of power in the country since it became independent from Belgium in 1960.
Samy Badibanga Ntita is a Congolese politician who was Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from November 2016 to May 2017. He was also on the ballot for the 2018 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election as a presidential candidate.
Ève Bazaiba Masudi is a Congolese lawyer, politician, and human rights activist. As of May 2019, she served as the Secretary General of the Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (MLC) political party.
Félix Antoine Tshisekedi Tshilombo is a Congolese politician who has been the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo since 25 January 2019. He is the leader of the Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS), the DRC's oldest and largest party, succeeding his late father Étienne Tshisekedi in that role, a three-time Prime Minister of Zaire and opposition leader during the reign of Mobutu Sese Seko. Tshisekedi was the UDPS party's candidate for president in the December 2018 general election, which he won, despite accusations of irregularities from several election monitoring organisations and other opposition parties. The Constitutional Court of the DRC upheld his victory after another opposition politician, Martin Fayulu, challenged the result, but Tshisekedi has been accused of making a deal with his predecessor, Joseph Kabila. The election marked the first peaceful transition of power since the state became independent from Belgium in 1960.
Army General Célestin Mbala Munsense is a Congolese military officer who has served as the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) since 14 July 2018. He is considered a loyalist of President Joseph Kabila and held a number of high ranking posts in the presidential and military administration prior to his appointment, replacing Army General Didier Etumba as Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces. Before that, he was a long time Chief of Staff to the President's office, since at least 2010, as a brigadier general. In September 2014, during Kabila's restructuring of the army, Mbala was a major general and was appointed as Deputy Chief of Staff for Administration and Logistics.
Martin Madidi Fayulu is a businessman and lawmaker from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. He is the leader of the Engagement for Citizenship and Development party. On 11 November 2018, he was chosen by seven opposition leaders to be their joint presidential candidate in the 2018 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election. However, within 24 hours, Félix Antoine Tshisekedi Tshilombo, the eventual winner of the 2018 presidential election, and Vital Kamerhe, the other oppositional candidate, rescinded their endorsement of his candidacy and formed their own pact with Tshisekedi as candidate.
Events in the year 2019 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Jeanine Mabunda is a Congolese lawyer and politician who in 2019 became the first woman elected to lead the DRC's National Assembly. She was impeached on December 10, 2020 through a democratic vote by the National Assembly with 281 votes.
Sylvestre Ilunga Ilunkamba is a Congolese politician who was appointed as the Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in May 2019, formally establishing his government in August 2019. He has had a long political career going back to the 1970s, having held a number of ministerial cabinet posts, and was previously a professor at the University of Kinshasa since 1979. Ilunga has also been the secretary general of Congo's national railway company. He has a reputation as an experienced public servant and technocrat, as well as an ally of former President Joseph Kabila.
The Common Front for Congo is a parliamentary group in the National Assembly of the Democratic Republic of the Congo that includes the ruling party, the People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy, among other parties. It is closely aligned with the former President of DR Congo from 2001 to 2019, Joseph Kabila, who formed it in mid 2018 to organise political forces for the December 2018 general election. Because of this it is also referred to as the Kabila coalition, as well as a successor to the Alliance of the Presidential Majority which was the majority pro-government bloc in both houses of Parliament from 2006 to 2018. Since the election, the FCC holds a majority in both the National Assembly and the Senate of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. During the April 2019 provincial elections, the FCC also secured the governorships of 16 of the 24 provinces in which votes were held. The FCC has been negotiating with the newly elected president, Félix Tshisekedi of the opposition, to form a new government. Having the majority in parliament, the FCC also appoints the next prime minister. The fact that the FCC controls the parliament and the provincial governments means that President Tshisekedi's ability to govern is limited.
Events in the year 2021 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Jean-Michel Sama Lukonde Kyenge is a Congolese politician from the former Katanga Province who was named as the Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo on 15 February 2021. He was named the day of the tragic 2021 Congo River disaster. He announced his cabinet on 12 April 2021. He is a member of the Future of Congo party.