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|Formed||December 4, 1981|
The United States Intelligence Community (IC) is a group of separate United States government intelligence agencies and subordinate organizations, that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities to support the foreign policy and national security of the United States. Member organizations of the IC include intelligence agencies, military intelligence, and civilian intelligence and analysis offices within federal executive departments.
The IC is overseen by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), which itself is headed by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). The DNI reports directly to the President of the United States.
Among their varied responsibilities, the members of the community collect and produce foreign and domestic intelligence, contribute to military planning, and perform espionage. The IC was established by Executive Order 12333, signed on December 4, 1981, by President Ronald Reagan.
The Washington Post reported in 2010 that there were 1,271 government organizations and 1,931 private companies in 10,000 locations in the United States that were working on counterterrorism, homeland security, and intelligence, and that the intelligence community as a whole would include 854,000 people holding top-secret clearances.According to a 2008 study by the ODNI, private contractors make up 29% of the workforce in the U.S. intelligence community and account for 49% of their personnel budgets.
The term Intelligence Community was first used during LTG Walter Bedell Smith's tenure as Director of Central Intelligence (1950–1953).
Intelligence is information that agencies collect, analyze, and distribute in response to government leaders' questions and requirements. Intelligence is a broad term that may entail for example:
"Collection, analysis, and production of sensitive information to support national security leaders, including policymakers, military commanders, and members of Congress. Safeguarding these processes and this information through counterintelligence activities. Execution of covert operations approved by the president. The IC strives to provide valuable insight on important issues by gathering raw intelligence, analyzing that data in context, and producing timely and relevant products for customers at all levels of national security—from the war-fighter on the ground to the president in Washington."
Executive Order 12333 charged the IC with six primary objectives:
The IC is headed by the director of National Intelligence (DNI), whose statutory leadership is exercised through the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). The other 17 members of the IC are:
|Seal||Organization||Parent Organization||Federal Department||Date est.|
|Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI)||United States Navy||Defense||1882|
|Coast Guard Intelligence (CGI)||United States Coast Guard||Homeland Security||1915|
|Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR)||United States Department of State||State||1945|
|Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)||none||Independent agency||1947|
|Sixteenth Air Force (16 AF) (USAF ISR Enterprise)||United States Air Force||Defense||1948|
| || National Security Agency (NSA) /|
Central Security Service (CSS)
|United States Department of Defense||Defense||1952|
|National Reconnaissance Office (NRO)||United States Department of Defense||Defense||1961|
|Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)||United States Department of Defense||Defense||1961|
|Military Intelligence Corps (MIC)||United States Army||Defense||1977|
|Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence (OICI)||United States Department of Energy||Energy||1977|
|Marine Corps Intelligence (MCI)||United States Marine Corps||Defense||1978|
|National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA)||United States Department of Defense||Defense||1996|
|Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence (TFI)||United States Department of the Treasury||Treasury||2004|
|Intelligence Branch (IB)||Federal Bureau of Investigation||Justice||2005|
|Office of National Security Intelligence (ONSI)||Drug Enforcement Administration||Justice||2006|
|Office of Intelligence and Analysis (I&A)||United States Department of Homeland Security||Homeland Security||2007|
|Space Delta 7 (DEL 7) (USSF ISR Enterprise)||United States Space Force||Defense||2020|
The IC performs under two separate programs:
Since the definitions of the NIP and MIP overlap when they address military intelligence, assignment of intelligence activities to the NIP and MIP sometimes proves problematic.
The overall organization of the IC is primarily governed by the National Security Act of 1947 (as amended) and Executive Order 12333. The statutory organizational relationships were substantially revised with the 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA) amendments to the 1947 National Security Act.
Though the IC characterizes itself as a federation of its member elements,its overall structure is better characterized as a confederation due to its lack of a well-defined, unified leadership and governance structure. Prior to 2004, the director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was the head of the IC, in addition to being the director of the CIA. A major criticism of this arrangement was that the DCI had little or no actual authority over the budgetary authorities of the other IC agencies and therefore had limited influence over their operations.
Following the passage of IRTPA in 2004, the head of the IC is the director of national intelligence (DNI). The DNI exerts leadership of the IC primarily through statutory authorities under which he or she:
Despite these responsibilities, the DNI has no authority to direct and control any element of the IC except his own staff—the Office of the DNI—nor does the DNI have the authority to hire or fire personnel in the IC except those on his or her own staff. The member elements in the executive branch are directed and controlled by their respective department heads, all cabinet-level officials reporting to the president. By law, only the director of the Central Intelligence Agency reports to the DNI.[ citation needed ]
In light of major intelligence failures in recent years that called into question how well Intelligence Community ensures U.S. national security, particularly those identified by the 9/11 Commission (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States), and the "WMD Commission" (Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction), the authorities and powers of the DNI and the overall organizational structure of the IC have become subject of intense debate in the United States.
Previously, interagency cooperation and the flow of information among the member agencies was hindered by policies that sought to limit the pooling of information out of privacy and security concerns. Attempts to modernize and facilitate interagency cooperation within the IC include technological, structural, procedural, and cultural dimensions. Examples include the Intellipedia wiki of encyclopedic security-related information; the creation of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, National Intelligence Centers, Program Manager Information Sharing Environment, and Information Sharing Council; legal and policy frameworks set by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, information sharing Executive Order 13354 and Executive Order 13388, and the 2005 National Intelligence Strategy.
The U.S. intelligence budget (excluding the Military Intelligence Program) in fiscal year 2013 was appropriated as $52.7 billion, and reduced by the amount sequestered to $49.0 billion.In fiscal year 2012 it peaked at $53.9 billion, according to a disclosure required under a recent law implementing recommendations of the 9/11 Commission. The 2012 figure was up from $53.1 billion in 2010, $49.8 billion in 2009, $47.5 billion in 2008, $43.5 billion in 2007, and $40.9 billion in 2006.
About 70 percent of the intelligence budget went to contractors for the procurement of technology and services (including analysis), according to the May 2007 chart from the ODNI. Intelligence spending has increased by a third over ten years ago, in inflation-adjusted dollars, according to the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments.[ citation needed ]
In a statement on the release of new declassified figures, DNI Mike McConnell said[ when? ] there would be no additional disclosures of classified budget information beyond the overall spending figure because "such disclosures could harm national security". How the money is divided among the 16 intelligence agencies and what it is spent on is classified. It includes salaries for about 100,000 people, multibillion-dollar satellite programs, aircraft, weapons, electronic sensors, intelligence analysis, spies, computers, and software.
On August 29, 2013 The Washington Post published the summary of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence's multivolume FY 2013 Congressional Budget Justification, the U.S. Intelligence Community's top-secret "black budget".The IC's FY 2013 budget details how the 16 spy agencies use the money and how it performs against the goals set by the president and Congress. Experts said that access to such details about U.S. spy programs is without precedent. Steven Aftergood of the Federation of American Scientists, which provides analyses of national security issues, stated that "It was a titanic struggle just to get the top-line budget number disclosed, and that has only been done consistently since 2007 ... but a real grasp of the structure and operations of the intelligence bureaucracy has been totally beyond public reach. This kind of material, even on a historical basis, has simply not been available." Access to budget details will enable an informed public debate on intelligence spending for the first time, said the co-chair of the 9/11 Commission Lee H. Hamilton. He added that Americans should not be excluded from the budget process because the intelligence community has a profound impact on the life of ordinary Americans.
Intelligence Community Oversight duties are distributed to both the executive and legislative branches. Primary executive oversight is performed by the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, the Joint Intelligence Community Council, the Office of the Inspector General, and the Office of Management and Budget. Primary congressional oversight jurisdiction over the IC is assigned to two committees: the United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. The House Armed Services Committee and Senate Armed Services Committee draft bills to annually authorize the budgets of DoD intelligence activities, and both the House and Senate appropriations committees annually draft bills to appropriate the budgets of the IC. The Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs took a leading role in formulating the intelligence reform legislation in the 108th Congress.
The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is a member of the United States Intelligence Community and an agency of the United States Department of Defense. NRO is considered, along with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), National Security Agency (NSA), Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), to be one of the "big five" U.S. intelligence agencies. The NRO is headquartered in Chantilly, Virginia, 2 miles (3.2 km) south of the Washington Dulles International Airport.
Open-source intelligence (OSINT) is a multi-factor methodology for collecting, analyzing and making decisions about data accessible in publicly available sources to be used in an intelligence context. In the intelligence community, the term "open" refers to overt, publicly available sources. OSINT under one name or another has been around for hundreds of years. With the advent of instant communications and rapid information transfer, a great deal of actionable and predictive intelligence can now be obtained from public, unclassified sources. It is not related to open-source software or collective intelligence.
The director of national intelligence (DNI) is a United States government Cabinet-level official, required by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to serve as head of the United States Intelligence Community and to direct and oversee the National Intelligence Program (NIP). The DNI also serves, upon invitation, as an advisor to the president of the United States and the executive offices of the National Security Council and the Homeland Security Council about intelligence matters related to national security. The DNI produces the President's Daily Brief (PDB), a top-secret document including intelligence from all the Intelligence Community agencies, given each morning to the President.
John Michael McConnell is a former vice admiral in the United States Navy. During his naval career he served as Director of the National Security Agency from 1992 to 1996. His civilian career includes serving as the United States Director of National Intelligence from 20 February 2007 to 27 January 2009 during the Bush administration and seven days of the Obama administration. He is currently Vice Chairman at Booz Allen Hamilton.
The Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) is an intelligence agency in the United States Department of State that provides all-source intelligence and analysis for U.S. diplomats. It is the oldest civilian member of the U.S. Intelligence Community and among the smallest, with roughly 300 personnel.It is also "one of the most highly regarded" U.S. intelligence agencies.
Executive Order 12333, signed on December 4, 1981 by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, was an Executive Order intended to extend powers and responsibilities of U.S. intelligence agencies and direct the leaders of U.S. federal agencies to co-operate fully with CIA requests for information. This executive order was titled United States Intelligence Activities.
The United States government's Information Sharing and Customer Outreach office or ISCO was one of five directorates within the office of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) under the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). ISCO changed its name and function to Information Technology Policy, Plans, and Requirements (ITPR) in July 2007. Established by at least February 2006, ISCO is led by the Deputy Associate Director of National Intelligence for Information Sharing and Customer Outreach, which is currently Mr. Richard A. Russell. ISCO's information sharing and customer outreach responsibilities extend beyond the United States Intelligence Community and cross the entire U.S. government.
The National Counterintelligence and Security Center (NCSC) leads national counterintelligence (CI) for the United States government. It is part of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI).
James Robert Clapper Jr. is a retired lieutenant general in the United States Air Force and is the former Director of National Intelligence. Clapper has held several key positions within the United States Intelligence Community. He served as director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) from 1992 until 1995. He was the first director of defense intelligence within the Office of the Director of National Intelligence and simultaneously the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence. He served as the director of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) from September 2001 until June 2006.
The Intelligence and National Security Alliance (INSA) is a non-profit, nonpartisan 501(c)(6) professional organization for public and private sector members of the United States Intelligence Community, based in Arlington, Virginia.
United States Intelligence Community Oversight duties are shared by both the executive and legislative branches of the government. Oversight, in this case, is the supervision of intelligence agencies, and making them accountable for their actions. Generally oversight bodies look at the following general issues: following policymaker needs, the quality of analysis, operations, and legality of actions.
The Schlesinger Report, originally titled A Review of the Intelligence Community, was the product of a survey authorized by U.S. President Richard Nixon late in 1970. The objective of the survey was to identify and alleviate factors of ineffectiveness within the United States Intelligence Community (IC) organization, planning, and preparedness for future growth. The report, prepared by James Schlesinger, Deputy Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), was submitted to Nixon on 10 March 1971.
The United States intelligence budget comprises all the funding for the 16 agencies of the United States Intelligence Community. These agencies and other programs fit into one of the intelligence budget's two components, the National Intelligence Program (NIP) and the Military Intelligence Program (MIP). As with other parts of the federal budget, the US intelligence budget runs according to the Fiscal year (FY), not the calendar year. Before government finances are spent on intelligence, the funds must first be authorized and appropriated by committees in both the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate.
The CIA publishes organizational charts of its agency. Here are a few examples.
In the United States the Associate Director of National Intelligence and Chief Information Officer is charged with directing and managing activities relating to information technology for the Intelligence Community (IC) and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). The IC CIO reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). John Shermanassumed the position of IC Chief Information Officer effective September 11, 2017.
The Boren-McCurdy intelligence reform proposals were two legislative proposals from Senator David Boren and Representative Dave McCurdy in 1992. Both pieces of legislation proposed the creation of a National Intelligence Director. Neither bill passed into law.
John Frederick "Jeff" Kimmons is a retired American Lieutenant General, who served as United States Army Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Commanding General, United States Army Intelligence and Security Command and Chief of Staff to the Director of National Intelligence. He was instrumental in the development of Army Field Manual, FM 2-22.3, Human Intelligence Collector Operations, which was the Army's response to actions at Abu Ghraib prison. Kimmons retired from active service on December 1, 2010 after 35 years.
David R. Shedd is a retired U.S. intelligence officer whose final post was as the acting Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency. He is a former Central Intelligence Agency operative.
Dawn Eilenberger became the Deputy Director of National Intelligence in April 2017. Previously she was the Assistant Director of National Intelligence for Policy & Strategy, Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). In this role, she oversees the formulation and implementation of Intelligence community (IC)-wide policy and strategy on the full range of intelligence issues, including collection, analysis, requirements, management and information sharing, and provides leadership for ODNI and IC initiatives on information sharing and the closure and disposition of detainees at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp.
Deirdre Walsh is Vice President of Washington, D.C. Operations for Ball Aerospace & Technologies. Previously as a federal government employee and member of the United States Intelligence Community, she served as the first chief operating officer (COO) for the Office of the Director of National Intelligence from February 2018 to May 2020.
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