United States Intelligence Community

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United States Intelligence Community
United States Intelligence Community Seal.svg
Seal of the United States Intelligence Community
Agency overview
FormedDecember 4, 1981;39 years ago (1981-12-04)
Agency executive
Website intelligence.gov

The United States Intelligence Community (IC) is a group of separate United States government intelligence agencies and subordinate organizations, that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities to support the foreign policy and national security of the United States. Member organizations of the IC include intelligence agencies, military intelligence, and civilian intelligence and analysis offices within federal executive departments.

Contents

The IC is overseen by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), which itself is headed by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). The DNI reports directly to the President of the United States. [1] [2]

Among their varied responsibilities, the members of the community collect and produce foreign and domestic intelligence, contribute to military planning, and perform espionage. The IC was established by Executive Order 12333, signed on December 4, 1981, by President Ronald Reagan. [3]

The Washington Post reported in 2010 that there were 1,271 government organizations and 1,931 private companies in 10,000 locations in the United States that were working on counterterrorism, homeland security, and intelligence, and that the intelligence community as a whole would include 854,000 people holding top-secret clearances. [4] According to a 2008 study by the ODNI, private contractors make up 29% of the workforce in the U.S. intelligence community and account for 49% of their personnel budgets. [5]

Etymology

The term Intelligence Community was first used during LTG Walter Bedell Smith's tenure as Director of Central Intelligence (1950–1953). [6]

History

Intelligence is information that agencies collect, analyze, and distribute in response to government leaders' questions and requirements. Intelligence is a broad term that may entail for example:

"Collection, analysis, and production of sensitive information to support national security leaders, including policymakers, military commanders, and members of Congress. Safeguarding these processes and this information through counterintelligence activities. Execution of covert operations approved by the president. The IC strives to provide valuable insight on important issues by gathering raw intelligence, analyzing that data in context, and producing timely and relevant products for customers at all levels of national security—from the war-fighter on the ground to the president in Washington." [7]

Executive Order 12333 charged the IC with six primary objectives: [8]

Organization

Seal of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence Seal of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.svg
Seal of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence

The IC is headed by the director of National Intelligence (DNI), whose statutory leadership is exercised through the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). The other 17 members of the IC are: [9] [10]

List of members

SealOrganizationParent OrganizationFederal DepartmentDate est.
Final ONI seal.png Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) United States Navy Defense 1882
Seal of the Coast Guard Intelligence.svg Coast Guard Intelligence (CGI) United States Coast Guard Homeland Security 1915
Bureau of Intelligence and Research Seal.svg Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) United States Department of State State 1945
Seal of the Central Intelligence Agency.svg Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)none Independent agency 1947
Mark of the United States Air Force.svg Sixteenth Air Force (16 AF) (USAF ISR Enterprise) United States Air Force Defense 1948
Seal of the U.S. National Security Agency.svg
US-CentralSecurityService-Seal.svg
National Security Agency (NSA) /
Central Security Service (CSS) [Note 1]
United States Department of Defense Defense 1952
NRO.svg National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) United States Department of Defense Defense 1961
Seal of the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency.svg Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) United States Department of Defense Defense 1961
United States Army Intelligence Seal.gif Military Intelligence Corps (MIC) United States Army Defense 1977
Seal of the United States Department of Energy.svg Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence (OICI) United States Department of Energy Energy 1977
USMC Intel Dept Seal.jpg Marine Corps Intelligence (MCI) United States Marine Corps Defense 1978
US-NationalGeospatialIntelligenceAgency-2008Seal.svg National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) United States Department of Defense Defense 1996
Seal of the United States Department of the Treasury.svg Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence (TFI) United States Department of the Treasury Treasury 2004
Seal of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.svg Intelligence Branch (IB) Federal Bureau of Investigation Justice 2005
Seal of the United States Drug Enforcement Administration.svg Office of National Security Intelligence (ONSI) Drug Enforcement Administration Justice 2006
Seal of the United States Department of Homeland Security.svg Office of Intelligence and Analysis (I&A) United States Department of Homeland Security Homeland Security 2007
Seal of the United States Space Force.svg Space Delta 7 (DEL 7) (USSF ISR Enterprise) United States Space Force Defense 2020

Notes

  1. The NSA's Central Security Service also includes the U.S. Navy's Fleet Cyber Command and the Marine Corps' Cryptologic Support Battalion as part of their current cadre, along with the community members from the Army (INSCOM), Air Force (16AF) and Coast Guard (CGI), noted above.

Programs

The IC performs under two separate programs:

Since the definitions of the NIP and MIP overlap when they address military intelligence, assignment of intelligence activities to the NIP and MIP sometimes proves problematic.

Organizational structure and leadership

IC Circle.jpg

The overall organization of the IC is primarily governed by the National Security Act of 1947 (as amended) and Executive Order 12333. The statutory organizational relationships were substantially revised with the 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA) amendments to the 1947 National Security Act.

Though the IC characterizes itself as a federation of its member elements, [11] its overall structure is better characterized as a confederation due to its lack of a well-defined, unified leadership and governance structure. Prior to 2004, the director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was the head of the IC, in addition to being the director of the CIA. A major criticism of this arrangement was that the DCI had little or no actual authority over the budgetary authorities of the other IC agencies and therefore had limited influence over their operations.

Following the passage of IRTPA in 2004, the head of the IC is the director of national intelligence (DNI). The DNI exerts leadership of the IC primarily through statutory authorities under which he or she: [12] [13]

Despite these responsibilities, the DNI has no authority to direct and control any element of the IC except his own staff—the Office of the DNI—nor does the DNI have the authority to hire or fire personnel in the IC except those on his or her own staff. The member elements in the executive branch are directed and controlled by their respective department heads, all cabinet-level officials reporting to the president. By law, only the director of the Central Intelligence Agency reports to the DNI.[ citation needed ]

In light of major intelligence failures in recent years that called into question how well Intelligence Community ensures U.S. national security, particularly those identified by the 9/11 Commission (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States), and the "WMD Commission" (Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction), the authorities and powers of the DNI and the overall organizational structure of the IC have become subject of intense debate in the United States.

Interagency cooperation

Previously, interagency cooperation and the flow of information among the member agencies was hindered by policies that sought to limit the pooling of information out of privacy and security concerns. Attempts to modernize and facilitate interagency cooperation within the IC include technological, structural, procedural, and cultural dimensions. Examples include the Intellipedia wiki of encyclopedic security-related information; the creation of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, National Intelligence Centers, Program Manager Information Sharing Environment, and Information Sharing Council; legal and policy frameworks set by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, information sharing Executive Order 13354 and Executive Order 13388, and the 2005 National Intelligence Strategy.

Budget

Data visualization of U.S. intelligence black budget (2013) US intelligence budget.png
Data visualization of U.S. intelligence black budget (2013)

The U.S. intelligence budget (excluding the Military Intelligence Program) in fiscal year 2013 was appropriated as $52.7 billion, and reduced by the amount sequestered to $49.0 billion. [14] In fiscal year 2012 it peaked at $53.9 billion, according to a disclosure required under a recent law implementing recommendations of the 9/11 Commission. [15] The 2012 figure was up from $53.1 billion in 2010, [16] $49.8 billion in 2009, [17] $47.5 billion in 2008, [18] $43.5 billion in 2007, [19] and $40.9 billion in 2006. [20]

About 70 percent of the intelligence budget went to contractors for the procurement of technology and services (including analysis), according to the May 2007 chart from the ODNI. Intelligence spending has increased by a third over ten years ago, in inflation-adjusted dollars, according to the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments.[ citation needed ]

In a statement on the release of new declassified figures, DNI Mike McConnell said[ when? ] there would be no additional disclosures of classified budget information beyond the overall spending figure because "such disclosures could harm national security". How the money is divided among the 16 intelligence agencies and what it is spent on is classified. It includes salaries for about 100,000 people, multibillion-dollar satellite programs, aircraft, weapons, electronic sensors, intelligence analysis, spies, computers, and software.

On August 29, 2013 The Washington Post published the summary of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence's multivolume FY 2013 Congressional Budget Justification, the U.S. Intelligence Community's top-secret "black budget". [21] [22] [23] The IC's FY 2013 budget details how the 16 spy agencies use the money and how it performs against the goals set by the president and Congress. Experts said that access to such details about U.S. spy programs is without precedent. Steven Aftergood of the Federation of American Scientists, which provides analyses of national security issues, stated that "It was a titanic struggle just to get the top-line budget number disclosed, and that has only been done consistently since 2007 ... but a real grasp of the structure and operations of the intelligence bureaucracy has been totally beyond public reach. This kind of material, even on a historical basis, has simply not been available." [24] Access to budget details will enable an informed public debate on intelligence spending for the first time, said the co-chair of the 9/11 Commission Lee H. Hamilton. He added that Americans should not be excluded from the budget process because the intelligence community has a profound impact on the life of ordinary Americans. [24]

Oversight

Intelligence Community Oversight duties are distributed to both the executive and legislative branches. Primary executive oversight is performed by the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, the Joint Intelligence Community Council, the Office of the Inspector General, and the Office of Management and Budget. Primary congressional oversight jurisdiction over the IC is assigned to two committees: the United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. The House Armed Services Committee and Senate Armed Services Committee draft bills to annually authorize the budgets of DoD intelligence activities, and both the House and Senate appropriations committees annually draft bills to appropriate the budgets of the IC. The Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs took a leading role in formulating the intelligence reform legislation in the 108th Congress.

See also

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References

Notes

  1. Agrawal, Nina. "There's more than the CIA and FBI: The 17 agencies that make up the U.S. intelligence community". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
  2. "Members of the IC". Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Archived from the original on November 17, 2018. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
  3. "Executive Order 12333". Cia.gov. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
  4. Dana Priest & William M Arkin (July 19, 2010). "A hidden world, growing beyond control". The Washington Post . Archived from the original on July 20, 2010.
  5. Priest, Dana (2011). Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State. Little, Brown and Company. p. 320. ISBN   978-0-316-18221-8.
  6. Warner, Michael; McDonald, Kenneth. "US Intelligence Community Reform Studies Since 1947" (PDF). CIA. p. 4. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
  7. Rosenbach, Eric & Aki J. Peritz (June 12, 2009). "Confrontation or Collaboration? Congress and the Intelligence Community" (PDF). Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School. Retrieved July 21, 2009.
  8. Executive Order 12333 text
  9. User, Super. "Members of the IC". Archived from the original on March 1, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  10. "USSF Becomes 18th Member of Intel Community". defense.gov.
  11. "What is Intelligence?". www.odni.gov. Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Archived from the original on November 17, 2018. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
  12. "The National Counterintelligence and Security Center: About". Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Retrieved November 23, 2020.
  13. "U.S. National Intelligence: An Overview, 2013" (PDF). dni.gov. Retrieved November 23, 2020.
  14. "DNI Releases Budget Figure for 2013 National Intelligence Program". Office of the Director of National Intelligence. 30 October 2013. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  15. DNI Releases FY 2012 Appropriated Budget Figure. Dni.gov (2012-10-30). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  16. "DNI Releases Budget Figure for 2010 National Intelligence Program" (PDF). Office of the Director of National Intelligence. October 28, 2010. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
  17. "DNI Releases Budget Figure for 2009 National Intelligence Program" (PDF). Retrieved June 15, 2013.
  18. "DNI Releases Budget Figure for 2008 National Intelligence Program" (PDF). Retrieved June 15, 2013.
  19. "DNI Releases Budget Figure for 2007 National Intelligence Program" (PDF). Retrieved June 15, 2013.
  20. Hacket, John F. (October 28, 2010). "FY2006 National Intelligence Program Budget, 10-28-10" (PDF). Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
  21. Matt DeLong (August 29, 2013). "Inside the 2013 U.S. intelligence 'black budget'". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
  22. Matthews, Dylan (August 29, 2013). "America's secret intelligence budget, in 11 (nay, 13) charts". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
  23. DeLong, Matt (August 29, 2013). "2013 U.S. intelligence budget: Additional resources". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
  24. 1 2 Barton Gellman & Greg Miller (August 29, 2013). "U.S. spy network's successes, failures and objectives detailed in 'black budget' summary". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2013.

Further reading