|Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs|
|Executive Office of the President|
|Member of||National Security Council|
|Reports to||President of the United States|
|Appointer||President of the United States|
|Constituting instrument||National Security Presidential Memorandum–4|
|First holder||Robert Cutler|
|Deputy||Deputy National Security Advisor|
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA) or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor,is a senior aide in the Executive Office of the President, based at the West Wing of the White House, who serves as the chief in-house advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. The National Security Advisor is appointed by the President and does not require confirmation by the Senate, but an appointment of a three or four-star general to the role requires Senate reconfirmation of military rank.
The West Wing of the White House houses the offices of the president of the United States. The West Wing contains the Oval Office, the Cabinet Room, the Situation Room, and the Roosevelt Room.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the president of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C. and has been the residence of every U.S. president since John Adams in 1800. The term "White House" is often used as a metonym for the president and his advisers.
The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.
The National Security Advisor participates in meetings of the National Security Council (NSC) and usually chairs meetings of the Principals Committee of the NSC with the Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense (the meetings not attended by the President). The National Security Advisor is supported by NSC staff who produce research and briefings for the National Security Advisor to review and present, either to the National Security Council or directly to the President.
The White House National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for consideration of national security, military matters, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. Since its inception under Harry S. Truman, the function of the Council has been to advise and assist the President on national security and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the President's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies. The Council has counterparts in the national security councils of many other nations.
The secretary of state is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the United States Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's minister of foreign affairs.
The secretary of defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the United States Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the U.S. The secretary of defense's position of command and authority over the U.S. military is second only to that of the president. This position corresponds to what is generally known as a defense minister in many other countries. The secretary of defense is appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, and is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council.
The influence and role of the National Security Advisor varies from administration to administration and depends not only on the qualities of the person appointed to the position, but also on the style and management philosophy of the incumbent President.Ideally, the National Security Advisor serves as an honest broker of policy options for the President in the field of national security, rather than as an advocate for his or her own policy agenda.
However, the National Security Advisor is a staff position in the Executive Office of the President and does not have line or budget authority over either the Department of State or the Department of Defense, unlike the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense, who are Senate-confirmed officials with statutory authority over their departments;but the National Security Advisor is able to offer daily advice (due to the proximity) to the President independently of the vested interests of the large bureaucracies and clientele of those departments.
Staff and line are names given to different types of functions in organizations. A "line function" is one that directly advances an organization in its core work. This always includes production and sales, and sometimes also marketing. A "staff function" supports the organization with specialized advisory and support functions. For example, human resources, accounting, public relations and the legal department are generally considered to be staff functions. Both terms originated in the military.
The United States Department of State (DOS), commonly referred to as the State Department, is a federal executive department responsible for carrying out U.S. foreign policy and international relations. Established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department, its duties include advising the U.S. President, administering the nation's diplomatic missions, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, and representing the U.S. at the United Nations.
The United States Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government directly related to national security and the United States Armed Forces. The DoD is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active-duty service members as of 2016. More employees include over 826,000 National Guard and Reservists from the armed forces, and over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside Washington, D.C., the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security".
In times of crisis, the National Security Advisor is likely to operate from the White House Situation Room or the Presidential Emergency Operations Center (as on September 11, 2001),updating the President on the latest events in a crisis situation.
The Presidential Emergency Operations Center (PEOC) is a bunker-like structure underneath the East Wing of the White House that serves as a secure shelter and communications center for the President of the United States and other protectees in case of an emergency.
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,977 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people have died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks.
The National Security Council was created at the start of the Cold War under the National Security Act of 1947 to coordinate defense, foreign affairs, international economic policy, and intelligence; this was part of a large reorganization that saw the creation of the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency.The Act did not create the position of the National Security Advisor per se, but it did create an executive secretary in charge of the staff. In 1949, the NSC became part of the Executive Office of the President.
The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, and the United States with its allies after World War II. The historiography of the conflict began between 1946 and 1947. The Cold War began to de-escalate after the Revolutions of 1989. The collapse of the USSR in 1991 was the end of the Cold War. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany and its allies, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences.
The National Security Act of 1947 was a major restructuring of the United States government's military and intelligence agencies following World War II. The majority of the provisions of the Act took effect on September 18, 1947, the day after the Senate confirmed James Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT). As one of the principal members of the United States Intelligence Community (IC), the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is primarily focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States.
Robert Cutler was the first National Security Advisor in 1953. The system has remained largely unchanged since then, particularly since President John Kennedy, with powerful National Security Advisors and strong staff but a lower importance given to formal NSC meetings. This continuity persists despite the tendency of each new president to replace the advisor and senior NSC staff.
President Richard Nixon's National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, enhanced the importance of the role, controlling the flow of information to the President and meeting him multiple times per day. Kissinger also holds the distinction of serving as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State at the same time from September 22, 1973, until November 3, 1975.
|No.||Portrait||Name||Term of office||President(s) served under|
|1||Robert Cutler (1895–1974)||March 23, 1953||April 2, 1955||740||Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|2||Dillon Anderson (1906–1974)||April 2, 1955||September 1, 1956||519|
|3||William H. Jackson (1901–1971)||September 1, 1956||January 7, 1957||128|
|4||Robert Cutler (1895–1974)||January 7, 1957||June 24, 1958||533|
|5||Gordon Gray (1909–1982)||June 24, 1958||January 13, 1961||934|
|6||McGeorge Bundy (1919–1996)||January 20, 1961||February 28, 1966||1865||John F. Kennedy|
|Lyndon B. Johnson|
|7||Walt W. Rostow (1916–2003)||April 1, 1966||January 20, 1969||1025|
|8||Henry Kissinger (1923–)||January 20, 1969||November 3, 1975||2478||Richard Nixon|
|9||Brent Scowcroft (1925–)||November 3, 1975 (first appointment)||January 20, 1977||444|
|10||Zbigniew Brzezinski (1928–2017)||January 20, 1977||January 20, 1981||1461||Jimmy Carter|
|11||Richard V. Allen (1936–)||January 21, 1981||January 4, 1982||348||Ronald Reagan|
|12||William P. Clark, Jr. (1931–2013)||January 4, 1982||October 17, 1983||651|
|13||Robert McFarlane (1937–)||October 17, 1983||December 4, 1985||779|
|14||John Poindexter (1936–)||December 4, 1985||November 25, 1986||356|
|15||Frank Carlucci (1930–2018)||December 2, 1986||November 23, 1987||356|
|16||Colin Powell (1937–)||November 23, 1987||January 20, 1989||424|
|17||Brent Scowcroft (1925–)||January 20, 1989 (second appointment)||January 20, 1993||1461||George H. W. Bush|
|18||Anthony Lake (1939–)||January 20, 1993||March 14, 1997||1514||Bill Clinton|
|19||Sandy Berger (1945–2015)||March 14, 1997||January 20, 2001||1408|
|20||Condoleezza Rice (1954–)||January 22, 2001||January 25, 2005||1464||George W. Bush|
|21||Stephen Hadley (1947–)||January 26, 2005||January 20, 2009||1455|
|22||James Jones (1943–)||January 20, 2009||October 8, 2010||626||Barack Obama|
|23||Tom Donilon (1955–)||October 8, 2010||July 1, 2013||997|
|24||Susan Rice (1964–)||July 1, 2013||January 20, 2017||1299|
|25||Michael Flynn (1958–)||January 20, 2017||February 13, 2017||24||Donald Trump|
|Acting||Keith Kellogg (1944–)||February 13, 2017||February 20, 2017||7|
|26||H. R. McMaster (1962–)||February 20, 2017||April 9, 2018||412|
|27||John R. Bolton (1948–)||April 9, 2018||September 10, 2019||520|
|Acting||Charles Kupperman (1950–)||September 10, 2019||September 18, 2019||9|
|28||Robert O’Brien||September 18, 2019||present||0|
Brent Scowcroft is the only person to have held the job in two non-consecutive administrations: in the Ford administration and in the G.H.W. Bush administration. Robert Cutler also held the job twice, both times during the Eisenhower administration. Henry Kissinger holds the record for longest term of service (2,478 days). Michael Flynn holds the record for shortest term of service (24 days).
Three and four-star generals require Senate confirmation due to the statutory nature requiring Congress to appoint their military rank.The prior National Security Adviser, H. R. McMaster, is a three-star lieutenant general and his military rank was reconfirmed by the Senate on March 15, 2017. On Thursday, March 22, 2018, President Donald Trump announced, via Twitter, that McMaster would be replaced as the National Security Advisor by former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations John R. Bolton, effective April 9, 2018. On September 10, 2019, President Trump announced on Twitter that he "informed John Bolton last night that his services are no longer needed at the White House", and that Bolton had resigned. On September 18, 2019, President Trump announced on Twitter that Robert C. O'Brien will become the next National Security Advisor.
This article is about the history of the United States National Security Council during the Kennedy Administration, 1961–1963. The National Security Council is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials.
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This article is about the history of the United States National Security Council during the Eisenhower Administration, 1953–1961.
Since the end of World War II, each administration has sought to develop and perfect a reliable set of executive institutions to manage national security policy. Each President has tried to avoid the problems and deficiencies of his predecessors' efforts and install a policy-making and coordination system that reflected his personal management style. The United States National Security Council (NSC) has been at the center of this foreign policy coordination system, but it has changed many times to conform with the needs and inclinations of each succeeding chief executive.
This article is about the history of the United States National Security Council during the Johnson Administration, 1963–1969.
This article is about the history of the United States National Security Council during the Nixon Administration, 1969–1974.
This article is about the history of the United States National Security Council during the Carter Administration, 1977–81:
This article is about the history of the United States National Security Council during the Reagan Administration, 1981–1989.
This article is about the history of the United States National Security Council, 1993 to the present.
The title Defense Minister, Minister for Defense, Minister of National Defense, Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State for Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defense, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states. The role of a defence minister varies considerably from country to country; in some the minister is only in charge of general budget matters and procurement of equipment; while in others the minister is also, in addition, an integral part of the operational military chain of command.
Herbert Raymond McMaster is a retired United States Army lieutenant general. In 2017, he became the 26th National Security Advisor, serving under President Donald Trump. He is also known for his roles in the Gulf War, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation Iraqi Freedom.
The Homeland Security Council (HSC) is an entity within the Executive Office of the President of the United States tasked with advising the President on matters relating to Homeland Security. The immediate former Homeland Security Advisor was Tom Bossert, who held the rank of Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism. The current Homeland Security Advisor is Rear Admiral Doug Fears, who took office in April 2018.
Kathleen Troia "K. T." McFarland is a former U.S. government official, and political commentator. She served as Deputy National Security Advisor under Michael Flynn for the first four months of the Trump administration. She was asked to step down by Flynn's successor H. R. McMaster; news of her pending nomination as U.S. Ambassador to Singapore was reported at the same time. President Trump nominated her in May 2017; she withdrew it in February 2018 due to concerns around her answers related to links between Trump associates and Russian officials, in particular about discussions between Flynn and Russian ambassador Sergey Kislyak.
National Security Council (NSC) is the Philippine President's principal forum for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials.
Antony John Blinken is a retired American government official who served as United States Deputy Secretary of State from 2015 to 2017 and Deputy National Security Advisor from 2013 to 2015 under President Barack Obama. He previously served as a senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Democratic Staff Director of the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations (2002–2008), and a member of the Obama-Biden Presidential Transition, active from November 2008 to January 2009, among other positions.
Mira Radielovic Ricardel, is an American government official who served as Deputy National Security Advisor from May 2018 to November 2018, until being fired at the request of First Lady Melania Trump.
Ricky Lynn Waddell is a Major General in the United States Army Reserve who served for a year during 2017–2018 as a Deputy National Security Adviser to U.S. President Donald Trump. Waddell currently serves as the Assistant to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Charles Martin Kupperman is the United States Deputy National Security Advisor for President Donald Trump, a position he has held since January 2019. He also was the acting United States National Security Advisor for eight days in September 2019 between John Bolton and Robert O'Brien.
2009-02: The National Security Advisor and Staff (PDF). WhiteHouseTransitionProject.org. 2009.