National Security Advisor (United States)

Last updated

Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs
US-WhiteHouse-Logo.svg
John R. Bolton official photo (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
John R. Bolton

since April 9, 2018
Executive Office of the President
National Security Council
Reports toThe President of the United States
Appointer The President of the United States
Constituting instrumentThe post is defined by the current directive (National Security Presidential Memorandum–4 [1] ) defining the work of the National Security Council.
Formation1953
First holder Robert Cutler
Deputy Deputy National Security Advisor
Website White House website

The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA) or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor, [2] [3] is a senior aide in the Executive Office of the President, based at the West Wing of the White House, who serves as the chief in-house advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. The National Security Advisor is appointed by the President and does not require confirmation by the Senate, [4] but an appointment of a three or four-star general to the role requires Senate reconfirmation of military rank. [5]

Contents

The National Security Advisor participates in meetings of the National Security Council (NSC) and usually chairs meetings of the Principals Committee of the NSC with the Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense (the meetings not attended by the President). The National Security Advisor is supported by NSC staff who produce research and briefings for the National Security Advisor to review and present, either to the National Security Council or directly to the President.

Role

The influence and role of the National Security Advisor varies from administration to administration and depends not only on the qualities of the person appointed to the position, but also on the style and management philosophy of the incumbent President. [6] Ideally, the National Security Advisor serves as an honest broker of policy options for the President in the field of national security, rather than as an advocate for his or her own policy agenda. [7]

However, the National Security Advisor is a staff position in the Executive Office of the President and does not have line or budget authority over either the Department of State or the Department of Defense, unlike the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense, who are Senate-confirmed officials with statutory authority over their departments; [8] but the National Security Advisor is able to offer daily advice (due to the proximity) to the President independently of the vested interests of the large bureaucracies and clientele of those departments. [6]

In times of crisis, the National Security Advisor is likely to operate from the White House Situation Room or the Presidential Emergency Operations Center (as on September 11, 2001 [9] ), updating the President on the latest events in a crisis situation.

History

President George H. W. Bush meets in the Oval Office with his NSC about Operation Desert Shield, 1991 President Bush meets with General Colin Powell, General Scowcroft, Secretary James Baker, Vice President Quayle... - NARA - 186429.tif
President George H. W. Bush meets in the Oval Office with his NSC about Operation Desert Shield, 1991

The National Security Council was created at the start of the Cold War under the National Security Act of 1947 to coordinate defense, foreign affairs, international economic policy, and intelligence; this was part of a large reorganization that saw the creation of the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency. [10] [11] The Act did not create the position of the National Security Advisor per se, but it did create an executive secretary in charge of the staff. In 1949, the NSC became part of the Executive Office of the President. [10]

Robert Cutler was the first National Security Advisor in 1953. The system has remained largely unchanged since then, particularly since President John Kennedy, with powerful National Security Advisors and strong staff but a lower importance given to formal NSC meetings. This continuity persists despite the tendency of each new president to replace the advisor and senior NSC staff. [10]

President Richard Nixon's National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, enhanced the importance of the role, controlling the flow of information to the President and meeting him multiple times per day. Kissinger also holds the distinction of serving as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State at the same time from September 22, 1973, until November 3, 1975. [10] [11]

List of National Security Advisors

No.PortraitNameTerm of office [12] President(s) served under
StartEndDays
1 Robert Cutler (1895–1974)March 23, 1953April 2, 1955740 Dwight D. Eisenhower
2 No image.svg Dillon Anderson (1906–1974)April 2, 1955September 1, 1956519
3 William Harding Jackson.jpg William H. Jackson (1901–1971) [13] September 1, 1956January 7, 1957128
4 Robert Cutler (1895–1974)January 7, 1957June 24, 1958533
5 Gordon Gray - Project Gutenberg etext 20587.jpg Gordon Gray (1909–1982)June 24, 1958January 13, 1961934
6 McGeorge Bundy.jpg McGeorge Bundy (1919–1996)January 20, 1961February 28, 19661865 John F. Kennedy
Lyndon B. Johnson
7 Walt Rostow 1968.jpg Walt W. Rostow (1916–2003)April 1, 1966January 20, 19691025
8 Henry Kissinger.jpg Henry Kissinger (1923–)January 20, 1969November 3, 19752478 Richard Nixon
Gerald Ford
9 National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft at a meeting following the assassinations in Beirut, 1976 - NARA - 7064964.jpg Brent Scowcroft (1925–)November 3, 1975January 20, 1977444
10 Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1977.jpg Zbigniew Brzezinski (1928–2017)January 20, 1977January 20, 19811461 Jimmy Carter
11 Richard V. Allen 1981.jpg Richard V. Allen (1936–)January 21, 1981January 4, 1982348 Ronald Reagan
12 William patrick clark.png William P. Clark, Jr. (1931–2013)January 4, 1982October 17, 1983651
13 Robert Mcfarlane IAGS.jpg Robert McFarlane (1937–)October 17, 1983December 4, 1985779
14 Admiral John Poindexter, official Navy photo, 1985.JPEG John Poindexter (1936–)December 4, 1985November 25, 1986356
15 Frank Carlucci official portrait.JPEG Frank Carlucci (1930–2018)December 2, 1986November 23, 1987356
16 ColinPowell.JPEG Colin Powell (1937–)November 23, 1987January 20, 1989424
17 Brent Scowcroft.jpg Brent Scowcroft (1925–)January 20, 1989January 20, 19931461 George H. W. Bush
18 Anthony Lake 0c175 7733.jpg Anthony Lake (1939–)January 20, 1993March 14, 19971514 Bill Clinton
19 SandyBerger.jpg Sandy Berger (1945–2015)March 14, 1997January 20, 20011408
20 Condoleezza Rice cropped.jpg Condoleezza Rice (1954–)January 22, 2001 [14] January 25, 2005 [14] 1464 George W. Bush
21 Stephen Hadley.jpg Stephen Hadley (1947–)January 26, 2005 [14] January 20, 20091455
22 James L. Jones.jpg James Jones (1943–) [15] January 20, 2009October 8, 2010626 Barack Obama
23 Thomas Donilon.jpg Tom Donilon (1955–) [16] October 8, 2010July 1, 2013 [17] 997
24 Susan Rice official photo (cropped).jpg Susan Rice (1964–) [17] July 1, 2013 [17] January 20, 20171299
25 Michael T Flynn.jpg Michael Flynn (1958–)January 20, 2017February 13, 201724 Donald Trump
Acting Keith Kellogg 2000.jpg Keith Kellogg (1944–)February 13, 2017February 20, 20177
26 H.R. McMaster ARCIC 2014.jpg H. R. McMaster (1962–)February 20, 2017April 9, 2018412
27 John R. Bolton official photo (cropped).jpg John R. Bolton (1948–)April 9, 2018present297
  Denotes acting

Brent Scowcroft is the only person to have held the job in two non-consecutive administrations: in the Ford administration and in the G.H.W. Bush administration. Robert Cutler also held the job twice, both times during the Eisenhower administration. Henry Kissinger holds the record for longest term of service (2,478 days). Michael Flynn holds the record for shortest term of service (24 days).

Three and four-star generals require Senate confirmation due to the statutory nature requiring Congress to appoint their military rank. [5] The prior National Security Adviser, H. R. McMaster, is a three-star lieutenant general and his military rank was reconfirmed by the Senate on March 15, 2017. [18] [19] On Thursday, March 22, 2018, President Donald Trump announced, via Twitter, that McMaster would be replaced as the National Security Advisor by former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations John R. Bolton, effective April 9, 2018. [20]

See also

References

2009-02: The National Security Advisor and Staff (PDF). WhiteHouseTransitionProject.org. 2009.

  1. "National Security Presidential Memorandum–4 of April 4, 2017" (PDF).
  2. The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1.
  3. Abbreviated NSA, or sometimes APNSA or ANSA in order to avoid confusion with the abbreviation of the National Security Agency.
  4. The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 29.
  5. 1 2 "McMaster will need Senate confirmation to serve as national security adviser". Archived from the original on March 1, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
  6. 1 2 The National Security Advisor and Staff: pp. 17-21.
  7. The National Security Advisor and Staff: pp. 10-14.
  8. See 22 U.S.C.   § 2651 for the Secretary of State and 10 U.S.C.   § 113 for the Secretary of Defense.
  9. Clarke, Richard A. (2004). Against All Enemies. New York: Free Press. p. 18. ISBN   0-7432-6024-4.
  10. 1 2 3 4 George, Robert Z; Harvey Rishikof (2011). The National Security Enterprise: Navigating the Labyrinth. Georgetown University Press. p. 32.
  11. 1 2 Schmitz, David F. (2011). Brent Scowcroft: Internationalism and Post-Vietnam War American Foreign Policy. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 2–3.
  12. "History of the National Security Council, 1947-1997". National Security Council. White House. August 1997. Archived from the original on March 6, 2008. Retrieved September 5, 2008.
  13. Burke, John P. (2009). Honest Broker?: The National Security Advisor and Presidential Decision Making. Texas A&M University Press. p.  26. ISBN   9781603441025.
  14. 1 2 3 The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 33.
  15. "Key members of Obama-Biden national security team announced" (Press release). The Office of the President Elect. December 1, 2008. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
  16. "Donilon to replace Jones as national security adviser". CNN. October 2010. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
  17. 1 2 3 Scott Wilson and Colum Lynch (June 5, 2013). "National security team shuffle may signal more activist stance at White House". Washington Post . Archived from the original on October 25, 2017.
  18. Tritten, Travis J. (March 7, 2017). "Senate panel gives nod to McMaster's 3-star status". Stars and Stripes. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on March 7, 2017.
  19. Tritten, Travis J. (March 15, 2017). "Senate vote allows McMaster to retain 3 stars as Trump adviser". Stars and Stripes. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on March 15, 2017.
  20. "National Security Adviser H. R. McMaster to resign, replaced by former U.N. Ambassador John Bolton". WLWT. March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018.