Monolith

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Uluru, Northern Territory, Australia, is often referred to as the biggest monolith, but that is generally avoided by geologists. While the surrounding rocks were eroded, the rock survived as sandstone strata making up the surviving Uluru 'monolith'. Uluru, helicopter view, cropped.jpg
Uluru, Northern Territory, Australia, is often referred to as the biggest monolith, but that is generally avoided by geologists. While the surrounding rocks were eroded, the rock survived as sandstone strata making up the surviving Uluru 'monolith'.
Monolithos fortress on Rhodes, Greece Monolithos 1.jpg
Monolithos fortress on Rhodes, Greece
Landsat 7 image Brandberg Mountain, Namibia Brand hires trimmed.jpg
Landsat 7 image Brandberg Mountain, Namibia
Gavea Rock, a monolith next to the sea, near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Gavea.jpg
Gavea Rock, a monolith next to the sea, near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

A monolith is a geological feature consisting of a single massive stone or rock, such as some mountains, or a single large piece of rock placed as, or within, a monument or building.[ citation needed ] Erosion usually exposes the geological formations, which are often made of very hard and solid igneous or metamorphic rock.

Rock (geology) A naturally occurring solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids

A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. Rocks are usually grouped into three main groups: igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks. Rocks form the Earth's outer solid layer, the crust.

Mountain A large landform that rises fairly steeply above the surrounding land over a limited area

A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges.

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In architecture, the term has considerable overlap with megalith, which is normally used for prehistory, and may be used in the contexts of rock-cut architecture that remains attached to solid rock, as in monolithic church, or for exceptionally large stones such as obelisks, statues, monolithic columns or large architraves, that may have been moved a considerable distance after quarrying. It may also be used of large glacial erratics moved by natural forces.

Megalith Large stone used to build a structure or monument

A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. The word megalithic describes structures made of such large stones without the use of mortar or concrete, representing periods of prehistory characterised by such constructions. For later periods, the word monolith, with an overlapping meaning, is more likely to be used.

Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools c. 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems. The earliest writing systems appeared c. 5,300 years ago, but it took thousands of years for writing to be widely adopted, and it was not used in some human cultures until the 19th century or even until the present. The end of prehistory therefore came at very different dates in different places, and the term is less often used in discussing societies where prehistory ended relatively recently.

Rock-cut architecture The creation of structures, buildings, and sculptures by excavating solid rock

Rock-cut architecture is the creation of structures, buildings, and sculptures by excavating solid rock where it naturally occurs. Rock-cut architecture is designed and made by man from the start to finish. In India and China, the terms 'cave' and 'cavern' are often applied to this form of man-made architecture. However, caves and caverns, that began in natural form, are not considered to be 'rock-cut architecture' even if extensively modified. Although rock-cut structures differ from traditionally built structures in many ways, many rock-cut structures are made to replicate the facade or interior of traditional architectural forms. Interiors were usually carved out by starting at the roof of the planned space and then working downward. This technique prevents stones falling on workers below. The three main uses of rock-cut architecture were temples, tombs and cave dwellings.

The word derives, via the Latin monolithus, from the Ancient Greek word μονόλιθος (monolithos), from μόνος ("one" or "single") and λίθος ("stone").

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Ancient Greek Version of the Greek language used from roughly the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, and Hellenistic period. It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek.

Geological monoliths

Large, well-known monoliths include:

Africa

Aso Rock Monolith in Nigeria

Aso Rock is a large outcrop of granitic rock located on the outskirts of Abuja, the capital of Nigeria. The Aso Rock is a 400-metre (1,300 ft) prominent monolith with a peak hegith of 936-metre (3,071 ft) above sea level. It is one of the city's most noticeable feature. The Nigerian Presidential Complex, Nigerian National Assembly, and Nigerian Supreme Court are located around it. Much of the town extends to the south of the rock. "Aso" means victorious in the native language of the Asokoro ethnic group.

Ben Amera is the world's third largest monolith behind Mount Augustus and Uluru, both in Australia. It is located in Mauritania, close to the border with Western Sahara. There are some other monoliths nearby.

Brandberg Mountain Namibian mountain

The Brandberg is Namibia's highest mountain.

Antarctica

Asia

Savandurga, India, from the northern side Savandurga.jpg
Savandurga, India, from the northern side
Sangla Hill, Pakistan Sanglahill.JPG
Sangla Hill, Pakistan
Bellary City in Karnataka, India

Bellary, officially Ballari, in the eponymous Bellari district, is a major city in the state of Karnataka, India. It is 311 km from the state capital of Bangaluru and 358 km from Hyderabad. Bellary has an urban population of 4,10,445 and metro population of 7,70,929 making it one of the most populous cities of Karnataka.

India Country in South Asia

India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Madhugiri town in Karnataka, India

Madhugiri is a town in Tumkur district in the Indian state of Karnataka. The town derives its name from a hillock, Madhu-giri (honey-hill) which is to the south of the place. Madhugiri is one of the 34 educational districts of the Karnataka state

Australia

Bald Rock National Park Protected area in New South Wales, Australia

Bald Rock National Park is a national park in northern New South Wales, Australia, just north of Tenterfield on the Queensland border. The border passes over the rock on the Western side. On the other side of the border national park continues as the Girraween National Park.

Tenterfield, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Tenterfield is a regional town in New South Wales, Australia. At the 2016 census, Tenterfield had a population of approximately 4,000. Tenterfield's proximity to many regional centres and its position on the route between Sydney and Brisbane led to its development as a centre for the promotion of the federation of the Australian colonies.

Mount Augustus, Western Australia mountain in Australia

Mount Augustus (Burringurrah) is located in the Mount Augustus National Park in Western Australia. The name is also given to the neighbouring pastoral lease, Mount Augustus Station. The local Wadjari people call it Burringurrah, after a Dreamtime figure, a young boy, who was speared and turned into a rock.

Europe

Penyal d'Ifac, Spain Penon de Ifach-2009.jpg
Penyal d'Ifac, Spain

North America

United States

Beacon Rock, Washington, viewed from the west Beacon rock.jpg
Beacon Rock, Washington, viewed from the west
El Capitan in Yosemite El Capitan in 2010.jpg
El Capitan in Yosemite
Stawamus Chief as seen from Valleycliffe neighborhood in Squamish, British Columbia Stawamus sharp.jpg
Stawamus Chief as seen from Valleycliffe neighborhood in Squamish, British Columbia

Canada

Mexico

South America

El Penon, monolith in Colombia, located in Antioquia Elpenolantioquia.JPG
El Peñón, monolith in Colombia, located in Antioquia

Extraterrestrial

Monumental monoliths

A structure which has been excavated as a unit from a surrounding matrix or outcropping of rock. [5]

See also

Notes

  1. López Domínguez, Leonor (May 2001). "Villa de Bernal and its Magic Mountain". México Desconocido #291. Archived from the original on 2015-03-13.
  2. "Peña de Bernal - Bernal - Queretaro" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 27 October 2006. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  3. Raul Carrillo (2007). Northrop, Laura Cava; Dwight L. Curtis; Natalie Sherman (eds.). Let's Go Mexico: On a Budget. Macmillan. p. 370. ISBN   978-0-312-37452-5.
  4. Escobar Ledesma, Agustín (1999). Recetario del semidesierto de Querétaro: Acoyos, rejalgares y tantarrias. Conaculta. p. 75. ISBN   978-970-18-3910-2.
  5. "Glossary". Archived from the original on 2010-01-01.

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Ellora Caves Ancient cave temples of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism in Maharashtra, India

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Rashtrakuta dynasty dynasty

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Kailasa temple, Ellora temple

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Indian rock-cut architecture

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Balancing rock

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Architecture of Karnataka

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