Tenterfield, New South Wales

Last updated
Tenterfield
New South Wales
Tenterfield (1).JPG
Rouse Street (New England Highway), Tenterfield
Australia New South Wales location map blank.svg
Red pog.svg
Tenterfield
Coordinates 29°02′55″S152°01′04″E / 29.04861°S 152.01778°E / -29.04861; 152.01778 Coordinates: 29°02′55″S152°01′04″E / 29.04861°S 152.01778°E / -29.04861; 152.01778
Population4,066 (2016 census) [1]
Established1851
Postcode(s) 2372
Elevation850 m (2,789 ft)
Location
LGA(s) Tenterfield Shire
County Clive
State electorate(s) Lismore
Federal Division(s) New England
Mean max tempMean min tempAnnual rainfall
21.4 °C
71 °F
8.0 °C
46 °F
852.4 mm
33.6 in

Tenterfield is a regional town in New South Wales, Australia. At the 2016 census, Tenterfield had a population of approximately 4,000. [1] Tenterfield's proximity to many regional centres and its position on the route between Sydney and Brisbane led to its development as a centre for the promotion of the federation of the Australian colonies.

New South Wales State of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

Federation of Australia process by which six separate British self-governing colonies became the country of Australia

The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Australia, establishing a system of federalism in Australia. Fiji and New Zealand were originally part of this process, but they decided not to join the federation. Following federation, the six colonies that united to form the Commonwealth of Australia as states kept the systems of government that they had developed as separate colonies, but they also agreed to have a federal government that was responsible for matters concerning the whole nation. When the Constitution of Australia came into force, on 1 January 1901, the colonies collectively became states of the Commonwealth of Australia.

Contents

Geography

Tenterfield is located at the northern end of the New England region, at the intersection of the New England and Bruxner Highways. The town is the seat of the Tenterfield Shire. [2] The closest nearby large town is Stanthorpe, Queensland, being 56km north via the New England Highway. Tenterfield is three hours from Brisbane, Queensland (276km), three hours from Byron Bay, New South Wales (205km), two hours from Armidale, New South Wales (188km) and eight hours from Sydney (663km). The town is on the north-western stretch of the Northern Tablelands plateau, a spur of the Great Dividing Range, and is nestled in a valley beneath Mount Mackenzie (1,287m elevation), one of the highest points along the Northern Tablelands.

New England Highway highway in New South Wales and Queensland

The New England Highway is an 878-kilometre (546 mi) long highway in Australia running from Hexham at Newcastle, New South Wales at its southern end to Yarraman, north of Toowoomba, Queensland at its northern end. It is part of Australia's National Highway system, and forms part of the inland route between Brisbane and Sydney.

Bruxner Highway highway in New South Wales

The Bruxner Highway is a 420-kilometre (260 mi)state highway located in New South Wales, Australia. The highway forms an east-west link from the Northern Rivers coast, across the Northern Tablelands in northern New South Wales, close to the border with Queensland.

Tenterfield Shire Local government area in New South Wales, Australia

Tenterfield Shire is a local government area located in the New England region of New South Wales, Australia. The Shire is situated adjacent to the New England Highway.

History

Tenterfield's first inhabitants were the Jukembal people who travelled the area from near Glen Innes to Stanthorpe, Queensland.

Stanthorpe, Queensland Town in Queensland, Australia

Stanthorpe is a town situated in south east Queensland, Australia. The town lies on the New England Highway near the New South Wales border 223 kilometres (139 mi) from Brisbane via Warwick, 56 kilometres (35 mi) north of Tenterfield and 811 m above sea level. The area surrounding the town is known as the Granite Belt. At the 2016 census, Stanthorpe had an urban population of almost 5,000.

Tenterfield in 1861 View of Tenterfield Joseph Backler p2 00036h.jpg
Tenterfield in 1861

In 1841, Sir Stuart Donaldson was running 18,000 sheep on a property that he named Tenterfield Station, after a family home, Tenterfield House, in Haddington, Scotland. [3] [4] Donaldson was the first premier of NSW and made biannual trips to Tenterfield to inspect his holdings there, which covered 100,000 acres (400 km2) of unfenced land. Tenterfield Post Office opened on 1 January 1849 [5] and the township was gazetted in 1851 with allotments being sold in 1854. In 1858 gold was discovered at Drake (Fairfield) and shortly afterwards at Timbarra and Boonoo Boonoo. [6] During 1859 an AJS Bank opened and an Anglican church was built the following year. In the 1860s the Tenterfield Chronicle was published, the district court was established; the building of a hospital commenced and a public school was opened. In 1870 the population was less than 900, but the town had five hotels, a school of arts and three churches. The existing Tenterfield Post Office was constructed in 1881.

Stuart Donaldson New South Wales politician and Premier

Sir Stuart Alexander Donaldson was the first Premier of the Colony of New South Wales.

Tenterfield House is a category B listed building in Dunbar Road, Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland. It was built in the 18th century as a two-storey private residence. A three-story wing with tower was added circa 1860. The house was used as a Christie Home for orphans until 1950, then a local authority children's home until 1992. It was converted into apartments in 1995.

Haddington, East Lothian town in East Lothian, Scotland

The Royal Burgh of Haddington is a town in East Lothian, Scotland. It is the main administrative, cultural and geographical centre for East Lothian, which as a result of late-nineteenth century Scottish local government reforms took the form of the county of Haddingtonshire for the period from 1889-1921. It lies about 17 miles (27 km) east of Edinburgh. The name Haddington is Anglo-Saxon, dating from the sixth or seventh century AD when the area was incorporated into the kingdom of Bernicia. The town, like the rest of the Lothian region, was ceded by King Edgar of England and became part of Scotland in the tenth century. Haddington received burghal status, one of the earliest to do so, during the reign of David I (1124–1153), giving it trading rights which encouraged its growth into a market town.

During World War II, Tenterfield was earmarked as a key battleground if the Japanese should invade Australia. During 1942 thousands of soldiers were set up in emergency camps, unbeknown to the locals, to cope with such an event. Overgrown tank traps and gun emplacements can still be seen on the Travelling Stock Route near the New England Highway. [7] The highway was until the early 1950s the only all-weather road from Sydney to Brisbane.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Heritage listings

Tenterfield has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:

Tenterfield railway station

The Tenterfield railway station is a heritage-listed closed railway station and now railway museum located on the Main Northern line, Tenterfield, Tenterfield Shire, New South Wales, Australia. It served the town of Tenterfield and opened on 1 September 1886 when the line was extended from Glen Innes. It was the terminus of the line until it was extended to Wallangarra on 16 January 1888. The railway station was designed by William Murray under the direction of John Whitton, the Chief Engineer of NSW Government Railways, and built during 1886. It is also known as Tenterfield Railway Station group. The property is owned by RailCorp, an agency of the Government of New South Wales and was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The station has one platform with two loops.

Tenterfield School of Arts

The Tenterfield School of Arts is a heritage-listed former school of arts and now museum, theatre, cinema, community centre and library located at Manners Street, Tenterfield in the Tenterfield Shire local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was built in 1869 by Mr Merrell. It is also known as Sir Henry Parkes Memorial School of Arts. The property is owned by the National Trust of Australia, New South Wales branch. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 1 March 2002.

Tenterfield Post Office

The Tenterfield Post Office is a heritage-listed post office located at 225 Rouse Street, Tenterfield, Tenterfield Shire, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by NSW Colonial Architect's Office under James Barnet and built from 1881 to by T. & J. McGuaran, later T. A. Lewis. It is also known as the Tenterfield Post Office and Quarters. The property is owned by Australia Post. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 17 December 1999.

The following buildings and sites are listed on the now defunct Register of the National Estate: [11] . Also includes other buildings and sites as part of Tenterfield's history

The vast majority of Tenterfield's residences are 100 or more years old.

Another notable landmark of Tenterfield is Flanagan's Men's Shop, along the western side of the main strip of Rouse Street, which is believed to be the oldest constantly men's wear shop in all of Australia.[ citation needed ]

Railway - Main North Railway Line

The railway opened to Tenterfield on 28 October 1884 [15] and in 1886 to nearby Wallangarra on the Queensland border, connecting Sydney and Brisbane, with a break-of-gauge at Wallangarra. When the rail link to the Queensland border was completed, Sydney and Brisbane were linked by rail for the first time. The railway was subsequently bypassed by the fully standard gauge North Coast line between Sydney and Brisbane, completed in 1932. The Main North line is now closed north of Armidale and the Tenterfield railway station is now a museum.

There was considerable debate about whether the break of gauge should take place at the existing town of Tenterfield, or at a whole new town at the border at Wallangarra. [16]

Tenterfield Oration

Sir Henry Parkes delivered his Federation Speech, commonly referred to as the "Tenterfield Oration", in the Tenterfield School of Arts on 24 October 1889. [15] He was travelling from Brisbane to Sydney, via the new Main North railway. The speech is credited with re-igniting the debate that ultimately led to Federation on 1 January 1901. Unfortunately, Parkes never got to see his oration come to fruition, dying 5 years prior to the Federation of Australia.

Industries

The main industries in the Tenterfield district are beef cattle breeding and superfine wool production through the breeding of Merino sheep. There are ten state forests in the Tenterfield district covering 7,540 hectares (18,600 acres). [17]

Media

The only commercial radio stations serving Tenterfield are Rebel Media stations, Rebel FM and The Breeze which broadcast into the area from Queensland on local FM transmitters.

Tenterfield-based community radio station Ten FM provides a more local focus, derived in part from the stringent rules controlling community radio stations. The station also broadcasts to Stanthorpe north of the border, on a separate frequency.

ABC New England North West and ABC Radio National broadcast to Tenterfield on local FM repeaters.

100.9 Triple Z FM, based in Goonellabah NSW runs radio advertisements for services that run from the coast to as far inland as Tenterfield and Glen Innes, and can be tuned into from higher elevations in Tenterfield when windy and anywhere in town on windless days.

Tenterfield's local newspaper is The Tenterfield Star , which is a weekly newspaper issued each Wednesday. The newspaper has been published for more than 170 years and was once owned by J. F. Thomas, the solicitor who defended Breaker Morant.

Tenterfield is incorporated into the Lismore television licence area and as such receives regional news bulletins on Prime7 and NBN Television along with brief local news updates on Southern Cross Ten.

Local geography

The local geography is dominated by prominent granite inselbergs and mountains, the most famous being that of Bald Rock, which sits within the Bald Rock National Park, and Bluff Rock which is located 12 minutes drive south of Tenterfield on the New England Highway. Prominent natural landmarks close to Tenterfield are:

Climate

Tenterfield has a subtropical highland climate, with cold, frosty winters and moderately hot, wet summers. It sits at an altitude of 850 metres (2,790 ft) above sea level, meaning temperatures below freezing in winter are common. Tenterfield averages 47 days where the minimum temperature drops below 0°C each year. [18] The town receives light to moderate snowfalls during severe winters, but this only occurs once every 20–30 years, but the town usually experiences occasional sleet some winters. The nearby Mount Mackenzie (1,287m elevation) generally receives light, sometimes moderate, snowfall annually. The town's last snowfall occurred during the winter of 2015, although, the most recent snowfall close to Tenterfield was on the 4th of June, 2019, when a low pressure system swept north through NSW. This caused it to snow on Mount Mackenzie and other points above 1,00m throughout the New England region. [19] Summers are moderately warm to hot, with most days during the summer months reaching 23°C and above, and not dropping below 15°C overnight. The majority of precipitation occurs as thunderstorms, which can be severe. Tenterfield's highest recorded temperature was 39.9 °C, which was recorded on 12 February 2017. Its coldest recorded temperature was -10.6 °C, which was recorded on 10 July 2006.


Climate data for Tenterfield (Federation Park)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)38.3
(100.9)
39.9
(103.8)
35.6
(96.1)
32.9
(91.2)
27.1
(80.8)
24.6
(76.3)
23.3
(73.9)
30.0
(86.0)
31.2
(88.2)
33.9
(93.0)
36.2
(97.2)
36.2
(97.2)
39.9
(103.8)
Average high °C (°F)27.1
(80.8)
26.1
(79.0)
24.6
(76.3)
21.7
(71.1)
18.0
(64.4)
15.0
(59.0)
14.4
(57.9)
16.1
(61.0)
19.5
(67.1)
22.4
(72.3)
24.9
(76.8)
26.6
(79.9)
21.4
(70.5)
Average low °C (°F)14.4
(57.9)
14.3
(57.7)
12.4
(54.3)
8.5
(47.3)
4.9
(40.8)
2.4
(36.3)
1.0
(33.8)
1.8
(35.2)
4.7
(40.5)
8.0
(46.4)
10.8
(51.4)
13.0
(55.4)
8.0
(46.4)
Record low °C (°F)4.5
(40.1)
4.0
(39.2)
−3.0
(26.6)
−5.0
(23.0)
−8.8
(16.2)
−9.3
(15.3)
−10.6
(12.9)
−9.5
(14.9)
−7.2
(19.0)
−3.4
(25.9)
−2.0
(28.4)
1.2
(34.2)
−10.6
(12.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches)114.8
(4.52)
93.4
(3.68)
80.3
(3.16)
47.3
(1.86)
48.8
(1.92)
50.5
(1.99)
53.5
(2.11)
43.9
(1.73)
50.6
(1.99)
76.3
(3.00)
85.0
(3.35)
105.3
(4.15)
849.7
(33.46)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2mm)10.59.99.77.17.47.67.36.56.48.18.79.999.1
Source: Bureau of Meteorology, [18]

Notable residents

The "Tenterfield Saddlery" made famous by Peter Allen Tenterfield (4).JPG
The "Tenterfield Saddlery" made famous by Peter Allen

Sporting records

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Tenterfield (State Suburb)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 3 January 2018. Blue pencil.svg
  2. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-03-24. Retrieved 2019-04-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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  4. "History". Tenterfield Station Homestead. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  5. Premier Postal History. "Post Office List". Premier Postal Auctions. Archived from the original on 2008-08-19. Retrieved 2011-05-26.
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  7. Reader's Digest Guide to Australian Places, Reader's Digest, Sydney.
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  11. The Heritage of Australia, Macmillan Company, 1981, pp.2, 246-247.
  12. "Ayrdrie House". NSW Govt Env & Heritage. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  13. "Tenterfield Post Office & Quarters". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  14. "Court House". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2014-07-04.
  15. 1 2 New England Regional Tourist Zone Association, New England Holiday, Express Print Armidale.
  16. "No title". The Morning Bulletin . Rockhampton, Qld. 17 March 1886. p. 5. Retrieved 15 November 2011 via National Library of Australia.
  17. 1 2 3 4 Tenterfield & District, Tenterfield & District Visitors Assoc., n.d.
  18. 1 2 "TENTERFIELD (FEDERATION PARK)". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. March 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  19. https://www.facebook.com/visittenterfield/photos/a.1651967575125416/2325877554401078/?type=3&theater
  20. Kovacic, Leonarda (2004). "Bancroft, Bronwyn (1958 – )". The Australian Women's Register. National Foundation for Australian Women and University of Melbourne. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
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Further reading

Preceding station  NSW Main lines  Following station
towards  Wallangarra
Main North Line
(closed section)
towards  Sydney