Inverell

Last updated

Inverell
New South Wales
Inverell Court House.JPG
Inverell Court House, built in 1886
Australia New South Wales location map blank.svg
Red pog.svg
Inverell
Coordinates 29°46′S151°07′E / 29.767°S 151.117°E / -29.767; 151.117 Coordinates: 29°46′S151°07′E / 29.767°S 151.117°E / -29.767; 151.117
Population11,660 (2016 census) [1]
Established1856
Postcode(s) 2360
Elevation582 m (1,909 ft) [2]
Location
LGA(s) Inverell Shire
County Gough
State electorate(s) Northern Tablelands
Federal Division(s) New England
Mean max tempMean min tempAnnual rainfall
22.7 °C
73 °F
10.3 °C
51 °F
800.0 mm
31.5 in

Inverell is a large town in northern New South Wales, Australia, situated on the Macintyre River, close to the Queensland border. It is also the centre of Inverell Shire. Inverell is located on the Gwydir Highway on the western slopes of the Northern Tablelands. It has a temperate climate. In the 2016 census, the population of Inverell was 11,660 and the Inverell Shire population was 16,483. [1]

New South Wales State of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In December 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

Macintyre River river

The Macintyre River, a perennial river that forms part of the Border Rivers group, is part of the Barwon catchment of the Murray-Darling basin, located in the Northern Tablelands and North West Slopes regions of New South Wales, and the Southern Downs region of Queensland, Australia.

Queensland North-east state of Australia

Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland. The state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres (715,309 sq mi).

Contents

History

Prior to white settlement, the Gamilaroi Nation of Aboriginal peoples lived in and occupied this region.[ citation needed ] In 1848, Alexander Campbell held the 50,000-acre (20,000 ha) Inverell Station on the Macintyre River. The name derives from the name of Mr. MacIntyre's estate. The word is of Gaelic origin, and signifies "meeting place of the swans"; from "Inver", a meeting place, and "Ell", a swan. [3]

Scottish Gaelic Celtic language native to Scotland

Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Celtic and Indo-European language family, native to the Gaels of Scotland. As a Goidelic language, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. It became a distinct spoken language sometime in the 13th century, although a common literary language was shared by Gaels in both Ireland and Scotland down to the 16th century. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced especially by Gaelic-language placenames.

The MacIntyre River and Swanbrook Creek join here. The area was also known as "Green Swamp" in the 1850s. Wheat growers, Colin and Rosanna Ross established a store there in 1853, [4] when he asked that a town be surveyed. In 1858, this was done and in the following years the plan was approved and the first land sale was held. Byron Post Office (open since 1855) was replaced by the Inverell Post Office on 15 September 1859. [5] The municipality was proclaimed in March 1872. [6] The last section of the Inverell branchline, from Delungra to Inverell, was opened on 10 March 1902. [7] The last train ran to Inverell on 22 June 1987, [7] and the Delungra to Inverell section of the line was closed on 2 December 1987. [7]

Delungra, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Delungra is a small town on the Gwydir Highway, 33 kilometres (21 mi) from Inverell and 43 kilometres (27 mi) from Bingara in Inverell Shire, New South Wales, Australia. At the 2016 census, Delungra and the surrounding area had a population of 647. The urban centre had a population of 285.

In 1871, the population of Inverell was 509, this increased to 1,212 in 1881. [8] After Federation, the population of Inverell was 1,230 in 1911, and grew to 6,530 (1947) and 8,209 (1961 census). [9] [10] [11]

Mining

Diamonds were discovered at Copes Creek in 1875 and were mined at Copeton from 1883-1922. Commercial sapphire mining was commenced in 1919 at Frazers Creek near Inverell. Rich alluvial deposits in streams were worked initially by hand miners but there was little recorded production up until approximately 1960. [12]

Heritage listings

Inverell has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:

Inverell Shire Council Building

Inverell Shire Council Building is a heritage-listed former bank and council chambers and now retail premises at 56 Byron Street, Inverell, Inverell Shire, New South Wales, Australia. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Inverell Post Office "Heritage place or item located at 97 Otho Inverell New South Wales, Australia"

Inverell Post Office is a heritage-listed post office at 97 Otho Street, Inverell, Inverell Shire, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by NSW Government Architect’s Office under Walter Liberty Vernon. and built in 1904 by G. F. Nott. The property is owned by Australia Post. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 23 June 2000.


Population

According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 11,660 people in Inverell.

Industry

The Inverell district is in a fertile agricultural region which produces a wide range of crops, including wheat, barley, oats, sorghum, wine grapes and maize. There are also some mining activities with tin, sapphires, zircons and diamonds (mainly industrial) being found. [12] Inverell is known as the ‘Sapphire City’ because of the sapphires that found throughout the local district, contributing to a major part of Australia's sapphire production. [15]

Copeton Dam, the region's main water supply, was completed in 1976. [16] While being smaller than Sydney Harbour, it can hold nearly 2 times the capacity of Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour). [16] The Inland Fishing Festival is held there every year.

Culture and tourism

The Grafton to Inverell Cycle Classic is an annual one day cycling race. [17] Beginning in Grafton, passing through Glen Innes and finishing in Inverell, the Classic is a 230 km ride over the demanding Gibraltar Range. The race starts at 23 metres above sea level and climbs to 1260 metres, before finishing in Inverell at 630 metres. The race is six to seven hours long, depending on weather conditions. [18] Inverell is home to the Bruderhof, an Anabaptist community who share all their possessions. [19] They run a publishing business. [20]

The National Transport Museum comprises more than 120 vehicle exhibits ranging from vintage, veteran, classic and motorcycles in a purpose-built structure on Rifle Range Road.

Education

There are two primary schools in Inverell; Ross Hill School and Inverell Public School. The two local high schools are Inverell High School and Macintyre High School. Holy Trinity School is a Roman Catholic School in Inverell which caters for students from Kindergarten to Year Ten.

Transport

Inverell is served by Inverell Airport.

Inverell also lies on the Gwydir Highway, one of the primary east-west routes through New South Wales. Thunderbolts Way terminates at Copes Creek, 16 km south of the Gwydir Highway intersection at Inverell. [21] [22]

Bus services in Inverell are provided by Inverell Bus Service, which operates two town loops, to the east and west.

Interurban bus service is provided by Symes Coaches to Glen Innes.

NSW Trainlink operates three Coach services in and out of Inverell: between Moree and Grafton, between Inverell and Tamworth via Manilla, and between Inverell and Armidale via Tingha

Climate and weather

Climate data for Inverell Research Centre
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)41.1
(106.0)
41.3
(106.3)
35.7
(96.3)
32.1
(89.8)
27.4
(81.3)
25.6
(78.1)
23.0
(73.4)
31.9
(89.4)
32.1
(89.8)
36.2
(97.2)
38.6
(101.5)
38.7
(101.7)
41.3
(106.3)
Average high °C (°F)29.7
(85.5)
28.9
(84.0)
27.1
(80.8)
23.6
(74.5)
19.3
(66.7)
15.8
(60.4)
15.2
(59.4)
16.7
(62.1)
20.0
(68.0)
23.2
(73.8)
26.0
(78.8)
28.4
(83.1)
22.8
(73.1)
Average low °C (°F)16.4
(61.5)
16.3
(61.3)
14.5
(58.1)
11.0
(51.8)
7.5
(45.5)
4.9
(40.8)
3.6
(38.5)
4.4
(39.9)
7.0
(44.6)
10.3
(50.5)
12.8
(55.0)
15.1
(59.2)
10.3
(50.6)
Record low °C (°F)6.5
(43.7)
6.2
(43.2)
3.4
(38.1)
−0.3
(31.5)
−3.5
(25.7)
−5.5
(22.1)
−5.0
(23.0)
−4.3
(24.3)
−2.0
(28.4)
−1.0
(30.2)
2.7
(36.9)
5.7
(42.3)
−5.5
(22.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)99.1
(3.90)
93.9
(3.70)
69.8
(2.75)
40.2
(1.58)
47.9
(1.89)
45.5
(1.79)
47.9
(1.89)
44.4
(1.75)
48.3
(1.90)
75.8
(2.98)
87.0
(3.43)
98.9
(3.89)
798.7
(31.45)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2mm)9.88.46.95.66.07.07.36.66.69.29.39.992.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 279.0245.8260.4237.0201.5180.0195.3248.0258.0279.0267.0279.02,930
Source: [23]


Climate data for Inverell, NSW (Inverell Comparison [1879-1997]); 584 m AMSL; 29° 46' 41.88" S
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)43.7
(110.7)
41.7
(107.1)
41.1
(106.0)
33.9
(93.0)
29.4
(84.9)
25.6
(78.1)
24.2
(75.6)
29.4
(84.9)
32.8
(91.0)
36.7
(98.1)
39.4
(102.9)
41.9
(107.4)
43.7
(110.7)
Average high °C (°F)30.6
(87.1)
29.8
(85.6)
27.8
(82.0)
24.1
(75.4)
19.7
(67.5)
16.2
(61.2)
15.3
(59.5)
17.2
(63.0)
20.5
(68.9)
24.0
(75.2)
27.4
(81.3)
29.7
(85.5)
23.5
(74.4)
Average low °C (°F)15.3
(59.5)
14.8
(58.6)
12.4
(54.3)
7.8
(46.0)
3.7
(38.7)
1.2
(34.2)
−0.2
(31.6)
0.5
(32.9)
3.5
(38.3)
7.6
(45.7)
11.1
(52.0)
13.8
(56.8)
7.6
(45.7)
Record low °C (°F)2.8
(37.0)
2.2
(36.0)
1.5
(34.7)
−4.3
(24.3)
−7.5
(18.5)
−10.0
(14.0)
−10.6
(12.9)
−9.4
(15.1)
−7.2
(19.0)
−6.7
(19.9)
−1.7
(28.9)
1.5
(34.7)
−10.6
(12.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)99.1
(3.90)
93.9
(3.70)
69.8
(2.75)
40.2
(1.58)
47.9
(1.89)
45.5
(1.79)
47.9
(1.89)
44.4
(1.75)
48.3
(1.90)
75.8
(2.98)
87.0
(3.43)
98.9
(3.89)
798.7
(31.45)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2mm)9.88.46.95.66.07.07.36.66.69.29.39.992.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 279.0245.8260.4237.0201.5180.0195.3248.0258.0279.0267.0279.02,930
Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology; Inverell Comparison
Byron Street, Inverell. Undated Town of Inverell.jpg
Byron Street, Inverell. Undated

Over the years, Inverell has had three weather stations run by government astronomers (prior to 1908) or the Bureau of Meteorology (after 1908), or both. [24] These stations are:

Notable weather extremes

The highest maximum temperature recorded at Inverell was 43.7C on 4 January 1903 at the Inverell Comparison site. [25] The lowest maximum temperature for any of the Inverell weather sites was 3.0C on 3 July 1984 at Inverell Research Centre. [26] In September 1892, the town had its biggest snowfall, with 4 to 5 inches (10 to 13 cm) falling. [6] On 5 August 1923, snow fell in parts of the Inverell district. [29]

Notable people

Notable people from or who have lived in Inverell include:

Uniting Church, Inverell Inverell (6).JPG
Uniting Church, Inverell

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Elsmore, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Elsmore is a rural village, with a population of 327 (2006), in Gough County on the Northern Tablelands, New South Wales, Australia. The village is situated 10 km east of Inverell, New South Wales, just north of the Macintyre River and is within Inverell Shire.

Gilgai, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Gilgai is a village in the Northern Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia The village is situated 10 km south of Inverell, New South Wales on Thunderbolts Way and is in Inverell Shire. At the 2006 census, Gilgai had a population of 289 people. The name Gilgai is an Aboriginal word meaning 'waterhole'.

Bukkulla, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Bukkulla is a hamlet about 30 kilometres (19 mi) north of Inverell and north-east of Bannockburn on the Ashford Road. This hamlet is within the boundaries of Arrawatta County and Inverell Shire, New South Wales, Australia. The village is at elevation of about 580 metres. In the 2006 census, there were 145 persons usually resident in the Bukkulla area.

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Inverell railway line

The Inverell railway line is a closed railway line in New South Wales, Australia. The line branches from the Mungindi line at Moree and travels in an easterly direction through the town of Gravesend then Warialda Rail, gradually increasing in elevation through Delungra towards the terminus at Inverell. An initial estimate of its intended length was 96 miles 35 chains (155.2 km). The line opened in February 1900 as far as Gravesend, then more of the line in 1901 before the Gwydir River bridge was finally finished and the line completed in 1902. It was progressively closed between 1987 and 1994. Currently a 5 km (3.1 mi) section at the Moree end remains in use as a siding for the storage of railway wagons. On 8 August 2016, The NSW Government announced that a 2.8km section of the railway would be reinstated to allow grain to be sent by rail, as part of the Fixing Country Rail pilot round. Up to $2 million was allocated for the project.

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Myall Creek, New South Wales Suburb of Inverell Shire, New South Wales, Australia

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References

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  2. 1 2 "Climate statistics for Inverell (Raglan St)". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
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  19. "5 Beliefs That Set the Bruderhof Apart From Other Christians". Newsmax. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  20. "About Us". Plough. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
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