Barley

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Barley
Illustration Hordeum vulgare0B.jpg
Drawing of barley
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Pooideae
Genus: Hordeum
Species:
H. vulgare
Binomial name
Hordeum vulgare
Synonyms [2]

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia as early as 10,000 years ago. [3] Barley has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation.

Poaceae family of plants

Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass. Poaceae includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and cultivated lawns and pasture.

Temperate climate hovers around the same temperature

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the year and more distinct seasonal changes compared to tropical climates, where such variations are often small. They typically feature four distinct seasons, Summer the warmest, Autumn the transitioning season to Winter, the colder season, and Spring the transitioning season from winter back into summer. In the northern hemisphere, the year starts with winter, transitions in the first halfyear through spring into summer, which is in mid-year, then at the second halfyear through autumn into winter at year-end. In the southern hemisphere, the seasons are swapped, with summer in between years and winter in mid-year.

Eurasia The combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia

Eurasia is the largest continent on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Located primarily in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Arctic Ocean to the north, and by Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Indian Ocean to the south. The division between Europe and Asia as two different continents is a historical social construct, with no clear physical separation between them; thus, in some parts of the world, Eurasia is recognized as the largest of the six, five, or even four continents on Earth. In geology, Eurasia is often considered as a single rigid megablock. However, the rigidity of Eurasia is debated based on paleomagnetic data.

Contents

In 2017, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced (149 million tonnes) behind maize, rice and wheat. [4]

Tonne Metric unit of mass

The tonne, commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States and Canada, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms or one megagram. It is equivalent to approximately 2,204.6 pounds, 1.102 short tons (US) or 0.984 long tons (UK). Although not part of the SI, the tonne is accepted for use with SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures.

Maize Cereal grain

Maize, also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits.

Rice cereal grain and seed of different Oryza and Zizania species

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia. It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize.

Etymology

Barley seeds with and without the outer husk Barley Seeds.jpg
Barley seeds with and without the outer husk

The Old English word for barley was bere , which traces back to Proto-Indo-European and is cognate to the Latin word farina "flour".

Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French. This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English.

Proto-Indo-European language Ancestor of the Indo-European language family

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the ancient common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

The direct ancestor of modern English barley in Old English was the derived adjective bærlic, meaning "of barley". [5] The first citation of the form bærlic in the Oxford English Dictionary dates to around 966 CE, in the compound word bærlic-croft. [6] The underived word bære survives in the north of Scotland as bere , and refers to a specific strain of six-row barley grown there. [7]

<i>Oxford English Dictionary</i> Premier historical dictionary of the English language

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. The second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989.

Bere (grain) subspecies of plant

Bere, pronounced "bear," is a six-row barley currently cultivated mainly on 5-15 hectares of land in Orkney, Scotland. It is also grown on Shetland, Caithness and on a very small scale by a few crofters on some of the Western Isles, i.e. North Uist, Benbecula, South Uist, Islay and Barra. It is probably Britain's oldest cereal in continuous commercial cultivation.

The word barn , which originally meant "barley-house", is also rooted in these words. [5]

Barn Agricultural building used for storage and as a covered workplace

A barn is an agricultural building usually on farms and used for various purposes. In the North American area, a barn refers to structures that house livestock, including cattle and horses, as well as equipment and fodder, and often grain. As a result, the term barn is often qualified e.g. tobacco barn, dairy barn, sheep barn, potato barn. In the British Isles, the term barn is restricted mainly to storage structures for unthreshed cereals and fodder, the terms byre or shippon being applied to cow shelters, whereas horses are kept in buildings known as stables. In mainland Europe, however, barns were often part of integrated structures known as byre-dwellings. In addition, barns may be used for equipment storage, as a covered workplace, and for activities such as threshing.

The Latin word hordeum , used as barley's scientific genus name, is derived from an Indo-European root meaning "bristly" after the long prickly awns of the ear of grain.

Biology

Barley Barley (Hordeum vulgare) - United States National Arboretum - 24 May 2009.jpg
Barley
The cross-section of a barley root CSIRO ScienceImage 11626 Barley root.jpg
The cross-section of a barley root

Barley is a member of the grass family. It is a self-pollinating, diploid species with 14 chromosomes. The wild ancestor of domesticated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, is abundant in grasslands and woodlands throughout the Fertile Crescent area of Western Asia and northeast Africa, and is abundant in disturbed habitats, roadsides, and orchards. Outside this region, the wild barley is less common and is usually found in disturbed habitats. [3] However, in a study of genome-wide diversity markers, Tibet was found to be an additional center of domestication of cultivated barley. [8]

Domestication

Wild barley (H. spontaneum) is the ancestor of domestic barley (H. vulgare). Over the course of domestication, barley grain morphology changed substantially, moving from an elongated shape to a more rounded spherical one. [9] Additionally, wild barley has distinctive genes, alleles, and regulators with potential for resistance to abiotic or biotic stresses to cultivated barley and adaptation to climatic changes. [10] Wild barley has a brittle spike; upon maturity, the spikelets separate, facilitating seed dispersal. Domesticated barley has nonshattering spikes, making it much easier to harvest the mature ears. [3] The nonshattering condition is caused by a mutation in one of two tightly linked genes known as Bt1 and Bt2; many cultivars possess both mutations. The nonshattering condition is recessive, so varieties of barley that exhibit this condition are homozygous for the mutant allele. [3]

Each plant gets a set of genes from both parents, so two copies of each gene are in every plant. If one gene copy is a nonworking mutant, but the other gene copy works, the mutation has no effect.[ citation needed ] Only when the plant is homozygous with both copies of the gene as nonworking mutants does the mutation show its effect by exhibiting the nonshattering condition.[ citation needed ]

Domestication in barley is followed by the change of key phenotypic traits at the genetic level. Little is known about the genetic variation among domesticated and wild genes in the chromosomal regions. [11]

Two-row and six-row barley

Two-row and six-row barley BarleyEars.JPG
Two-row and six-row barley

Spikelets are arranged in triplets which alternate along the rachis. In wild barley (and other Old World species of Hordeum), only the central spikelet is fertile, while the other two are reduced. This condition is retained in certain cultivars known as two-row barleys. A pair of mutations (one dominant, the other recessive) result in fertile lateral spikelets to produce six-row barleys. [3] Recent genetic studies have revealed that a mutation in one gene, vrs1, is responsible for the transition from two-row to six-row barley. [12]

Two-row barley has a lower protein content than six-row barley, thus a more fermentable sugar content. High-protein barley is best suited for animal feed. Malting barley is usually lower protein [13] ("low grain nitrogen", usually produced without a late fertilizer application) which shows more uniform germination, needs shorter steeping, and has less protein in the extract that can make beer cloudy. Two-row barley is traditionally used in English ale-style beers, with two-row malted summer barley being preferred for traditional German beers.

Amylase-rich six-row barley is common in some American lager-style beers, especially when adjuncts such as corn and rice are used.

Hulless barley

Hulless or "naked" barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.) is a form of domesticated barley with an easier-to-remove hull. Naked barley is an ancient food crop, but a new industry has developed around uses of selected hulless barley to increase the digestible energy of the grain, especially for swine and poultry. [14] Hulless barley has been investigated for several potential new applications as whole grain, and for its value-added products. These include bran and flour for multiple food applications. [15]

Classification

Barley Hordeum-barley.jpg
Barley

In traditional classifications of barley, these morphological differences have led to different forms of barley being classified as different species. Under these classifications, two-row barley with shattering spikes (wild barley) is classified as Hordeum spontaneum K. Koch. Two-row barley with nonshattering spikes is classified as H. distichum L., six-row barley with nonshattering spikes as H. vulgare L. (or H. hexastichum L.), and six-row with shattering spikes as H. agriocrithon Åberg.

Because these differences were driven by single-gene mutations, coupled with cytological and molecular evidence, most recent classifications treat these forms as a single species, H. vulgare L. [3]

Cultivars

Vocabulary
Cultivars

Chemistry

H. vulgare contains the phenolics caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, the ferulic acid 8,5'-diferulic acid, the flavonoids catechin-7-O-glucoside, [24] saponarin, [25] catechin, procyanidin B3, procyanidin C2, and prodelphinidin B3, and the alkaloid hordenine.

History

Origin

Genetic analysis on the spread of barley from 9,000 to 2,000 BCE Genetic analysis on the spread of barley from 9000 to 2000 BCE.jpg
Genetic analysis on the spread of barley from 9,000 to 2,000 BCE

Barley was one of the first domesticated grains in the Fertile Crescent, an area of relatively abundant water in Western Asia, and near the Nile river of northeast Africa. [27] The grain appeared in the same time as einkorn and emmer wheat. [28] Wild barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) ranges from North Africa and Crete in the west, to Tibet in the east. [3] According to some scholars, the earliest evidence of wild barley in an archaeological context comes from the Epipaleolithic at Ohalo II at the southern end of the Sea of Galilee. The remains were dated to about 8500 BCE. [3] Other scholars have written that the earliest evidence comes from Mesopotamia, specifically the Jarmo region of modern day Iraq.

Spread of barley: genetic analysis

One of the world's most important crops, barley, was domesticated in the Near East around 11,000 years ago (circa 9,000 BCE). [26] Barley is a highly resilient crop, able to be grown in varied and marginal environments, such as in regions of high altitude and latitude. [26] Archaeobotanical evidence shows that barley had spread throughout Eurasia by 2,000 BCE. [26] To further elucidate the routes by which barley cultivation was spread through Eurasia, genetic analysis was used to determine genetic diversity and population structure in extant barley taxa. [26] Genetic analysis shows that cultivated barley spread through Eurasia via several different routes, which were most likely separated in both time and space. [26]

Dispersal

An account of barley rations issued monthly to adults (30 or 40 pints) and children (20 pints) written in cuneiform on clay tablet, written in year 4 of King Urukagina (circa 2350 BCE), from Girsu, Iraq, British Museum, London Issue of barley rations.JPG
An account of barley rations issued monthly to adults (30 or 40 pints) and children (20 pints) written in cuneiform on clay tablet, written in year 4 of King Urukagina (circa 2350 BCE), from Girsu, Iraq, British Museum, London

Some scholars believe domesticated barley (hordeum vulgare) originally spread from Central Asia to India, Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria and Egypt. [29] Some of the earliest domesticated barley occurs at aceramic ("pre-pottery") Neolithic sites, in the Near East such as the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B layers of Tell Abu Hureyra, in Syria.[ citation needed ] By 4200 BCE domesticated barley occurs as far as in Eastern Finland [30] and had reached Greece and Italy around the 4th c. BCE. [29] Barley has been grown in the Korean Peninsula since the Early Mumun Pottery Period (circa 1500–850 BCE) along with other crops such as millet, wheat, and legumes. [31]

Barley (known as Yava in both Vedic and Classical Sanskrit) is mentioned many times in Rigveda and other Indian scriptures as one of the principal grains in ancient India. [32] Traces of Barley cultivation have also been found in post-Neolithic Bronze Age Harappan civilization 5700–3300 years before present. [33]

In the Pulitzer Prize-winning book Guns, Germs, and Steel , Jared Diamond proposed that the availability of barley, along with other domesticable crops and animals, in southwestern Eurasia significantly contributed to the broad historical patterns that human history has followed over approximately the last 13,000 years; i.e., why Eurasian civilizations, as a whole, have survived and conquered others. [34]

Barley beer was probably one of the first alcoholic drinks developed by Neolithic humans. [35] Barley later on was used as currency. [35] The ancient Sumerian word for barley was akiti. In ancient Mesopotamia, a stalk of barley was the primary symbol of the goddess Shala. [36] Alongside emmer wheat, barley was a staple cereal of ancient Egypt, where it was used to make bread and beer. The general name for barley is jt (hypothetically pronounced "eat"); šma (hypothetically pronounced "SHE-ma") refers to Upper Egyptian barley and is a symbol of Upper Egypt. According to Deuteronomy 8:8, barley is one of the "Seven Species" of crops that characterize the fertility of the Promised Land of Canaan, and it has a prominent role in the Israelite sacrifices described in the Pentateuch (see e.g. Numbers 5:15). A religious importance extended into the Middle Ages in Europe, and saw barley's use in justice, via alphitomancy and the corsned.

Barley in Egyptian hieroglyphs
jt barley determinative/ideogram
Barley
jt (common) spelling
BarleyBarleyBarley
Barley
šma determinative/ideogram
Barley

Rations of barley for workers appear in Linear B tablets in Mycenaean contexts at Knossos and at Mycenaean Pylos. [37] In mainland Greece, the ritual significance of barley possibly dates back to the earliest stages of the Eleusinian Mysteries. The preparatory kykeon or mixed drink of the initiates, prepared from barley and herbs, referred in the Homeric hymn to Demeter, whose name some scholars believe meant "Barley-mother". [38] The practice was to dry the barley groats and roast them before preparing the porridge, according to Pliny the Elder's Natural History (xviii.72). This produces malt that soon ferments and becomes slightly alcoholic.

Pliny also noted barley was a special food of gladiators known as hordearii, "barley-eaters". However, by Roman times, he added that wheat had replaced barley as a staple. [39]

Tibetan barley has been a staple food in Tibetan cuisine since the fifth century CE. This grain, along with a cool climate that permitted storage, produced a civilization that was able to raise great armies. [40] It is made into a flour product called tsampa that is still a staple in Tibet. [41] The flour is roasted and mixed with butter and butter tea to form a stiff dough that is eaten in small balls.

In medieval Europe, bread made from barley and rye was peasant food, while wheat products were consumed by the upper classes. [39] Potatoes largely replaced barley in Eastern Europe in the 19th century. [42]

Genetics

The genome of barley was sequenced in 2012, [43] due to the efforts of the International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium and the UK Barley Sequencing Consortium.

The genome is composed of seven pairs of nuclear chromosomes (recommended designations: 1H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H, 6H and 7H), and one mitochondrial and one chloroplast chromosome, with a total of 5000 Mbp. [44]

Abundant biological information is already freely available in several barley databases. [45]

The wild barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) found currently in the Fertile Crescent might not be the progenitor of the barley cultivated in Eritrea and Ethiopia, indicating that separate domestication may have occurred in eastern Africa. [46]

Production

Barley production, 2017
Country(millions of tonnes)
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
20.6
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
13.5
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
10.9
Flag of France.svg  France
10.5
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
8.3
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
7.9
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
7.2
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
7.1
World
149.3
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Statistics Division, 2016 [4]

In 2017, world production of barley was 149 million tonnes, led by the Russia producing 14% of the world total. Australia, Germany, France, and Ukraine were major producers. [4]

Cultivation

Barley harvesting in Gaziantep, Turkey Barley-Turkyurdu Village-Gaziantep-ali riza.jpg
Barley harvesting in Gaziantep, Turkey

Barley is a widely adaptable crop. It is currently popular in temperate areas where it is grown as a summer crop and tropical areas where it is sown as a winter crop. Its germination time is one to three days. Barley grows under cool conditions, but is not particularly winter hardy.

Barley is more tolerant of soil salinity than wheat, which might explain the increase of barley cultivation in Mesopotamia from the second millennium BCE onwards. Barley is not as cold tolerant as the winter wheats (Triticum aestivum), fall rye (Secale cereale) or winter triticaleTriticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus.), but may be sown as a winter crop in warmer areas of Australia and Great Britain.

Barley has a short growing season and is also relatively drought tolerant. [39]

Plant diseases

Is known or likely to be susceptible to barley mild mosaic bymovirus, [47] [48] as well as bacterial blight. It can be susceptible to many diseases, but plant breeders have been working hard to incorporate resistance. The devastation caused by any one disease will depend upon the susceptibility of the variety being grown and the environmental conditions during disease development. Serious diseases of barley include powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, leaf scald caused by Rhynchosporium secalis , barley rust caused by Puccinia hordei, crown rust caused by Puccinia coronata , and various diseases caused by Cochliobolus sativus . Barley is also susceptible to head blight.

Food

Raw barley
Barley grains 3.jpg
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,473 kJ (352 kcal)
77.7 g
Sugars 0.8 g
Dietary fiber 15.6 g
Fat
1.2 g
9.9 g
Vitamins Quantity%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
13 μg
160 μg
Thiamine (B1)
17%
0.191 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
10%
0.114 mg
Niacin (B3)
31%
4.604 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
6%
0.282 mg
Vitamin B6
20%
0.26 mg
Folate (B9)
6%
23 μg
Choline
8%
37.8 mg
Vitamin C
0%
0 mg
Vitamin K
2%
2.2 μg
Minerals Quantity%DV
Calcium
3%
29 mg
Iron
19%
2.5 mg
Magnesium
22%
79 mg
Manganese
63%
1.322 mg
Phosphorus
32%
221 mg
Potassium
6%
280 mg
Sodium
1%
9 mg
Zinc
22%
2.13 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water10 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Nutrition

Barley, oats, and some products made from them Various grains.jpg
Barley, oats, and some products made from them

In a 100-g serving, raw barley provides 352 Calories and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of essential nutrients, including protein, dietary fiber, the B vitamins, niacin (31% DV) and vitamin B6 (20% DV), and several dietary minerals (table). Highest nutrient contents are for manganese (63% DV) and phosphorus (32% DV) (table). Raw barley is 78% carbohydrates, 1% fat, 10% protein, and 10% water (table).

Preparation

Hulled barley (or covered barley) is eaten after removing the inedible, fibrous, outer hull. Once removed, it is called dehulled barley (or pot barley or scotch barley). [49] Considered a whole grain, dehulled barley still has its bran and germ, making it a nutritious and popular health food. Pearl barley (or pearled barley) is dehulled barley which has been steam processed further to remove the bran. [49] It may be polished, a process known as "pearling". Dehulled or pearl barley may be processed into a variety of barley products, including flour, flakes similar to oatmeal, and grits.

Barley meal, a wholemeal barley flour lighter than wheat meal but darker in colour, is used in porridge and gruel in Scotland. [49] Barley meal gruel is known as sawiq in the Arab world. [50] With a long history of cultivation in the Middle East, barley is used in a wide range of traditional Arabic, Assyrian, Israelite, Kurdish, and Persian foodstuffs including kashkak, kashk and murri. Barley soup is traditionally eaten during Ramadan in Saudi Arabia. [51] Cholent or hamin (in Hebrew) is a traditional Jewish stew often eaten on Sabbath, in a variety of recipes by both Mizrachi and Ashkenazi Jews, with barley cited throughout the Hebrew Bible in multiple references. In Eastern and Central Europe, barley is also used in soups and stews such as ričet. In Africa, where it is a traditional food plant, it has the potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare. [52]

The six-row variety bere is cultivated in Orkney, Shetland, Caithness and the Western Isles in the Scottish Highlands and islands. When milled into beremeal it is used locally in bread, biscuits, and the traditional beremeal bannock. [53]

Health implications

The Reinheitsgebot law of 15th century Holy Roman Empire allowed barley as the only grain for brewing beer (Czech beer Budweiser Budvar depicted). Budvar-mug.JPG
The Reinheitsgebot law of 15th century Holy Roman Empire allowed barley as the only grain for brewing beer (Czech beer Budweiser Budvar depicted).

According to Health Canada and the US Food and Drug Administration, consuming at least 3 grams per day of barley beta-glucan or 0.75 grams per serving of soluble fiber can lower levels of blood cholesterol, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. [54] [55]

Eating whole-grain barley, as well as other grains with lots of fiber, improves regulation of blood sugar (i.e., reduces blood glucose response to a meal). [56] Consuming breakfast cereals containing barley over weeks to months also improved cholesterol levels and glucose regulation. [57]

Like wheat, rye, and their hybrids and derivatives, barley contains gluten, which makes it an unsuitable grain for consumption by people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers, among others. [58] Nevertheless, some wheat allergy patients can tolerate barley or rye. [59]

Beverages

Alcoholic beverages

An employee of the Springbank distillery turning the barley on the floor malting HectorTurning.jpg
An employee of the Springbank distillery turning the barley on the floor malting

Barley is a key ingredient in beer and whisky production. Two-row barley is traditionally used in German and English beers. Six-row barley was traditionally used in US beers, but both varieties are in common usage now. [60] Distilled from green beer, [61] whiskey has been made primarily from barley in Ireland and Scotland, while other countries have used more diverse sources of alcohol, such as the more common corn, rye and wheat in the USA. In the US, a grain type may be identified on a whisky label if that type of grain constitutes 51% or more of the ingredients and certain other conditions are satisfied. [62] About 25% of the United States' production of barley is used for malting, for which barley is the best-suited grain. [63]

Barley wine is a style of strong beer from the English brewing tradition. Another alcoholic drink known by the same name, enjoyed in the 18th century, was prepared by boiling barley in water, then mixing the barley water with white wine and other ingredients, such as borage, lemon and sugar. In the 19th century, a different barley wine was made prepared from recipes of ancient Greek origin. [5]

Nonalcoholic beverages

Nonalcoholic drinks such as barley water [5] and roasted barley tea [64] have been made by boiling barley in water. In Italy, barley is also sometimes used as coffee substitute, caffè d'orzo (coffee of barley). This drink is obtained from ground, roasted barley and it is prepared as an espresso (it can be prepared using percolators, filter machines or cafetieres). It became widely used during the Fascist period and WWII, as Italy was affected by embargo and struggled to import coffee. It was also a cheaper option for poor families (often grown and roasted at home) in the period. Afterwards, it was promoted and sold as a coffee substitute for children. Nowadays, it is experiencing a revival and it can be considered some Italians' favourite alternative to coffee when, for health reasons, caffeine drinks are not recommended.

Other uses

Animal feed

Half of the United States' barley production is used as livestock feed. [65] Barley is an important feed grain in many areas of the world not typically suited for maize production, especially in northern climates—for example, northern and eastern Europe. Barley is the principal feed grain in Canada, Europe, and in the northern United States. [66] A finishing diet of barley is one of the defining characteristics of western Canadian beef used in marketing campaigns. [67]

As of 2014, an enzymatic process can be used to make a high-protein fish feed from barley, which is suitable for carnivorous fish such as trout and salmon. [68]

Algistatic

Barley straw used in a pond in Oud-Heverlee, Belgium Antialg in vijver Zoet Water Oud-Heverlee B.jpg
Barley straw used in a pond in Oud-Heverlee, Belgium

Barley straw, in England, is placed in mesh bags and floated in fish ponds or water gardens to help prevent algal growth without harming pond plants and animals. Barley straw has not been approved by the EPA for use as a pesticide and its effectiveness as an algae regulator in ponds has produced mixed results, with either more efficacy against phytoplankton algae versus mat-forming algae, or no significant change, during university testing in the US and the UK. [69]

Measurement

Barley grains were used for measurement in England, there being three or four barleycorns to the inch and four or five poppy seeds to the barleycorn. [70] The statute definition of an inch was three barleycorns, although by the 19th century, this had been superseded by standard inch measures. [71] This unit still persists in the shoe sizes used in Britain and the USA. [72]

As modern studies show, the actual length of a kernel of barley varies from as short as 4–7 mm (0.16–0.28 in) to as long as 12–15 mm (0.47–0.59 in) depending on the cultivar. [73] [74] Older sources claimed the average length of a grain of barley being 0.345 in (8.8 mm). [75]

The barleycorn was known as arpa in Turkish, and the feudal system in Ottoman Empire employed the term arpalik, or "barley-money", to refer to a second allowance made to officials to offset the costs of fodder for their horses. [76]

Ornamental

A new stabilized variegated variety of H. vulgare, billed as H. vulgare varigate, has been introduced for cultivation as an ornamental and pot plant for pet cats to nibble. [77]

Cultural

In English folklore, the figure of John Barleycorn in the folksong of the same name is a personification of barley, and of the alcoholic beverages made from it: beer and whisky. In the song, John Barleycorn is represented as suffering attacks, death, and indignities that correspond to the various stages of barley cultivation, such as reaping and malting. [78]

See also

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Emmer wheat or hulled wheat is a type of awned wheat. Emmer is a tetraploid. The domesticated types are Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum and Triticum turgidum conv. durum. The wild plant is called Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides. The principal difference between the wild and the domestic is that the ripened seed head of the wild plant shatters and scatters the seed onto the ground, while in the domesticated emmer the seed head remains intact, thus making it easier for humans to harvest the grain.

Wheat beer beer brewed in part with wheat

Wheat beer is a beer, usually top-fermented, which is brewed with a large proportion of wheat relative to the amount of malted barley. The two main varieties are Weissbier, based on the German tradition, and Witbier, based on the Belgian tradition; minor types include Lambic, Berliner Weisse, and Gose.

Pyrenophora teres is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen of some plant species, the most significant of which are economically important agricultural crops such as barley. Toxins include aspergillomarasmine A and related compounds.

Aleurone is a protein found in protein granules of maturing seeds and tubers. The term also describes one of the two major cell types of the endosperm, the aleurone layer. The aleurone layer is the outermost layer of the endosperm, followed by the inner starchy endosperm. This layer of cells is sometimes referred to as the peripheral endosperm. It lies between the pericarp and the hyaline layer of the endosperm. Unlike the cells of the starchy endosperm, aleurone cells remain alive at maturity. The ploidy of the aleurone is (3n) as a result of double fertilization.

The cereal grain wheat is subject to numerous wheat diseases, including bacterial, viral and fungal diseases, as well as parasitic infestations.

Mash ingredients

Mash ingredients, mash bill, mashbill, or grain bill are the materials that brewers use to produce the wort that they then ferment into alcohol. Mashing is the act of creating and extracting fermentable and non-fermentable sugars and flavor components from grain by steeping it in hot water, and then letting it rest at specific temperature ranges to activate naturally occurring enzymes in the grain that convert starches to sugars. The sugars separate from the mash ingredients, and then yeast in the brewing process converts them to alcohol and other fermentation products.

<i>Hordeum jubatum</i> species of plant

Hordeum jubatum, with common names foxtail barley, bobtail barley, squirreltail barley, and intermediate barley, is a perennial plant species in the grass family Poaceae. It occurs wild mainly in northern North America and adjacent northeastern Siberia. However, as it escaped often from gardens it can be found worldwide in areas with temperate to warm climates, and is considered a weed in many countries. The species is a polyploid and originated via hybridization of an East Asian Hordeum species with a close but extinct relative of Californian H. brachyantherum. It is grown as an ornamental plant for its attractive inflorescences and when done flowering for its infructescence.

Loose smut species of fungus

Loose smut of barley is caused by Ustilago nuda. It is a disease that can destroy a large proportion of a barley crop. Loose smut replaces grain heads with smut, or masses of spores which infect the open flowers of healthy plants and grow into the seed, without showing any symptoms. Seeds appear healthy and only when they reach maturity the following season is it clear that they were infected. Systemic fungicides are the major control method for loose smut.

Leaf rust is a fungal disease of barley caused by Puccinia hordei. It is also known as brown rust and it is the most important rust disease on barley.

<i>Gibberella zeae</i> species of fungus

Gibberella zeae, also known by the name of its anamorph Fusarium graminearum, is a fungal plant pathogen which causes fusarium head blight, a devastating disease on wheat and barley. The pathogen is responsible for billions of dollars in economic losses worldwide each year. Infection causes shifts in the amino acid composition of wheat, resulting in shriveled kernels and contaminating the remaining grain with mycotoxins, mainly deoxynivalenol, which inhibits protein biosynthesis; and zearalenone, an estrogenic mycotoxin. These toxins cause vomiting, liver damage, and reproductive defects in livestock, and are harmful to humans through contaminated food. Despite great efforts to find resistance genes against F. graminearum, no completely resistant variety is currently available. Research on the biology of F. graminearum is directed towards gaining insight into more details about the infection process and reveal weak spots in the life cycle of this pathogen to develop fungicides that can protect wheat from scab infection.

Tilletia caries is a basidiomycete that causes common bunt of wheat. The common names of this disease are stinking bunt of wheat and stinking smut of wheat. This pathogen infects wheat, rye, and various other grasses. Tilletia caries is economically and agriculturally important because it reduces both the wheat yield and grain quality.

<i>Puccinia coronata</i> species of fungus

Puccinia coronata is a plant pathogen and causal agent of oat and barley crown rust. The pathogen occurs worldwide, infecting both wild and cultivated oats. It is a relatively new disease of barley in North America. It was first found in 1992 in a barley breeding nursery near Clay Center, Nebraska. Since then, crown rust has been found throughout the upper Midwest, with greatest incidence in the central Red River Valley of North Dakota and Minnesota. In that region the alternate host, common buckthorn, grows abundantly in shelter belts and riparian areas. Since 1993, outbreaks of crown rust have occurred on barley and forage grasses at several localities in this region. The extent of yield losses in barley caused by this disease have not been determined. Crown rust posed a threat to barley production, because the first infections in barley occur early in the season from local inoculum. Crown rusts have evolved many different physiological races within different species in response to host resistance. Each pathogenic race can attack a specific line of plants within the species typical host. For example, there are over 290 races of P. coronata. Crops with resistant phenotypes are often released, but within a few years virulent races have arisen and P. coronata can infect them.

Wheat yellow rust

Wheat yellow rust, also known as wheat stripe rust, is one of the three wheat rust diseases principally found in wheat grown in cooler environments. Such locations are generally associated with northern latitudes or cooler seasons.

Malting process which converts raw grain into malt

Malting is a controlled germination that converts raw grain into malt. The malt is mainly used for brewing or whisky making, but can also be used to make malt vinegar or malt extract. Various grains are used for malting; the most common are barley, sorghum, wheat and rye. There are a number of different types of equipment that can be used to produce the malt. A traditional floor malting germinates the grains in a thin layer on a solid floor, and the grain is manually raked and turned to keep the grains loose and aerated. In a modern malt house the process is more automated, and the grain is germinated on a floor that is slotted to allow air to be forced through the grain bed. Large mechanical turners e.g. Saladin boxes, keep the much thicker bed loose with higher productivity and better energy efficiency.

Shattering (agriculture) in agriculture, the dispersal of seeds upon ripening

In agriculture, shattering is the dispersal of a crop's seeds upon their becoming ripe. From an agricultural perspective this is generally an undesirable process, and in the history of crop domestication several important advances have involved a mutation in a crop plant that reduced shattering — instead of the seeds being dispersed as soon as they were ripe, the mutant plants retained the seeds for longer, which made harvesting much more effective. Non-shattering phenotype is one of the prerequisites for plant breeding especially when introgressing valuable traits from wild varieties of domesticated crops.

<i>Hordeum spontaneum</i> species of plant

Hordeum spontaneum, commonly known as wild barley or spontaneous barley, is the wild form of the grass in the family Poaceae that gave rise to the cereal barley. Domestication is thought to have occurred on two occasions, first about ten thousand years ago in the Fertile Crescent and again later, several thousand kilometres further east.

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