Tom Shippey

Last updated

Tom Shippey
Tom Shippey by Gage Skidmore.jpg
In 2015
Thomas Alan Shippey

(1943-09-09) 9 September 1943 (age 79)
Alma mater Queens' College, Cambridge (AB, MA, PhD)
OccupationAcademic, writer
Known for Tolkien scholarship

Thomas Alan Shippey (born 9 September 1943) [1] is a British medievalist, a retired scholar of Middle and Old English literature as well as of modern fantasy and science fiction. He is considered one of the world's leading academic experts [2] on the works of J. R. R. Tolkien about whom he has written several books and many scholarly papers. His book The Road to Middle-Earth has been called "the single best thing written on Tolkien". [3]


Shippey's education and academic career have in several ways retraced those of Tolkien: he attended King Edward's School, Birmingham, became a professional philologist, occupied Tolkien's professorial chair at the University of Leeds, and taught Old English at the University of Oxford to the syllabus that Tolkien had devised.

He has received three Mythopoeic Awards [4] [5] [6] and a World Fantasy Award. [7] He participated in the creation of Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, assisting the dialect coaches. He featured as an expert medievalist in all three of the documentary DVDs that accompany the special extended edition of the trilogy, and later also that of The Hobbit film trilogy.


Early life

Thomas Alan Shippey was born in 1943 to the engineer Ernest Shippey and his wife Christina Emily Kjelgaard in Calcutta, British India, where he spent the first years of his life. [1] [8] [9] He studied at King Edward's School in Birmingham from 1954 to 1960. [10]

Like J. R. R. Tolkien, Shippey became fond of Old English, Old Norse, German and Latin, and of playing rugby. [8] [2] He gained a B.A. from Queens' College, Cambridge in 1964, his M.A. in 1968, and a PhD in 1970. [11] [12] [9]


Shippey became a junior lecturer at the University of Birmingham, and then a Fellow of St John's College, Oxford, where he taught Old and Middle English. [10] In 1979, he was elected to the Chair of English Language and Medieval English Literature at Leeds University, a post once held by Tolkien. [13] In 1996, after 14 years at Leeds, Shippey was appointed to the Walter J. Ong Chair of Humanities at Saint Louis University's College of Arts and Sciences, where he taught, researched, and wrote books. [12] He was a visiting professor at Harvard University, the University of Texas, and Signum University. [14]

He has published over 160 books and articles, [12] and has edited or co-edited scholarly collections such as the 1998 Beowulf: The Critical Heritage [15] and the 2005 Studies in Medievalism. [16] He has written invited forewords to books on medieval England, such as Beowulf and Other Old English Poems. [17] Among his research on the Old English poem Beowulf is an analysis of its principles of conversation, [18] and a much-cited [19] discussion of the "obdurate puzzle" of the "Modthrytho Episode" (Beowulf 1931b–1962), which seems to describe a cruel irrational queen who then becomes a model wife. [20] He has also written on Arthurian legend, including its reworkings in medieval and modern literature. [21] [22] His medieval studies have extended as far as to write a book on the lives of the great Vikings "as warriors, invaders and plunderers", exploring their "heroic mentality in the face of death and warfare". [23] The Swedish author Lars Lönnroth commented that nothing like Shippey's "eminently readable book" had been attempted since Thomas Bartholin's 1677 history of Danish antiquity, even if Shippey's use of legendary sources meant that the materials used could not be relied upon. [23]

Since his retirement and his return to England, he has continued his research as an honorary research fellow at the University of Winchester. [24] His Tolkien scholar colleagues including Janet Brennan Croft, John D. Rateliff, Verlyn Flieger, David Bratman, Marjorie Burns, and Richard C. West marked his 70th birthday with a festschrift . [2]

Modern fantasy and science fiction

Under the pseudonym of "Tom Allen", [25] Shippey has written two stories that were published in anthologies edited by Peter Weston. The first published was the fantasy story "King, Dragon" in Andromeda 2 in 1977; the second was the science fiction novelette "Not Absolute" in Andromeda 3 in 1978. [26]

Under the pseudonym of "John Holm", he is the co-author, with Harry Harrison, of The Hammer and the Cross trilogy of alternate history novels, consisting of The Hammer and the Cross (1993), One King's Way (1995), and King and Emperor (1996). [1] For Harrison's 1984 West of Eden , Shippey helped with the constructed language, Yilanè. [27]

Shippey has edited both The Oxford Book of Science Fiction Stories , and The Oxford Book of Fantasy Stories. [28] He reviews science fiction for The Wall Street Journal , [28] and contributes literary reviews to the London Review of Books . [12] In 2009, he wrote a scholarly 21-page introduction to Flights of Eagles, a collection of James Blish's works. [29] He has given many invited lectures on Tolkien and other topics. [12]

Tolkien scholarship

Shippey's interest in Tolkien began when he was 14 years old and was lent a copy of The Hobbit . [11] Shippey comments on his interest in Tolkien that

Purely by accident, I followed in Tolkien's footsteps in several respects: as a schoolboy (we both went to King Edward's School, Birmingham), as rugby player (we both played for Old Edwardians), as a teacher at Oxford (I taught Old English for seven years at St. John's College, just overlapping with Tolkien's last years of retirement), and as Professor of English Language at Leeds (where I inherited Tolkien's chair and syllabus)." [12]

Both Shippey and J. R. R. Tolkien were professors at Leeds University, with offices near Woodhouse Lane (pictured), a placename that Shippey thought Tolkien would have taken as a trace of the woodwoses, the wild men of the woods. Tower, spires, chimneys, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds (Taken by Flickr user 28th January 2013).jpg
Both Shippey and J. R. R. Tolkien were professors at Leeds University, with offices near Woodhouse Lane (pictured), a placename that Shippey thought Tolkien would have taken as a trace of the woodwoses, the wild men of the woods.

In late 1969 or early 1970, Shippey wrote his first academic work on Tolkien. He then delivered a speech at a Tolkien day organised by a student association at the University of Birmingham. This lecture, "Tolkien as philologist" became influential for Shippey's view of Tolkien. Joy Hill, Tolkien's private secretary, was in the audience and afterward, she asked him for the script, for Tolkien to read. On 13 April 1970, Shippey received a seemingly formal letter from Tolkien; he records that it took him 30 years to decode the "specialised politeness-language of Old Western Man" in which Tolkien replies to Shippey's interpretations of his work, even though, Shippey writes, he speaks the same language himself. Tolkien wrote, hinting that Shippey was "nearly" (italics supplied by Shippey) always correct but that Tolkien had not had the time to tell him about his design as it "may be found in a large finished work, and the actual events or experiences as seen or felt by the waking mind in the course of actual composition [i.e. Tolkien's then-unpublished legendarium]"; [10] Shippey used the phrase "Course of actual composition" as the title of the final chapter of The Road to Middle-earth. [31]

Shippey and Tolkien met in 1972 when Shippey was invited for dinner by Norman Davis, who had succeeded Tolkien as the Merton Professor of English Language. When he became a Fellow of St. John's College that same year, Shippey taught Old and Middle English using Tolkien's syllabus. [10]

Shippey's first printed essay, "Creation from Philology in The Lord of the Rings", expanded on his 1970 lecture. In 1979, he was elected into a former position of Tolkien's, the Chair of English Language and Medieval English Literature at Leeds University. He noted that his office at Leeds, like Tolkien's, was just off Woodhouse Lane, a name that in his view Tolkien would certainly have interpreted as a trace of the woodwoses, the wild men of the woods "lurking in the hills above the Aire". [30]

His first Tolkien book, The Road to Middle-earth , was published in 1982. At this time, Shippey shifted from regarding Tolkien as a philologist to a "traumatised author" as he called it, "writing fantasy, but voicing in that fantasy the most pressing and most immediately relevant issues of the whole monstrous twentieth century – questions of industrialised warfare, the origin of evil, the nature of humanity". This would include writers affected by war like Kurt Vonnegut, William Golding, and George Orwell. [10] An enlarged third edition was published in 2005; in its preface he states that he had assumed that the 1982 book would be his last word on the subject, and in the text he sets out his view that "the Lord of the Rings in particular is a war-book, also a post-war book", comparing Tolkien's writing to that of other twentieth-century authors. [10] [32] The book rigorously refutes what was then the long-running literary hostility to Tolkien, and explains to instinctive lovers of Lord of the Rings why they are right to like it. [33] It has been described as "the single best thing written on Tolkien", and "the seminal monograph". [3] [34] The book has received over 900 scholarly citations. [35]

As an acknowledged expert on Tolkien, Shippey serves on the editorial board of Tolkien Studies: An Annual Scholarly Review. [28]

Film and television

Shippey has appeared in several television documentaries, in which he spoke about Tolkien and his Middle-earth writings:

He participated in Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, for which he assisted the dialect coaches. [11] He was featured on all three of the documentary DVDs that accompany the special extended edition of The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, and later also that of The Hobbit film trilogy. [12] He summarized his experiences with the film project as follows:

"The funny thing about interviews is you never know which bits they're going to pick. It always feels as if they sit you down, shine bright lights in your eyes, and ask you questions until you say something really silly, and that's the bit they choose. At least they didn't waterboard me. But it was good fun, and I'd cheerfully do it again." [41]

Family life

Shippey married Susan Veale in 1966; after that marriage ended, he married Catherine Elizabeth Barton in 1993. He has three children. [9] He retired in 2008, and now lives in Dorset. [12] [42]


Apart from his published books, Shippey has written a large number of scholarly articles. [43]

Books written
Books edited

Awards and distinctions

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">J. R. R. Tolkien</span> English philologist and author (1892–1973)

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was an English writer, poet, philologist, and academic, best known as the author of the high fantasy works The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Warg</span> Wolf in fantasy

In the philologist and fantasy author J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth fiction, a warg is a particularly large and evil kind of wolf that could be ridden by orcs. He derived the name and characteristics of his wargs by combining meanings and myths from Old Norse and Old English. In Norse mythology, a vargr is a wolf, especially the wolf Fenrir that destroyed the god Odin in the battle of Ragnarök, and the wolves Sköll and Hati who perpetually chase the Sun and Moon. In Old English, a wearh is an outcast who may be strangled to death.

Éomer is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth. He appears in The Lord of the Rings as a leader of the Riders of Rohan who serve as cavalry to the army of Gondor, fighting against Mordor.

Barrow-wights are wraith-like creatures in J. R. R. Tolkien's world of Middle-earth. In The Lord of the Rings, the four hobbits are trapped by a barrow-wight, and are lucky to escape with their lives; but they gain ancient swords of Westernesse for their quest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mythopoeic Awards</span> Literary award

The Mythopoeic Awards for literature and literary studies are given annually for outstanding works in the fields of myth, fantasy, and the scholarly study of these areas. Established by the Mythopoeic Society in 1971, the Mythopoeic Fantasy Award is given for "fiction in the spirit of the Inklings", and the Scholarship Award for non-fiction work. The award is a statuette of a seated lion, with a plaque on the base. It has drawn resemblance to, and is often called, the "Aslan".

The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have generated a body of research covering many aspects of his fantasy writings, principally The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion, along with the large legendarium that remained unpublished on his death in 1973, and the constructed languages that he invented in connection with these, especially the Elvish languages that gave rise to many of the names he used, Quenya and Sindarin. Scholars from different disciplines have examined the linguistic and literary origins of Middle-earth, and have explored many aspects of his writings from Christianity to feminism and race.

Scholars and critics have identified many themes of The Lord of the Rings, a major fantasy novel by J. R. R. Tolkien, including a reversed quest, the struggle of good and evil, death and immortality, fate and free will, the danger of power, and various aspects of Christianity such as the presence of three Christ figures, for prophet, priest, and king, as well as elements like hope and redemptive suffering. There is also a strong thread throughout the work of language, its sound, and its relationship to peoples and places, along with moralisation from descriptions of landscape. Out of these, Tolkien stated that the central theme is death and immortality.

<i>J. R. R. Tolkien: Author of the Century</i> Book by Tom Shippey

J. R. R. Tolkien: Author of the Century is a 2000 book of literary criticism written by Tom Shippey. It is about the work of the philologist and fantasy author J. R. R. Tolkien. In it, Shippey argues for the relevance of Tolkien today and attempts to firmly establish Tolkien's literary merits, based on analysis of The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, and Tolkien's shorter works.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">J. R. R. Tolkien's influences</span> Sources of Tolkiens fiction

J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy books on Middle-earth, especially The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion, drew on a wide array of influences including language, Christianity, mythology, archaeology, ancient and modern literature, and personal experience. He was inspired primarily by his profession, philology; his work centred on the study of Old English literature, especially Beowulf, and he acknowledged its importance to his writings.

Théoden is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy novel, The Lord of the Rings. The King of Rohan and Lord of the Mark or of the Riddermark, names used by the Rohirrim for their land, he appears as a major supporting character in The Two Towers and The Return of the King. When first introduced, Théoden is weak with age and sorrow and the machinations of his top advisor, Gríma Wormtongue, and he does nothing as his kingdom is crumbling. Once roused by the wizard Gandalf, however, he becomes an instrumental ally in the war against Saruman and Sauron.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Orc</span> Humanoid monster in Tolkiens fiction

An Orc is a fictional humanoid monster like a goblin. Orcs were brought into modern usage by the fantasy writings of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially The Lord of the Rings. In Tolkien's works, Orcs are a brutish, aggressive, ugly, and malevolent race of monsters, contrasting with the benevolent Elves and serving an evil power, though they share a human sense of morality. There is a suggestion, among several somewhat contradictory origin stories, that they are a corrupted race of elves.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Shire</span> Fictional England-like home region of hobbits in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth

The Shire is a region of J. R. R. Tolkien's fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works. The Shire is an inland area settled exclusively by hobbits, the Shire-folk, largely sheltered from the goings-on in the rest of Middle-earth. It is in the northwest of the continent, in the region of Eriador and the Kingdom of Arnor.

<i>The Road to Middle-Earth</i> Book of literary criticism of Tolkien

The Road to Middle-earth: How J. R. R. Tolkien Created a New Mythology is a scholarly study of the Middle-earth works of J. R. R. Tolkien written by Tom Shippey and first published in 1982. The book discusses Tolkien's philology, and then examines in turn the origins of The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, and his minor works. An appendix discusses Tolkien's many sources. Two further editions extended and updated the work, including a discussion of Peter Jackson's film version of The Lord of the Rings.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">England in Middle-earth</span> Theme of England and Englishness in Tolkiens Middle-earth

England and Englishness are represented in multiple forms within J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth writings; it appears, more or less thinly disguised, in the form of the Shire and the lands close to it; in kindly characters such as Treebeard, Faramir, and Théoden; in its industrialised state as Isengard and Mordor; and as Anglo-Saxon England in Rohan. Lastly, and most pervasively, Englishness appears in the words and behaviour of the hobbits, both in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Richard C. West</span> American librarian and Tolkien scholar (1944–2020)

Richard Carroll West was an American librarian and one of the first Tolkien scholars. He is best known for his 1975 essay on the interlace structure of The Lord of the Rings, for which he won the 1976 Mythopoeic Scholarship Award for Inkling Studies.

J. R. R. Tolkien, a fantasy author and professional philologist, drew on the Old English poem Beowulf for multiple aspects of his Middle-earth legendarium, alongside other influences. He used elements such as names, monsters, and the structure of society in a heroic age. He emulated its style, creating an impression of depth and adopting an elegiac tone. Tolkien admired the way that Beowulf, written by a Christian looking back at a pagan past, just as he was, embodied a "large symbolism" without ever becoming allegorical. He worked to echo the symbolism of life's road and individual heroism in The Lord of the Rings.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tolkien and the medieval</span>

J. R. R. Tolkien was attracted to medieval literature, especially poetry, and made use of it in his writings both in his poetry, which contained numerous pastiches of medieval verse, and in his Middle-earth writings where he embodied a wide range of medieval concepts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paganism in Middle-earth</span> Paganism in the literature of Tolkien

Despite J. R. R. Tolkien's assertion that The Lord of the Rings was a fundamentally Christian work, paganism appears in that book and elsewhere in his fictional world of Middle-earth in multiple ways. These include a pantheon of god-like beings, the Valar, who function like the Norse gods, the Æsir; the person of the wizard Gandalf, who Tolkien stated in a letter is an "Odinic wanderer"; Elbereth, the Elves' "Queen of the Stars", associated with Venus; animism, the way that the natural world seems to be alive; and a Beowulf-like "northern courage" which is determined to press on, no matter how bleak the outlook.

Between 1954 and the start of the 21st century, there was intense literary hostility to J. R. R. Tolkien, directed especially to his bestselling work The Lord of the Rings.

<i>Tolkiens Art: A Mythology for England</i> 1979 book by Jane Chance

Tolkien's Art: 'A Mythology for England' is a 1979 book of Tolkien scholarship by Jane Chance, writing then as Jane Chance Nitzsche. The book looks in turn at Tolkien's essays "On Fairy-Stories" and "Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics"; The Hobbit; the fairy-stories "Leaf by Niggle" and "Smith of Wootton Major"; the minor works "Lay of Autrou and Itroun", "The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth", "Imram", and Farmer Giles of Ham; The Lord of the Rings; and very briefly in the concluding section, The Silmarillion. In 2001, a second edition extended all the chapters but still treated The Silmarillion, that Tolkien worked on throughout his life, as a sort of coda.


  1. 1 2 3 Clute, John (12 August 2013). "Shippey, Tom". The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (3rd online ed.). Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Houghton, John Wm.; Croft, Janet Brennan, eds. (2014). Tolkien in the New Century: Essays in Honor of Tom Shippey. McFarland. pp. 1–5, 11–15. ISBN   978-1-4766-1486-1 . Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  3. 1 2 Nagy, Gergely (2005). "The Road to Middle-earth, Revised and Expanded Edition (review)". Tolkien Studies. 2 (1): 258–261. doi:10.1353/tks.2005.0026. S2CID   170416664.
  4. 1 2 "Mythopoeic Scholarship Award for Inkling Studies 1984". Mythopoeic Society . Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  5. 1 2 "Mythopoeic Scholarship Award for Inkling Studies 2001". Mythopoeic Society . Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  6. 1 2 "Mythopoeic Awards Acceptance Remarks – 2008". Mythopoeic Society . Retrieved 23 August 2022.
  7. 1 2 "World Fantasy Awards. Special Award, Professional Winner 2001" . Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  8. 1 2 Hanley, Paul (8 February 2008). "Let us introduce you to ... Thomas Shippey, PhD". The University News.
  9. 1 2 3 "Shippey, T(homas) A(lan) 1943-". Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Shippey, Tom (2005) [1982]. The Road to Middle-Earth (Third ed.). HarperCollins. Preface to the Third Edition, pages xvii–xxi. ISBN   978-0-261-10275-0.
  11. 1 2 3 White, Claire E. "Talking Tolkien With Thomas Shippey". The Internet Writing Journal. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Shippey, Tom (2020). "Personal Statement" (PDF). Saint Louis University . Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  13. Hickes, Martin (10 September 2010). "JRR Tolkien and his overlooked connections with Leeds". The Guardian .
  14. "Tom Shippey". Signum University . Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  15. Haarder, Andreas; Shippey, Tom, eds. (15 August 2005). Beowulf. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203979457. ISBN   978-1-134-97094-0.
  16. Shippey, Tom; Arnold, Martin, eds. (2005). Studies in Medievalism (XIV). Cambridge: D. S. Brewer. ISBN   978-1843840633.
  17. Williamson, Craig, ed. (2013). Beowulf and Other Old English Poems. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN   978-0812222753.
  18. Shippey, Tom (1993). "Principles of Conversation in Beowulf". In Fox, Gwyneth; Hoey, Michael; Sinclair, John M. (eds.). Techniques of Description. London: Routledge. ISBN   9780203168097.
  19. "Wicked queens and cousin strategies in Beowulf and elsewhere [Citations]". Google Scholar. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  20. Shippey, Tom (2001). "Wicked Queens and Cousin Strategies in Beowulf and Elsewhere". Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  21. Shippey, Tom (1997). "Alternate Historians: Newt, Kingers, Harry, And Me". Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts . 8 (1): 15–33. JSTOR   43308277.
  22. Shippey, Tom (2012). "Historical Fiction and the Post‐Imperial Arthur". In Fulton, Helen (ed.). A Companion to Arthurian Literature. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN   9781405157896.
  23. 1 2 Lönnroth, Lars (2019). "Laughing Shall I Die. Lives and Deaths of the Great Vikings by Tom Shippey". Saga-Book. 43: 158–160. JSTOR   48617225.
  24. "Tom Shippey". LinkedIn . Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  25. "Index to Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections: Stories, Listed by Author". Archived from the original on 18 May 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2022. ALLEN, TOM; pseudonym of Tom Shippey, (1943- ) (chron.)
  26. "William G. Contento, Index to Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections". 18 March 2015. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018.
  27. Harrison, Harry (2014). Harry Harrison! Harry Harrison! : it seemed like a good idea at the time. Tor, A Tom Doherty Associates Book. West of Eden. ISBN   978-0-7653-3308-7. OCLC   889324087.
  28. 1 2 3 "Shippey's WSJ reviews".
  29. Blish, James (2009). Shippey, Tom (ed.). Flights of Eagles (1st ed.). NESFA Press. ISBN   978-1-886778-86-3.
  30. 1 2 Shippey, Tom (2005) [1982]. The Road to Middle-Earth (Third ed.). HarperCollins. p. 74, footnote. ISBN   978-0-261-10275-0.
  31. Shippey, Tom (2005) [1982]. The Road to Middle-Earth (Third ed.). HarperCollins. ch. 9 "The Course of Actual Composition". ISBN   978-0-261-10275-0.
  32. Shippey, Tom (2005) [1982]. The Road to Middle-Earth (Third ed.). HarperCollins. pp. 100–101, 371, 374–375. ISBN   978-0-261-10275-0.
  33. Yates, Jessica (1984). "The Road Goes Ever On". Mythlore . 9 (4). article 15.
  34. GoodKnight, Glen (1993). "The Road Goes Ever On". Mythlore . 19 (3). article 14.
  35. "Tom Shippey". Google Scholar. Retrieved 28 May 2022.
  36. "Tolkien Remembered". Mace Archive. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  37. "J.R.R.T.: A Film Portrait of J.R.R. Tolkien (1996)". What Is My Movie. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  38. Dixon, Greg (29 November 2001). "'Rings' master's accidental circus". The New Zealand Herald . Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  39. Thompson, Kristin (2007). The Frodo Franchise: The Lord of the Rings and Modern Hollywood. University of California Press. p. 118. ISBN   9780520258136.
  40. "J.R.R. Tolkien: Origins of Middle-Earth (2003)". Movie Films. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  41. "Transcript of chat session with Pr. Tom Shippey during The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrun Online Release Party (09.05.09) – comments (1)". Tolkien Library. Pieter Collier.
  42. Shippey, Tom (8 July 2014). "Tolkien Book to Jackson Script: The Medium and the Message". Swarthmore College . Retrieved 25 November 2021.
  43. "Tom Shippey". Google Scholar. Retrieved 24 June 2022.