Tibetan cuisine includes the culinary traditions and practices and its peoples. The cuisine reflects the Tibetan landscape of mountains and plateaus and includes influences from neighbours (including India and Nepal where many Tibetans abide). It is known for its use of noodles, goat, yak, mutton, dumplings, cheese (often from yak or goat milk), butter, yoghurt (also from animals adapted to the Tibetan climate) and soups. Vegetarianism has been debated by religious practitioners since the 11th century, but is not prevalent due to the difficulty of growing vegetables, and cultural traditions promoting consumption of meat.
Crops must be able to grow at high altitudes, although a few areas are at low enough altitude to grow crops such as rice, oranges, bananas and lemons.The most important crop is barley. Flour milled from roasted barley, called tsampa , is the staple food of Tibet, as well as Sha phaley (meat and cabbage in bread). Balep is Tibetan bread eaten for breakfast and lunch. Various other types of balep bread and fried pies are consumed. Thukpa is a dinner staple consisting of vegetables, meat and noodles of various shapes in broth. Tibetan cuisine is traditionally served with bamboo chopsticks, in contrast to other Himalayan cuisines, which are eaten by hand. Mustard seeds are cultivated and feature heavily in its cuisine.
Outside of Tibet, Tibetan cuisine is consumed in the Indian states of Ladakh, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh, northern regions of Nepal such as Mustang and by Tibetan diaspora communities.
In larger Tibetan towns and cities, many restaurants now serve Sichuan-style Han Chinese food. Western imports and fusion dishes, such as fried yak and chips, are also popular. Nevertheless, many small restaurants serving traditional Tibetan dishes persist in both cities and the countryside.
Tibetans use pots, pans, cans, steamer pots and boxes made from various materials. Tibetan women carry large wooden containers, which can hold up to 25 liters, to fetch water once a day. Returning to the house, they pour the water into built-in copper cans that hold more than 100 liters. Cooking pots made from iron or brass are used on the stove. Traditionally, pans were used rarely, but are becoming increasingly popular. Wooden boxes are used to store tsampa, butter and cheese. Tibetans use elaborately woven baskets with matching lids to store dried fruits, rice and sugar. When travelling, they use the baskets to store dried meat and cheese. In Southern Tibet, mortars are indispensable for crushing chilis.
Tibetan dinnerware is traditionally made from wood, but sometimes lacquered clay is used. According to local tradition, this handicraft was passed down for generations. Those who could afford to do so purchased high-quality porcelain bowls from elsewhere. In more modern times, other types of porcelain from China or elsewhere are used. Similarly, chopsticks were made by the family or imported from the forested regions in the south. The nobility used ivory chopsticks with silver ornaments. Spoons are indispensable for most dishes. Poor people and children wore them around their necks to allow constant and easy access. Knives are sometimes used to eat fruits. Tibetans also use small soup bowls, while the rich used bowls of gold and silver.
Teacups are sometimes carried in the abdominal fold of the Chuba, a traditional costume. Wooden teacups made from dzabija wood are considered especially fine. They have a smooth surface, an impressive grain pattern and are made with a balanced form, which relates to the composition of the raw wood. They are comfortable to hold. The cups are costly and most cannot afford them. Lavish teacups often have a layer of silver inside, which is intended to make them easier to clean. The nobility and high lamas used stands and tops that were intricately ornamented with mythological motifs. The tops are used to preserve the scent of the tea. The most precious cups shipped from other provinces are made from white jade. They have no handles. The best teacups are made from metal or silver, which are used only for guests and on festival days. The silversmiths from Derge are known for their exquisite tea sets. Teapots are typically made from wood or clay, while the better ones are made from lavishly ornamented metals such as copper or brass.
The Dongmo is a tea-mixing cylinder used for making Tibetan butter tea. It usually has a volume of around 4 litres and is made from wood ornamented with brass. A whisk is placed in a hole on the top of the Dongmo and, with 15-20 vertical movements, the butter tea emulsifies.
Tibetan monks are self-sufficient.They cook for themselves and raise money by praying for farmers and nomads or by performing rituals for the well being of families. In monastery kitchens, large pots are used to make soups. During breaks in religious studies, the monks are served tea and soup. Novice monks walk through the rows and pour tea from richly decorated teapots.
Friendliness, hospitality, generosity and selflessness, derived from the principles of Tibetan Buddhism, are the basis of local etiquette. Behaviour which is egocentric or egoistic is regarded as inappropriate, and helping/supporting others is idealized. Combined with their belief in Karma - that everything that happens in life has a source in actions committed in the past - they easily process a loss, sickness or great misfortune as they believe this relieves them from the effects of past actions.
Guests witness this attitude. Upon arriving, a guest receives a Khata - a white silk scarf - that symbolizes joy for the visit and reverence for the guest. After entering, a guest's comfort and well-being is cared for in every way, including cooking. The guest may be offered tea, but instead of accepting immediately, the guest is culturally expected to politely decline - the guest too has to be exemplary. Without hesitating, the host (customarily the woman of the house) immediately serves the tea. The host pours and hands over the cup with both hands as a sign of respect. In common protocol, the guest only takes a small sip before putting the cup down. The host will fill up the cup and ask the guest to drink again. This is repeated two more times before the guest empties the cup slowly. If the guest leaves the cup filled without drinking, this is regarded as a signal of contentment. Without asking, the cup will be taken away and the guest will often be offered Chang (barley beer). At the table, expectations are that individuals sit cross-legged, and it is considered impolite to stretch one's legs. In addition, one should never pass over body parts of another.[ citation needed ] Pastries may be served with tea. Offered a meal, the guest may politely refuse at first. Upon subsequent offering, the host may find out what the guest wants.
The goal of every host is to create a relaxed atmosphere and to give joy and pleasure.
Other Tibetan foods include:
Tibetan cheeses, yogurt and butter are staples. Varieties include soft cheese curds resembling cottage cheese made from buttermilk called chura loenpa (or ser).Hard cheese is called chura kampo. Extra hard cheese, made from solidified yogurt, is called chhurpi, and is also found in Sikkim and Nepal. Another type of cheese called shosha or churul, with a flavor said to resemble Limburger is also eaten. It is made from cream and the skin of milk.
Most Tibetans drink many cups of yak butter tea daily[ citation needed ]. Jasmine tea is also sometimes available.
Brick tea is made by methods only distantly related to those employed in China or Sri Lanka (Ceylon). When the water boils, a great handful of the stuff is crumbled into it and allowed to stew for between five and ten minutes, until the whole infusion is so opaque that it looks almost black. At this stage a pinch of salt is added; the Tibetans always put salt, never sugar, in their tea. I have been told that they sometimes add a little soda, in order to give the beverage a pinkish tinge, but I never saw this done in Sikang. They very seldom, on the other hand, drink tea without butter in it. If you are at home, you empty the saucepan into a big wooden churn, straining the tea through a colander made of reed or horsehair. Then you drop a large lump of butter into it, and, after being vigorously stirred, this brew is transferred to a huge copper teapot and put on a brazier to keep it hot. When you are traveling, you do not normally take a churn with you, so everyone fills his wooden bowl with tea, scoops a piece of butter out of a basket, puts it in the bowl, stirs the mixture gently with his finger, and, finally, drinks the tea.
Butter tea is the national beverage. It is ideal in the extreme climatic and geographical conditions of the Tibetan plateau due to its high butter content.[ citation needed ]
Although butter tea is the most popular tea, black tea is also fairly popular.
Jasmine grows in Eastern Tibet. Most likely, Tibetans took absorbed jasmine tea from the Han Chinese cultural sphere.
Spice tea is very popular among exiles who live in India and Nepal. It is almost unknown in Tibet. Most likely, it was adopted from Indian culture.
Dara is the Tibetan word for buttermilk. It refers to the yogurt drink. It is also used for Indian Lassi.
Traditionally, Tibetan Buddhism prohibited the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Beer mostly from barley, but rice, wheat, maize, oats and millet are also used in brewing. Chang is consumed through a thin bamboo straw.
Alcoholic beverages include:
Barley has been a staple food since the fifth century AD.It is made into a flour product called tsampa which is still a staple. The flour is roasted and mixed with butter and butter tea to form a stiff dough that is eaten in small balls.
Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern, Eastern European, Armenian and Balkan cuisines. Turkish cuisine has in turn influenced those and other neighbouring cuisines, including those of Southeast Europe (Balkans), Central Europe, and Western Europe. The Ottomans fused various culinary traditions of their realm with influences from Levantine cuisines, along with traditional Turkic elements from Central Asia, creating a vast array of specialities.
Hungarian or Magyar cuisine is the cuisine characteristic of the nation of Hungary and its primary ethnic group, the Magyars. Traditional Hungarian dishes are primarily based on meats, seasonal vegetables, fruits, fresh bread, dairy products and cheeses.
Tsampa or Tsamba is a Tibetan and Himalayan staple foodstuff, particularly prominent in the central part of the region. It is roasted flour, usually barley flour and sometimes also wheat flour. It is usually mixed with the salty Tibetan butter tea. It is also eaten in Turkestan and Mongolia, where it is known as zamba.
Momo is a type of East and South Asian steamed filled dumpling, popular across the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayan regions of East-South Asia border. Momos are native to Southwest Chinese region of Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, North Indian region of Ladakh, Northeast Indian regions of Sikkim, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh, and East Indian region of Darjeeling. It is similar to Chinese baozi, jiaozi, and mantou, Mongolian buuz, Japanese gyoza, Korean mandu and Turkic manti, but heavily influenced by cuisine of the Indian subcontinent with Indian spices and herbs. Momos are extremely popular among the natives of the Indian subcontinent, and can be found in every kind of shop from restaurants to street vendors.
Slovak cuisine varies slightly from region to region across Slovakia. It was influenced by the traditional cuisine of its neighbours and it influenced them as well. The origins of traditional Slovak cuisine can be traced to times when the majority of the population lived self-sufficiently in villages, with very limited food imports and exports and with no modern means of food preservation or processing.
Tibet developed a distinct culture due to its geographic and climatic conditions. While influenced by neighboring cultures from China, India, and Nepal, the Himalayan region's remoteness and inaccessibility have preserved distinct local influences, and stimulated the development of its distinct culture.
Butter tea, also known as po cha, cha süma, Mandarin Chinese: sūyóu chá (酥油茶) or gur gur cha in the Ladakhi language, is a drink of the people in the Himalayan regions of Nepal, Bhutan, India and Tibet and other Western regions of modern-day People's Republic of China. Butter tea probably originated in the Himalayan region between Greater Tibet and the Indian subcontinent.
Assyrian cuisine is the cuisine of the indigenous ethnic Assyrian people, Eastern Aramaic-speaking Syriac Christians of Iraq, northeastern Syria, northwestern Iran and southeastern Turkey. Assyrian cuisine is primarily identical to Iraqi/Mesopotamian cuisine, as well as being very similar to other Middle Eastern and Caucasian cuisines, as well as Greek cuisine, Levantine cuisine, Turkish cuisine, Iranian cuisine, Israeli cuisine, and Armenian cuisine, with most dishes being similar to the cuisines of the area in which those Assyrians live/originate from. It is rich in grains such as barley, meat, tomato, herbs, spices, cheese, and potato as well as herbs, fermented dairy products, and pickles.
Mongolian cuisine predominantly consists of dairy products, meat, and animal fats. The most common rural dish is cooked mutton. In the city, steamed dumplings filled with meat—"buuz"— are popular.
Nepali/Nepalese cuisine comprises a variety of cuisines based upon ethnicity, soil and climate relating to Nepal's cultural diversity and geography. Dal-bhat-tarkari is eaten throughout Nepal. Dal is a soup made of lentils and spices, served over boiled grain, bhat—usually rice but sometimes another grain - and a vegetable curry, tarkari. Condiments are usually small amounts of spicy pickle which can be fresh or fermented, (mainly of dried spinach called as 'gundruk ko achar' and radish known as 'mula ko achar', and of which there are a considerable number of varieties. Other accompaniments may be sliced lemon or lime with fresh green chilli and a fried papad. Dhindo is a traditional food of Nepal.
Bhutanese cuisine employs much red rice, buckwheat, and increasingly maize. Buckwheat is eaten mainly in Bumthang, maize in the Eastern districts, and rice elsewhere. The diet in the hills also includes chicken, yak meat, dried beef, pork, pork fat, and lamb. Soups and stews of meat, rice, ferns, lentils, and dried vegetables, spiced with chili peppers and cheese, are a favorite meal during the cold seasons. Zow shungo is a rice dish mixed with leftover vegetables. Ema datshi is a spicy dish made with large, green chili peppers in a cheesy sauce, which might be called the national dish for its ubiquity and the pride that Bhutanese have for it. Other foods include jasha maru, phaksha paa, thukpa, bathup, and fried rice. Cheese made from cow's milk called datshi is never eaten raw, but used to make sauces. Zoedoe is another type of cheese made in the Eastern districts, which is added to soups. Zoedoe is normally greenish in color and has a strong smell. Other types of cheese include Western types like Cheddar and Gouda. Western cheese is made in the Swiss Cheese Factory in Bumthang or imported from India.
Tajik cuisine is a traditional cuisine of Tajikistan, and has much in common with Russian, Afghan, Iranian and Uzbek cuisines. Plov (pilaf), also called osh, is the national dish in Tajikistan, as in other countries in the region. Green tea is the national drink.
Balep korkun is a type of bread that is consumed mainly in central Tibet. It is round, flat and relatively easy to make. The ingredients are tsampa, water and baking powder. It is cooked in a frying pan. It has been described as similar in appearance to naan.
Yak butter/ "Dri Butter" འབྲི་མར། is butter made from the milk of the domesticated yak known as Dri འབྲི།. It is a staple food item and trade item for herding communities in south Central Asia and the Tibetan Plateau. Many different political entities have communities of herders who produce and consume yak's dairy products including cheese and butter – for example, China, India, Mongolia, Nepal, and Tibet.
Chitrali cuisine refers to the food and cuisine of the Chitrali people from the northern region of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and the bordering Nuristan province in Afghanistan. Chitrali food has a regional variance in contrast to many other cuisines of Pakistan. The food of Chitral is very similar to the cuisine in neighboring Gilgit-Baltistan.
In comparison with the more French-influenced Baden cuisine, Swabian cuisine is rather simple and rustic. It is native to Swabia, which comprises great parts of Wurttemberg and the Bavarian part of Swabia, as well as the Allgäu which has parts lying in Austria.
Tsam-thuk is a type of Tibetan cuisine soup that uses yak or sheep soup stock and tsampa as well as a variety of Tibetan cheeses. It can be served at room temperature.
Thukpa bhatuk is a common Tibetan cuisine noodle soup that includes small bhasta noodles. This dish is a common soup made in the winter but is especially important for Tibetan New Year. On Nyi-Shu-Gu, the eve of Losar, the common Tibetan soup, Thukpa bhatuk is made with special ingredients to form Guthuk. Guthuk is then eaten on Losar to symbolise getting rid of negativities of the past year and invite positives into the new year.
Dumpling is a broad classification for a dish that consists of pieces of dough wrapped around a filling, or of dough with no filling. The dough can be based on bread, flour or potatoes, and may be filled with meat, fish, cheese, vegetables, fruits or sweets. Dumplings may be prepared using a variety of methods, including baking, boiling, frying, simmering or steaming and are found in many world cuisines.