Greek cuisine

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Traditional Greek taverna, an integral part of Greek culture and cuisine Naxos Taverna.jpg
Traditional Greek taverna, an integral part of Greek culture and cuisine

Greek cuisine (Greek : Ελληνική κουζίνα, romanized: Elliniki kouzina) is a Mediterranean cuisine. [1] Contemporary Greek cookery makes wide use of vegetables, olive oil, grains, fish, wine (white and red), and meat (including lamb, poultry, veal, beef, rabbit, and pork). Other important ingredients include olives, pasta (especially hilopites, a kind of pasta similar to tagliatelle), cheese, lemon juice, herbs, bread, and yogurt. The most commonly used grain is wheat; barley is also used. Common dessert ingredients include nuts, honey, fruits, and filo pastries. It is strongly influenced by Ottoman cuisine and thus, (especially the cuisine of Anatolian Greeks), shares foods such as baklava, tzatziki, moussaka, dolmades, yuvarlakia and keftedes with Turkey and the neighboring countries. It is also influenced by Italian cuisine and cuisines from the northern countries. Additionally, in specific regions it includes several kinds of pasta, like hilopites, goglies (goges) etc

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet. The conventions for writing and romanizing Ancient Greek and Modern Greek differ markedly, which can create confusion. The sound of the English letter B was written as β in ancient Greek but is now written as the digraph μπ, while the modern β sounds like the English letter V instead. The Greek name Ἰωάννης became Johannes in Latin and then John in English, but in Greek itself has instead become Γιάννης; this might be written as Yannis, Jani, Ioannis, Yiannis, or Giannis, but not Giannes or Giannēs as it would have been in ancient Greek. The masculine Greek word Ἅγιος or Άγιος might variously appear as Hagiοs, Agios, Aghios, or Ayios, or simply be translated as "Holy" or "Saint" in English forms of Greek placenames.

Mediterranean cuisine culinary traditions of the Mediterranean

Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region. The idea of a Mediterranean cuisine originates with the cookery writer Elizabeth David's book, A Book of Mediterranean Food (1950), though she wrote mainly about French cuisine. She and other writers including the Tunisian historian Mohamed Yassine Essid define the three core elements of the cuisine as the olive, wheat, and the grape, yielding olive oil, bread and pasta, and wine; other writers emphasize the diversity of the region's foods and deny that it is a useful concept. The geographical area covered broadly follows the distribution of the olive tree, as noted by David and Essid.

Contents

History

Fresh fish, one of the favourite dishes of the Greeks; platter with red figures, c. 350-325 BC, Louvre Fish plate Louvre K588.jpg
Fresh fish, one of the favourite dishes of the Greeks; platter with red figures, c. 350–325 BC, Louvre

Greek cuisine has a culinary tradition of some 4,000 years and is a part of the history and the culture of Greece. Its flavors change with the season and its geography. [2] Greek cookery, historically a forerunner of Western cuisine, spread its culinary influence, via ancient Rome, throughout Europe and beyond. [3] It has influences from the different people's cuisine the Greeks have interacted with over the centuries, as evidenced by several types of sweets and cooked foods.

History of Greece history of Greece

The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation state of Greece as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically. The scope of Greek habitation and rule has varied throughout the ages and as a result the history of Greece is similarly elastic in what it includes. Generally, the history of Greece is divided into the following periods:

Culture of Greece Culture of an area

The culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, beginning in Mycenaean Greece, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. Other cultures and states such as the Frankish states, the Ottoman Empire, the Venetian Republic and Bavarian and Danish monarchies have also left their influence on modern Greek culture, but historians credit the Greek War of Independence with revitalising Greece and giving birth to a single entity of its multi-faceted culture.

Ancient Greek cuisine was characterized by its frugality and was founded on the "Mediterranean triad": wheat, olive oil, and wine, with meat being rarely eaten and fish being more common. [4] This trend in Greek diet continued in Roman and Ottoman times and changed only fairly recently when technological progress has made meat more available. Wine and olive oil have always been a central part of it and the spread of grapes and olive trees in the Mediterranean and further afield is correlated with Greek colonization. [5] [6]

Ancient Greek cuisine was characterized by its frugality for most, reflecting agricultural hardship, but a great diversity of ingredients was known, and wealthy Greeks were known to celebrate with elaborate meals and feasts. The cuisine was founded on the "Mediterranean triad" of cereals, olives, and grapes, which had many uses and great commercial value, but other ingredients were as important, if not more so, to the average diet: most notably legumes. Research suggests that the agricultural system of Ancient Greece could not have succeeded without the cultivation of legumes.

Wheat Cereal grain

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat.

Olive oil liquid fat extracted by pressing olives

Olive oil is a liquid obtained from olives, a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. The oil is produced by pressing whole olives. It is commonly used in cooking, whether for frying or as a salad dressing. It is also used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps, and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps, and has additional uses in some religions. There is limited evidence of its possible health benefits. The olive is one of three core food plants in Mediterranean cuisine; the other two are wheat and grapes. Olive trees have been grown around the Mediterranean since the 8th millennium BC.

Byzantine cuisine was similar to the classical cuisine, with the addition of new ingredients, such as caviar, nutmeg and basil. Lemons, prominent in Greek cuisine and introduced in the second century, were used medicinally before being incorporated into the diet. Fish continued to be an integral part of the diet for coastal dwellers. Culinary advice was influenced by the theory of humors, first put forth by the ancient Greek doctor Claudius Aelius Galenus. [7] Byzantine cuisine benefited from Constantinople’s position as a global hub of the spice trade. [8] Djrhdjfj

Byzantine cuisine

Byzantine cuisine was marked by a merger of Greek and Roman gastronomy. The development of the Byzantine Empire and trade brought in spices, sugar and new vegetables to Greece.

Galen Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher

Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus, often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic.

Overview

Greek olive oil Cloudy olive oil1.jpg
Greek olive oil
Dried oregano for culinary use Oregano-spice.jpg
Dried oregano for culinary use

The most characteristic and ancient element of Greek cuisine is olive oil, which is used in most dishes. It is produced from the olive trees prominent throughout the region, and adds to the distinctive taste of Greek food. The olives themselves are also widely eaten. The basic grain in Greece is wheat, though barley is also grown. Important vegetables include tomato, aubergine (eggplant), potato, green beans, okra, green peppers, and onions. Honey in Greece is mainly honey from the nectar of fruit trees and citrus trees: lemon, orange, bigarade (bitter orange) trees, thyme honey, and pine honey. Mastic (aromatic, ivory-coloured resin) is grown on the Aegean island of Chios.

Tomato Edible berry of the tomato plant, originating in South America

The tomato is the edible, often red, berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant. The species originated in western South America and Central America. The Nahuatl word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word tomate, from which the English word tomato derived. Its domestication and use as a cultivated food may have originated with the indigenous peoples of Mexico. The Aztecs used tomatoes in their cooking at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, and after the Spanish encountered the tomato for the first time after their contact with the Aztecs, they brought the plant to Europe. From there, the tomato was introduced to other parts of the European-colonized world during the 16th century.

Eggplant plant species Solanum melongena

Eggplant, aubergine (UK), or brinjal is a plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit.

Potato plant species producing the tuber used as a staple food

The potato is a root vegetable, a starchy tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum, and the plant itself, a perennial in the family Solanaceae, native to the Americas.

Greek cuisine uses some flavorings more often than other Mediterranean cuisines do, namely oregano, mint, garlic, onion, dill and bay laurel leaves. Other common herbs and spices include basil, thyme and fennel seed. Parsley is also used as a garnish on some dishes. Many Greek recipes, especially in the northern parts of the country, use "sweet" spices in combination with meat, for example cinnamon, allspice and cloves in stews.

Oregano Perennial herb

Oregano is a flowering plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae). It is native to temperate Western and Southwestern Eurasia and the Mediterranean region.

<i>Mentha</i> genus of plants

Mentha is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae. The exact distinction between species is unclear; it is estimated that 13 to 24 species exist. Hybridization occurs naturally where some species range overlap. Many hybrids and cultivars are known.

Garlic species of plant

Garlic is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and Chinese onion.

The climate and terrain has tended to favour the breeding of goats and sheep over cattle, and thus beef dishes are uncommon. Fish dishes are common in coastal regions and on the islands. A great variety of cheese types are used in Greek cuisine, including Feta , Kasseri , Kefalotyri , Graviera , Anthotyros , Manouri , Metsovone , Ladotyri (cheese with olive oil), Kalathaki (a specialty from the island of Limnos), Katiki-Tsalafouti (both creamy cheeses, suitable for spreads) and Mizithra .

Too much refinement is generally considered to be against the hearty spirit of the Greek cuisine, though recent trends among Greek culinary circles tend to favour a somewhat more refined approach.

Dining out is common in Greece, and has been for quite some time. The Taverna and Estiatorio are widespread, serving home cooking at affordable prices to both locals and tourists. Recently, fast food has become more widespread, with local chains such as Goody's springing up, though most McDonald's have closed. [9] Locals still largely eat Greek cuisine. [10] In addition, some traditional Greek foods, especially souvlaki, gyros, pita such as tyropita and spanakopita (respectively, cheese and spinach pie) are often served in fast food style.

Origins

Kalamata olives Kalamataolives.jpg
Kalamata olives
Thyme, one of the most traditional Greek herbs, was mentioned in the Odyssey. Thymus vulgaris.jpg
Thyme, one of the most traditional Greek herbs, was mentioned in the Odyssey.

Greece has an ancient culinary tradition dating back several millennia, and over the centuries Greek cuisine has evolved and absorbed numerous influences and influenced many cuisines itself.

Some dishes can be traced back to ancient Greece: lentil soup, fasolada, retsina (white or rosé wine flavored with pine resin) and pasteli (candy bar with sesame seeds baked with honey); some to the Hellenistic and Roman periods: loukaniko (dried pork sausage); and Byzantium: feta cheese, avgotaraho (cured fish roe) and paximadi (traditional hard bread baked from wheat, barley and rye). There are also many ancient and Byzantine dishes which are no longer consumed: porridge as the main staple, fish sauce, and salt water mixed into wine.

Many dishes entered during the Ottoman era from the Levant and other near-eastern staples, especially these that came to prominence and as broader consumption in Ottoman cuisine namely: moussaka (of Arabian origin), tzatziki, yuvarlakia, kofta, boureki, baklava and more.

The Ottoman Empire having its origins from pastoral nomads in the Eurasian and middle eastern steppe, were largely consigned to diets of minced meats and cheeses with little to no grain as evident with Adana style kofta and other traditionally Turkish staples from the Eurasian steppe.

Regions

Koukouvagia.jpg
Tsigaridia.JPG
Examples of regional cuisine: "Dakos", traditional Cretan salad (left) and "Tsigaridia", traditional Cephalonian dish (right)

Distinct from the mainstream regional cuisines are:

Typical dishes

Greek cuisine is very diverse and although there are many common characteristics amongst the culinary traditions of different regions within the country, there are also many differences, making it difficult to present a full list of representative dishes. For example, the vegetarian dish "Chaniotiko Boureki" (oven baked slices of potatoes with zucchini, myzithra cheese and mint) is a typical dish in western Crete, in the region of Chania. A family in Chania may consume this dish 1-2 times per week in the summer season. However, it is not cooked in any other region of Greece. Many food items are wrapped in Filo pastry, either in bite-size triangles or in large sheets: kotopita (chicken pie), spanakotyropita (spinach and cheese pie), chortopita (greens pie), kreatopita (meat pie, using minced meat), kolokythopita (zucchini pie) etc. The Greeks do with filo what the Italians do with pizza; They have countless variations of pitas (savory pies). Even the word pita was originally spelled πίττα (pitta), which shows a similarity to pizza. The areas with the largest tradition of making Greek pitas are the North-Western (Epirus) and Central Greece (also called Roumeli). Also, a big part of the Greek Cuisine are seeds and nuts. Seeds and nuts are included in everything from pastry to main dishes. [11]

The list will present some of the most representative Greek dishes that can be found throughout the country and the most famous of the local ones:

Breads

Lagana, a type of bread Lagana (lagana) (cropped).jpg
Lagana, a type of bread

Appetizers and salads

Meze or orektikó (appetizer; plural mezedes/orektika) is served in restaurants called mezedopoleía, served to complement drinks, and in similar establishments known as tsipourádika or ouzerí (a type of café that serves drinks such as ouzo or tsipouro). A tavérna (tavern) or estiatório (restaurant) also offers a meze as an orektikó (appetiser). Many restaurants offer their house pikilía (variety) a platter with various mezedes that can be served immediately to customers looking for a quick or light meal. Hosts commonly serve mezedes to their guests at informal or impromptu get-togethers as they are easy to prepare on short notice. Krasomezédhes (literally "wine-meze") are mezedes that go well with wine; ouzomezédhes are mezedes that go with ouzo.

Also, several pitas found all over Greece, such as Kolokythopita , Hortopita, Mizithropita (Crete), Melintzanopita, Kimadopita, Kotopita, Kreatopita (meat pie), Galatopita, Marathopita, Malathropita (Chios), Manitaropita, Fanouropita , Sikopita , Tahinopita .

Soups

Fasolada soup Fasolada.JPG
Fasolada soup

Vegetarian main dishes

Spanakorizo Spanakorizo.jpg
Spanakorizo
Boiled wild greens Vrasta horta.jpg
Boiled wild greens
Florina peppers Peppers-pan-S-1024x976.jpg
Florina peppers

Very popular during fasting periods, such as the Great Lent:

Meat and seafood dishes

Quick meals/Pasta

Meals easily available with inexpensive ingredients and little preparation involved.

Desserts and sweets

Melomakarona Melomakarona.jpg
Melomakarona
Diples are made on an iron mould dipped in batter and cooked in oil. Greek diples.jpg
Diples are made on an iron mould dipped in batter and cooked in oil.
Melitinia cookies, from Santorini Paskhalina Melitinia (Melitinia).jpg
Melitinia cookies, from Santorini
Preparation of custard bougatsa in an Athens cafe.

Cheeses

Feta cheese Cheese 14 bg 050306.jpg
Feta cheese
Mizithra Homemade Mizithra.jpg
Mizithra
Ladotyri Ladoturi 7719.jpg
Ladotyri

There is a wide variety of cheeses made in various regions across Greece. The vast majority of them remain unknown outside the Greek borders due to the lack of knowledge and the highly localized distinctive features. Many artisanal, hand made cheeses, both common varieties and local specialties, are produced by small family farms throughout Greece and offer distinct flavors atypical of the mass-produced varieties found commercially in Greece and abroad. A good list of some of the varieties of cheese produced and consumed in Greece can be found here. These are some of the more popular throughout Greece:

Non-alcoholic beverages

There is a variety of non alcoholic beverages that are drunk in Greece even to this day.

Portokalada (orangeade) and Lemonada (lemonade), since 1971, these beverages were served everywhere, in homes, cafes, tavernas and restaurants. They were made with fresh strained orange juice or lemon juice either mixed with carbonated water or flat mineral water and you added sugar to taste. There were also bottled local versions. In 1989 on the island of Rhodes there were two companies that made and bottled their own portokalada and lemonada using local oranges, lemons and water. These beverages are still standards today, as of 2014, the difference being that most of the small local companies sold their businesses to the big companies like Fanta etc., thus, greatly changing the quality.

Visinada (cherryade) is made from dark cherry syrup (which was originally homemade) mixed with cold water.

Coffee

Frappe coffee Frappe (4547117210).jpg
Frappé coffee

The traditional coffeehouses in Greece are called kafenia , and they offer coffee, refreshments, alcoholic beverages and snacks or meze. In recent years, especially in the large urban centres, kafenia are gradually being replaced by modern "cafeterias". Preferred types of coffee are, among others, Turkish coffee, frappé (a foam-covered iced coffee drink), and iced cappuccino and espresso, named Freddo Cappuccino and Freddo Espresso, respectively. [16] Iced coffee-based drinks, such as freddoccino or freddito, are also popular in the summer.

Greece has the eighth highest per capita coffee consumption worldwide. [17]

Tea and herbal teas

  • Chamomile: chamomile tea
  • Mint tea: right out of the garden
  • Faskomilo (sage tea): tea made from dried or fresh sage
  • Tsai tou Vounou: tea from steeped mountain sage. To this day the Greeks still like to drink a tea made from steeping dried or fresh mountain sage
  • Sideritis

Alcoholic beverages

Wine

The origins of wine-making in Greece go back 6,500 years [18] [19] and evidence suggesting wine production confirm that Greece is home to the oldest known grape wine remnants discovered in the world [20] and the world’s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. [18] The spread of Greek civilization and their worship of Dionysus, the god of wine, spread Dionysian cults throughout the Mediterranean areas during the period of 1600 BC to the year 1 AD. [21] Greece's viticultural history goes back to prehistoric times, [lower-roman 1] and wine production was thriving until the 11th century. [22] After World War II, Greek winemakers imported and cultivated foreign grape varieties, especially French ones, in order to support local production. [23] In 1960s, retsina, a dry white wine with lumps of resin, was probably the most well-known Greek wine abroad. In recent years, local varieties are rediscovered and often blended with foreign ones. [24] In early 1980s, a system of appellations, modelled on the respective French one, was implemented to assure consumers the origins of their wine purchases. Today, there are 28 appellations (Appellations of Origin of Superior Quality and Controlled Appellation of Origin) throughout the country, from Macedonia to Crete. [25]

Beer

Advertisement for Fix beer, late 19th century Karolos fix.jpg
Advertisement for Fix beer, late 19th century

Archaeological and archaeochemical finds suggest that the Minoans fermented barley and other substances, and consumed some form of beer. [26] The beer tradition of the Minoans was discontinued by the Mycenaeans; beverages from fermented cereals may have remained only in Crete during their rule. [27] In Archaic and Classical Greece, beer is mentioned as a foreign beverage, while, when Alexander the Great conquered in 332 BC Egypt, a civilization with a long brewing tradition, the Greeks continued to disdain beer seeing it as the drink of their rivals. [28] In Modern Greece, a limited number of brands—owned by breweries from northern Europe in most cases (e.g. Heineken or Amstel)—dominated for many years the local market, while a stringent Bavarian-influenced beer purity law was in force. [29] Gradually, the provisions of this law loosened, and, since the late 1990s, new local brands emerged (in 1997 Mythos made a breakthrough) or re-emerged (e.g. Fix Hellas), reviving competition. In recent years, in parallel with the large breweries, local microbreweries operate throughout Greece. [30]

Other

Tentura.jpg
MastichatoDrink.jpg
Greek alcoholic beverages: Tentura (left) and Mastika (right).

Other traditional Greek alcoholic beverages include the anise-flavored ouzo, tsipouro (whose Cretan variation is called tsikoudia), rakomelo and local liquors, such as kumquat from Corfu, mastika (not to be confused with the homonymous anise-flavored Bulgarian drink), kitron, a citrus flavoured liquor from Naxos, souma from Chios, and tentura, a cinnamon flavored liquor from Patras.

A glass of Mavrodafni A glass of Mavrodaphne.JPG
A glass of Mavrodafni

Metaxa is a well-known brand of brandy blended with wine and flavorings. Local dessert and fortified wines include muscats (with the Muscat of Samos being the most well-known), mavrodafni, produced from a black grape indigenous to the Achaea region in Northern Peloponnese, and Vin Santo (Visanto) of Santorini, a variation of the Italian Vin Santo. [31]

See also

Notes

  1. Discoveries, such as a wine press at Palekastro in Crete, dated to the Mycenaean period, and references related to wine in Linear B tablets indicate that, at this period, wine was widely produced and consumed both on the Greek mainland and in the islands. [32]

Citations

  1. Spices and Seasonings:A Food Technology Handbook - Donna R. Tainter, Anthony T. Grenis, p. 223
  2. Armstrong, Kate; Hellander, Paul (2006). Lonely Planet Greece. Hawthorn, Vic., Australia: Lonely Planet Publications. p. 76. ISBN   1-74059-750-8.
  3. Mallos, Tess (1979). Greek Cookbook. Dee Why West, NSW., Australia: Summit Books. p. inside cover. ISBN   0-7271-0287-7.
  4. Renfrew, Colin (1972). The Emergence of Civilization; The Cyclades and the Aegean in the Third Millennium B.C. Taylor & Francis. p. 280.
  5. Katz, Solomon H.; McGovern, Patrick; Fleming, Stuart James (2000). Origins and Ancient History of Wine (Food and Nutrition in History and Anthropology). New York: Routledge. p. x. ISBN   90-5699-552-9.
  6. Wilson, Nigel Guy (2006). Encyclopedia of ancient Greece. New York: Routledge. p. 27. ISBN   0-415-97334-1.
  7. Civitello, Linda (2007). Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food and People. New York: Wiley. p. 67. ISBN   0-471-74172-8.
  8. Kiple, Kenneth F. (2007). A movable feast: ten millennia of food globalization . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 95. ISBN   0-521-79353-X.
  9. Τονια Τσακιρη. "Η Goody's νίκησε στον πόλεμο με τη McDonald's - οικονομικές ειδήσεις της ημέρας - Το Βήμα Online". Tovima.gr. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
  10. "When And How Greeks Eat". Ultimate Guide to Greek Food. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  11. Vasilopoulou, E., Dilis, V., & Trichopoulou, A. (2013). Nutrition claims: A potentially important tool for the endorsement of greek mediterranean traditional foods. Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 6(2), 105-111. doi:10.1007/s12349-013-0123-5
  12. Λεξικό της κοινής Νεοελληνικής, 1998
  13. "Gigantes/Yiyantes (Greek Giant Baked Beans)". Thursdayfordinner.com. 16 November 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
  14. Walsh, Robb (2015). The Chili Cookbook. Berkeley CA: Ten Speed Press. ISBN   1607747952.
  15. "Diples (Thiples) (Honey Rolls) Greek Dessert". Thursdayfordinner.com. 28 December 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
  16. Halevy (2011), 148149
  17. Jones, Lora (13 April 2018). "Coffee: Who grows, drinks and pays the most?". BBC News. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  18. 1 2 6,500-year-old Mashed Grapes Found in Greece Archived 8 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Discovery News (16 March 2007).
  19. 6,500-year-old Mashed grapes found. megalithic.co.uk (22 April 2007)
  20. 6500-year-old Mashed grapes found. dailyindia.com
  21. Jacobson, Jean L. (2006). "Berry to Bottle". Introduction to Wine Laboratory Practices and Procedures. Springer. p. 84. doi:10.1007/0-387-25120-0_4. ISBN   978-0-387-24377-1.
  22. Walton & Glover (2011), 124
  23. Walton & Glover (2011), 125
  24. Walton & Glover (2011), 125126
  25. Walton & Glover (2011), 125
    * "Appellation Wined of Greece" (in Greek). Greek Wine Federation. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
  26. Nelson (2005), 1315
    * Unwin (1996), 77
  27. Nelson (2005), 1315
  28. Nelson (2005), 1315
    * Oliver (2012), 437438
  29. Walton & Glover (2011), 323
  30. Karayanis & Karayanis (2008), 262
    * Walton & Glover (2011), 125126
  31. Walton & Glover (2011), 126, 402, 472, 493
  32. Unwin (1996), 77

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Levantine cuisine is the traditional cuisine of the Levant, known in Arabic as the Bilad al-Sham and Mashriq, which covers a large area of the Eastern Mediterranean. It continues to carry an influentially mainstream character in a majority of the dishes today. It is found in the modern states of Cyprus, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, Iraq, Palestine, Syria, Egypt, and parts of southern Turkey near Adana, Gaziantep, and Antakya. Conversely, some of the dishes listed below may have early origins in neighboring regions, but have long since become traditions in the Levant.

Assyrian cuisine Wikimedia list article

Assyrian cuisine is the cuisine of the indigenous ethnic Assyrian people, Eastern Aramaic-speaking Syriac Christians of Iraq, northeastern Syria, northwestern Iran and southeastern Turkey. Assyrian cuisine is primarily identical to Iraqi/Mesopotamian cuisine, as well as being very similar to other Middle Eastern and Caucasian cuisines, as well as Greek cuisine, Levantine cuisine, Turkish cuisine, Israeli cuisine, and Armenian cuisine, with most dishes being similar to the cuisines of the area in which those Assyrians live/originate from. It is rich in grains such as barley, meat, tomato, herbs, spices, cheese, and potato as well as herbs, fermented dairy products, and pickles. Alcohol, in particular wheat beer, organic wine, and arak, is also consumed.

Lebanese cuisine National Cuisine

Lebanese cuisine is a Levantine style of cooking that includes an abundance of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, starches, fresh fish and seafood; animal fats are consumed sparingly. Poultry is eaten more often than red meat, and when red meat is eaten, it is usually lamb on the coast, and goat meat in the mountain regions. It also includes copious amounts of garlic and olive oil, often seasoned by lemon juice. Chickpeas and parsley are also staples of the Lebanese diet.

Kurdish cuisine Wikimedia list article

Kurdish cuisine consists of a wide variety of foods prepared by the Kurdish people. There are cultural similarities of Kurds and their immediate neighbours in Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Syria, and Armenia. Some dishes, such as biryani, are shared with the Indian subcontinent. Kurdish food is typical of western Asian cuisine.

Macedonian cuisine is the cuisine of the region of Macedonia in northern Greece. Contemporary Greek Macedonian cooking shares much with general Greek and wider Balkan and Mediterranean cuisine, including dishes from the Ottoman past. Specific influences include dishes of the Pontic, Aromanian, Slavic, Armenian and Sephardi Jewish population. The mix of the different people inhabiting the region gave the name to the Macedonian salad.

Georgian cuisine cooking styles and dishes from the nation of Georgia

Georgian cuisine refers to the cooking styles and dishes created by the Georgians. The Georgian cuisine is unique to the country, but also carries some influences from other Caucasian, Eastern European and nearby Middle Eastern culinary traditions. Each historical province of Georgia has its own distinct culinary tradition, with variations such as Abkhazian, Megrelian, Kakhetian, Imeretian, Svanetian, Pshavian, Tushian, Kartlian, Gurian, Meskhian, Rachian and Adjarian cuisines. Rich with meat dishes, Georgian cuisine also offers a variety of vegetarian dishes.

Israeli cuisine Israeli cuisine

Israeli cuisine comprises both local dishes and dishes brought back to Israel by Jews from the Diaspora. Since before the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, and particularly since the late 1970s, an Israeli Jewish fusion cuisine has developed.

Tunisian cuisine

Tunisian cuisine, the cuisine of Tunisia, is a blend of Mediterranean and Berber cuisines. Its distinctive spiciness comes from the many civilizations which have ruled the land now known as Tunisia: Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Arabs, Spanish, Turkish, Italians (Sicilians), French, and the native Punics-Berber people. Many of the cooking styles and utensils began to take shape when the ancient tribes were nomads. Nomadic people were limited in their cooking implements by what pots and pans they could carry with them. The Tunisian tagine, is very different from the Algerian or Moroccan dish. It is a type of a pie dish, made out of eggs, meat and vegetables, similar to the Italian frittata or the eggah.

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