Chickpea

Last updated

Chickpeas
Sa-whitegreen-chickpea.jpg
Two varieties of chickpea: the larger light tan Kabuli and variously coloured Desi chickpea. They are green when picked early and vary through tan or beige, speckled, dark brown to black. 75% of world production is of the smaller desi type. The larger garbanzo bean or hoummus was introduced into India in the 18th century.
Chickpea BNC.jpg
Sprouted chickpea
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Cicer
Species:
C. arietinum
Binomial name
Cicer arietinum
L.
Synonyms [1]
  • Cicer albumhort.
  • Cicer arientiniumL. [Spelling variant]
  • Cicer arientinumL. [Spelling variant]
  • Cicer edessanumBornm.
  • Cicer grossumSalisb.
  • Cicer nigrumhort.
  • Cicer physodesRchb.
  • Cicer rotundumAlef.
  • Cicer sativumSchkuhr
  • Cicer sintenisiiBornm.
  • Ononis crotalarioidesM.E.Jones
Cicer arietinum noir - MHNT Cicer arietinum noir MHNT.BOT.2017.12.2.jpg
Cicer arietinum noir - MHNT

The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is an annual legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. [2] [3] Its different types are variously known as gram [4] [5] or Bengal gram, [5] garbanzo [5] or garbanzo bean, and Egyptian pea. [4] Chickpea seeds are high in protein. It is one of the earliest cultivated legumes, and 7500-year-old remains have been found in the Middle East. [6] [7]

Annual plant Plant that completes its life cycle within one year, and then dies

An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies. Summer annuals germinate during spring or early summer and mature by autumn of the same year. Winter annuals germinate during the autumn and mature during the spring or summer of the following calendar year.

Legume Plant in the family Fabaceae

A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae, or the fruit or seed of such a plant. Legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for human consumption, for livestock forage and silage, and as soil-enhancing green manure. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, clover, beans, peas, chickpeas, lentils, lupins, mesquite, carob, soybeans, peanuts, and tamarind. Legumes produce a botanically unique type of fruit – a simple dry fruit that develops from a simple carpel and usually dehisces on two sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a pod, although the term "pod" is also applied to a number of other fruit types, such as that of vanilla and of the radish.

Family is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as being the "walnut family".

Contents

Chickpea is a key ingredient in hummus and chana masala, and it can be ground into flour to make falafel. It is also used in salads, soups and stews, curry and other meal products like channa. The chickpea is important in Indian and Middle Eastern cuisine, and in 2016, India produced 64% of the world's total chickpeas. [8]

Hummus Levantine chickpea puree

Hummus is a Levantine dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas or other beans, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, salt, and garlic. It is popular in the Middle East and Mediterranean, as well as in Middle Eastern cuisine around the globe. It can also be found in most grocery stores in North America and Europe.

Chana masala

Chana masala, also known as channay, chole masala, chole or chholay (plural), is a dish originating from the Indian subcontinent. The main ingredient is a variety of chickpea called chana (चना) or kala chana. They are twice the diameter of typical chickpeas with a stronger flavour and firmer texture even after being cooked.

Falafel traditional Middle Eastern food: deep-fried balls of ground chickpeas or fava beans

Falafel is a deep-fried ball, or a flat or doughnut-shaped patty, made from ground chickpeas, fava beans, or both. Herbs, spices, and onion relatives are commonly added to the dough. It is a Levantine and Egyptian dish that most likely originated in Egypt, but is commonly eaten throughout Western Asia. The fritters are now found around the world as part of vegetarian cuisine, and as a form of street food.

Etymology

The name "chickpea" traces from 13th century French chiche and cicer , the Latin term for "chickpea". [9] The term chich-pease, used in the 1500s, derived from chich, the Old French term for chick-pea. [9] The word garbanzo, from an alteration of Old Spanish arvanço, came first to English as garvance in the 17th century, being gradually anglicized to calavance, though it came to refer to a variety of other beans (cf. calavance). The current form garbanzo comes directly from modern Spanish. [10]

13th century Century

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages, and after its conquests in Asia the Mongol Empire stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

<i>Cicer</i> genus of plants

Cicer is a genus of the legume family, Fabaceae, and the only genus found in tribe Cicereae. It is included within the IRLC, and its native distribution is across the Middle East and Asia. Its best-known and only domesticated member is Cicer arietinum, the chickpea.

History

Domesticated chickpeas have been found in the aceramic levels of Jericho (PPNB) along with Çayönü in Turkey and in Neolithic pottery at Hacilar, Turkey. They were found in the late Neolithic (about 3500 BC) at Thessaly, Kastanas, Lerna and Dimini, Greece. In southern France, Mesolithic layers in a cave at L'Abeurador, Hérault, have yielded wild chickpeas carbon dated to 6790±90 BC. [11]

The Neolithic founder crops are the eight plant species that were domesticated by early Holocene farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region of southwest Asia, and which formed the basis of systematic agriculture in the Middle East, North Africa, India, Persia and Europe. They consist of flax, three cereals and four pulses, and are the first known domesticated plants in the world. Although domesticated rye occurs in the final Epi-Palaeolithic strata at Tell Abu Hureyra, it was insignificant in the Neolithic Period of southwest Asia and only became common with the spread of farming into northern Europe several millennia later.

Aceramic is defined as "not producing pottery". In archaeology, the term means "without pottery".

Jericho City in Jericho

Jericho is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank. It is the administrative seat of the Jericho Governorate, and is governed by the Fatah faction of the Palestinian National Authority. In 2007, it had a population of 18,346. The city was occupied by Jordan from 1949 to 1967, and has been held under Israeli occupation since 1967; administrative control was handed over to the Palestinian Authority in 1994. It is believed to be one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world and the city with the oldest known protective wall in the world. It was thought to have the oldest stone tower in the world as well, but excavations at Tell Qaramel in Syria have discovered stone towers that are even older.

Chickpeas are mentioned in Charlemagne's Capitulare de villis (about 800 AD) as cicer italicum, as grown in each imperial demesne. Albertus Magnus mentions red, white, and black varieties. Nicholas Culpeper noted "chick-pease or cicers" are less "windy" than peas and more nourishing. Ancient people also associated chickpeas with Venus because they were said to offer medical uses such as increasing sperm and milk, provoking menstruation and urine, and helping to treat kidney stones. [12] "White cicers" were thought to be especially strong and helpful. [12]

Charlemagne King of the Franks, King of Italy, and Holy Roman Emperor

Charlemagne or Charles the Great, numbered Charles I, was king of the Franks from 768, king of the Lombards from 774, and emperor of the Romans from 800. He united much of western and central Europe during the Early Middle Ages. He was the first recognised emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne founded is called the Carolingian Empire. He was later canonized by Antipope Paschal III.

The Capitulare de villis is a text composed in c. 771–800 that guided the governance of the royal estates during the later years of the reign of Charlemagne. It lists, in no particular order, a series of rules and regulations on how to manage the lands, animals, justice, and overall administration of the king's property and assets. The document was meant to lay out the instructions and criteria for managing Charlemagne's estates and was thus, an important part of his reform of Carolingian government and administration.

Manorialism economic and judicial Institution

Manorialism was an organizing principle of rural economy which vested legal and economic power in a Lord of the Manor. He was supported economically from his own direct landholding in a manor, and from the obligatory contributions of a legally subject part of the peasant population under his jurisdiction and that of his manorial court. These obligations could be payable in several ways, in labor, in kind, or, on rare occasions, in coin.

In 1793, ground-roast chickpeas were noted by a German writer as a substitute for coffee in Europe. [13] In the First World War, they were grown for this use in some areas of Germany. [14] They are still sometimes brewed instead of coffee. [13]

Coffee Brewed beverage

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species. The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa and Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius, and Réunion in the Indian Ocean. Coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Africa. The two most commonly grown are C. arabica and C. robusta. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. Dried coffee seeds are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. Roasted beans are ground and then brewed with near-boiling water to produce the beverage known as coffee.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Lime green chickpeas India - Varanasi green peas - 2714.jpg
Lime green chickpeas

Genome sequencing

Sequencing of the chickpea genome has been completed for 90 chickpea genotypes, including several wild species. [15] A collaboration of 20 research organizations, led by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), sequenced CDC Frontier, a kabuli chickpea variety, and identified more than 28,000 genes and several million genetic markers. [16]

Geographic cultivation

Flowering and fruiting chickpea plant Chickpeas Plant.jpg
Flowering and fruiting chickpea plant
Chickpea pods Chickpea pods.jpg
Chickpea pods
Black chickpeas Chickpea in black colour.jpg
Black chickpeas

The plant grows to 20–50 cm (8–20 in) high and has small, feathery leaves on either side of the stem. Chickpeas are a type of pulse, with one seedpod containing two or three peas. It has white flowers with blue, violet, or pink veins.

Several varieties of chickpea are cultivated throughout the world. Desi chana closely resembles both seeds found on archaeological sites and the wild plant ancestor of domesticated chickpeas, Cicer reticulatum, which only grows in southeast Turkey, where chickpeas are believed to have originated. Desi chana has small, darker seeds and a rough coat. They are grown mostly in Pakistan, India and other parts of South Asia, as well as in Ethiopia, Mexico, and Iran. [17] Desi means "country" or "native" in Hindustani; its other names include kala chana ("black chickpea" in both Hindi and Urdu) or chholaa boot. Desi chana can be black, green or speckled. This variety is hulled and split to make chana dal .

Garbanzo beans or 'kabuli' chana are lighter-coloured, larger, and with a smoother coat, and are mainly grown in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, Northern Africa, South America, and South Asia. [17] The name means "from Kabul" in Hindi and Urdu, and this variety was thought to come from Kabul, Afghanistan when it was introduced to India in the 18th century. [18] An uncommon black chickpea, ceci neri, is grown only in Apulia, in southeastern Italy. It is around the same size as garbanzo beans, being both larger and darker than the 'desi' variety.

Uses

Culinary

Chana Dal, split Bengal gram Bengal gram, chickpea ( cholaar ddaal).JPG
Chana Dal, split Bengal gram
Hummus with olive oil Hummus from The Nile.jpg
Hummus with olive oil
Dhokla, steamed chickpea snack Dhokla on Gujrart.jpg
Dhokla, steamed chickpea snack

Chickpeas are usually rapidly boiled for 10 minutes and then simmered for a longer period. Dried chickpeas need a long cooking time (1–2 hours) but will easily fall apart when cooked longer. If soaked for 12–24 hours before use, cooking time can be shortened by around 30 minutes. Chickpeas can also be pressure cooked or sous vide cooked at 90 °C (194 °F).

Mature chickpeas can be cooked and eaten cold in salads, cooked in stews, ground into flour, ground and shaped in balls and fried as falafel , made into a batter and baked to make farinata or cecina, or fried to make panelle . Chickpea flour is known as gram flour or besan in South Asia and used frequently in South Asian cuisine.

Chickpeas are popular in the Iberian Peninsula. In Portugal, they are one of the main ingredients in rancho, eaten with pasta and meat, including Portuguese sausages, or with rice. They are used in other hot dishes with bacalhau and in soup. In Spain, they are used cold in tapas and salads, as well as in cocido madrileño . In Italy, chickpeas are eaten with pasta or in soup. In southern Italy, chickpea flour is made into a batter for panelle , a sort of crepe. In Egypt, chickpeas are used as a topping for kushari .

Ḥummuṣ is the Arabic word for chickpeas, which are often cooked and ground into a paste and mixed with ṭaḥīna (sesame seed paste), the blend called ḥummuṣ bi ṭaḥīna . Chickpeas are roasted, spiced, and eaten as a snack, such as leblebi . By the end of the 20th century, hummus had become commonplace in American cuisine. [19] By 2010, 5% of Americans consumed hummus on a regular basis, [19] and it was present in 17% of American households. [20]

Chickpeas and Bengal grams are used to make curries and are one of the most popular vegetarian foods in South Asia and in diaspora communities of many other countries served with variety of breads or steamed rice. Popular dishes in Indian cuisine are made with chickpea flour, such as Mirchi Bada and mirapakaya bajji. In India, as well as in the Levant, unripe chickpeas are often picked out of the pod and eaten as a raw snack and the leaves are eaten as a leaf vegetable in salads. In India, desserts such as besan halwa and sweets such as besan barfi are made. [21]

Chickpea flour is used to make "Burmese tofu" which was first known among the Shan people of Burma. In South Asian cuisine the chickpea flour (besan) is used as a batter to coat vegetables before deep frying to make pakoras. The flour is also used as a batter to coat vegetables and meats before frying, or fried alone such as panelle (little bread), a chickpea fritter from Sicily. Chickpea flour is used to make the Mediterranean flatbread socca and called panisse in Provence, southern France. It is made of cooked chickpea flour, poured into saucers, allowed to set, cut in strips, and fried in olive oil, often eaten during Lent. In Tuscany chickpea flour (farina di ceci) is used to make an oven baked pancake: the flour is mixed with water, oil and salt. Chickpea flour known as kadlehittu in Kannada is used for making sweet dish Mysorepak.

In the Philippines, chickpeas preserved in syrup are eaten as sweets and in desserts such as halo-halo . Jews from Ashkenazi countries traditionally serve whole chickpeas at a Shalom Zachar celebration for baby boys.

Guasanas or garbanza is a Mexican chickpea street snack. The beans, while still green, are cooked in water and salt, kept in a steamer to maintain their humidity, and served in a plastic bag.

A chickpea-derived liquid ( aquafaba ) can be used as an egg white replacement to make meringue [ citation needed ] or ice cream. [22]

Animal feed

Chickpeas serve as an energy and protein source as animal feed. [23]

Raw chickpeas have a lower trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor content than peas, common beans, and soybeans. This leads to higher nutrition values and fewer digestive problems in nonruminants. Nonruminant diets can be completed with 200 g/kg of raw chickpeas to promote egg production and growth of birds and pigs. Higher amounts can be used when chickpeas are treated with heat. [23]

Experiments have shown that ruminants grow equally well and produce an equal amount and quality of milk when soybean or cereal meals are replaced with chickpeas. Pigs show the same performance, but growing pigs experience a negative effect of raw chickpea feed; extruded chickpeas can increase performance even in growing pigs. In poultry diet experiments with untreated chickpeas, only young broilers (starting period) showed worse performance. Fish performed equally well when their soybean or cereal diet was replaced by extruded chickpeas. [23] Chickpea seeds have also been used in rabbit diets. [17]

Secondary components of legumes — such as lecithin, polyphenols, oligosaccharides, and amylase, protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors — can lead to lower nutrient availability, thus to negative effects in growth and health of animals (especially in nonruminants). Ruminants have generally less problems to digest legumes with secondary components, since they can inactivate them in the rumen liquor. Their diets can be supplemented by 300 g/kg or more raw chickpea seeds. [23] However, protein digestibility and energy availability can be improved through treatments, such as germination, dehulling, and heat. Extrusion is a very good heat technique to destroy secondary components in legumes, since the proteins are irreversibly denatured. Overprocessing may decrease the nutritional value; extrusion leads to losses in minerals and vitamins, while dry heating does not change the chemical composition. [23]

Nutrition

Chickpeas, mature seeds, cooked no salt
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 686 kJ (164 kcal)
27.42 g
Sugars 4.8 g
Dietary fibre 7.6 g
Fat
2.59 g
Saturated 0.27 g
Monounsaturated 0.58 g
Polyunsaturated 1.16 g
8.86 g
Vitamins Quantity%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
1 μg
Thiamine (B1)
10%
0.12 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
5%
0.06 mg
Niacin (B3)
4%
0.53 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
6%
0.29 mg
Vitamin B6
11%
0.14 mg
Folate (B9)
43%
172 μg
Vitamin B12
0%
0 μg
Vitamin C
2%
1.3 mg
Vitamin E
2%
0.35 mg
Vitamin K
4%
4 μg
Minerals Quantity%DV
Calcium
5%
49 mg
Iron
22%
2.89 mg
Magnesium
14%
48 mg
Phosphorus
24%
168 mg
Potassium
6%
291 mg
Sodium
0%
7 mg
Zinc
16%
1.53 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water60.21 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Chickpeas are a nutrient-dense food, providing rich content (20% or higher of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, folate, and certain dietary minerals, such as iron and phosphorus in a 100 gram reference amount (see adjacent nutrition table). Thiamin, vitamin B6, magnesium, and zinc contents are moderate, providing 10–16% of the DV. Compared to reference levels established by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization, proteins in cooked and germinated chickpeas are rich in essential amino acids such as lysine, isoleucine, tryptophan, and total aromatic amino acids. [24]

A 100 g serving of cooked chickpeas provides 164 kilocalories (690 kJ). Cooked chickpeas are 60% water, 27% carbohydrates, 9% protein and 3% fat (table). [23] 75% of the fat content is unsaturated fatty acids for which linoleic acid comprises 43% of total fat. [25]

Effects of cooking

Cooking treatments do not lead to variance in total protein and carbohydrate content. [26] [27] Soaking and cooking of dry seeds possibly induces chemical modification of protein-fibre complexes, which leads to an increase in crude fiber content. Thus, cooking can increase protein quality by inactivating or destroying heat-labile antinutritional factors. [26] Cooking also increases protein digestibility, essential amino acid index, and protein efficiency ratio. Although cooking lowers concentrations of amino acids such as tryptophan, lysine, total aromatic, and sulphur-containing amino acids, their contents are still higher than proposed by the FAO/WHO reference. [26] Diffusion of reducing sugars, raffinose, sucrose and others into cooking water reduces or completely removes these components. Cooking also significantly reduces fat and mineral contents. The B vitamins riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, and pyridoxine dissolve into cooking water at differing rates. [26]

Germination

Germination of chickpeas improves protein digestibility, although at a lower level than cooking. Germination degrades proteins to simple peptides, so improves crude protein, nonprotein nitrogen, and crude fiber content. Germination decreases lysine, tryptophan, sulphur and total aromatic amino acids, but most contents are still higher than proposed by the FAO/WHO reference pattern. [26]

Oligosaccharides, such as stachyose and raffinose, are reduced in higher amounts during germination than during cooking. Minerals and B vitamins are retained more effectively during germination than with cooking. Phytic acids are reduced significantly, but trypsin inhibitor, tannin, and saponin reduction is less effective than cooking. [26]

Autoclaving, microwave cooking, boiling

Protein digestibility is improved by all treatments of cooking. Essential amino acids are slightly increased by boiling and microwave cooking when compared to autoclaving and germination. Overall, microwave cooking leads to a significantly lower loss of nutrients compared to autoclaving and boiling.

Finally, all treatments lead to an improved protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio, and essential amino acid index. Microwave cooking seems to be an effective method to prepare chickpeas because of its improvement of nutritional values and its lower cooking time. [26]

Leaves

In some parts of the world, young chickpea leaves are consumed as cooked green vegetables. Especially in malnourished populations, it can supplement important dietary nutrients, because regions where chickpeas are consumed have been sometimes found to have populations lacking micronutrients. [28] Chickpea leaves have a significantly higher mineral content than either cabbage leaves or spinach leaves. [28] In natural settings, environmental factors and nutrient availability could influence mineral concentrations. Nevertheless, consumption of chickpea leaves is recommended for areas where chickpeas are produced as food for humans. [28]

Preliminary research shows that chickpea consumption may lower blood cholesterol. [29] [30]

Production

Production of chickpeas – 2016
Country(millions of tonnes)
Flag of India.svg  India
7.8
Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar
0.6
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
0.5
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
0.5
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia
0.4
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
0.3
World
12.1
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations [8]

In 2016, world production of chickpeas was 12.1 million tonnes, led by India alone with 64% of the global total (table). [8]

Chickpea production from 1961 to 2013 History of World Production.jpeg
Chickpea production from 1961 to 2013
Cicer arietinum Cicer arietinum 003.JPG
Cicer arietinum

Heat and micronutrient cultivation

Agricultural yield for chickpea is often based on genetic and phenotypic variability which has recently been influenced by artificial selection. [31] The uptake of micronutrients such as inorganic phosphorus or nitrogen is vital to the plant development of Cicer arietinum, commonly known as the perennial chickpea. [32] Heat cultivation and micronutrient coupling are two relatively unknown methods that are used to increase the yield and size of the chickpea. Recent research has indicated that a combination of heat treatment along with the two vital micronutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen, are the most critical components to increasing the overall yield of Cicer arietinum. [32]

Perennial chickpeas are a fundamental source of nutrition in animal feed as they are high sources of energy and protein for livestock. Unlike other food crops, the perennial chickpea shows a remarkable capacity to change its nutritional content in response to heat cultivation. Treating the chickpea with a constant heat source increases its protein content almost threefold. [32] Consequently, the impact of heat cultivation not only affects the protein content of the chickpea itself, but the ecosystem that it supports as well. Increasing the height and size of chickpea plants involves using micronutrient fertilization with varying doses of inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen. [33]

The level of phosphorus that a chickpea seed is exposed to during its lifecycle has a positive correlation relative to the height of the plant at full maturity. [33] Increasing the levels of inorganic phosphorus at all doses incrementally increases the height of the chickpea plant. Thus, the seasonal changes in phosphorus soil content as well as periods of drought that are known to be a native characteristic of the dry Middle-Eastern region where the chickpea is most commonly cultivated have a strong effect on the growth of the plant itself. Plant yield is also affected by a combination of phosphorus nutrition and water supply, resulting in a 12% increase in yield of the crop. [33]

Nitrogen nutrition is another factor that affects the yield of Cicer arietinum, although the application itself differs from other perennial crops with regards to the levels administered on the plant. High doses of nitrogen inhibit the yield of the chickpea plant. [34] Drought stress is a likely factor that also inhibits the uptake of nitrogen and subsequent fixation in the roots of Cicer arietinum. The growth of the perennial chickpea is dependent on the balance between nitrogen fixation and assimilation that is also characteristic of many other agricultural plant types. The influence of drought stress, sowing date, and mineral nitrogen supply all have an effect on the yield and size of the plant, with trials showing that Cicer arietinum differed from other plant species in its capacity to assimilate mineral nitrogen supply from soil during drought stress. [34] Additional minerals and micronutrients make the absorption process of nitrogen and phosphorus more available. Inorganic phosphate ions are generally attracted towards charged minerals such as iron and aluminium oxides. [35]

Additionally, growth and yield are also limited by zinc and boron deficiencies in the soil. Boron-rich soil resulted in an increase of chickpea yield and size, while soil fertilization with zinc seemed to have no apparent effect on the chickpea yield. [36]

Pathogens

Pathogens in chickpeas are the main cause for yield loss (up to 90%). One example is the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris , present in most of the major pulse crop-growing areas and causing regular yield damages between 10 and 15%. [37]

From 1978 until 1995, the worldwide number of pathogens increased from 49 to 172, of which 35 have been recorded in India. These pathogens originate from the groups of bacteria, fungi, viruses, mycoplasma and nematodes and show a high genotypic variation. The most widely distributed pathogens are Ascochyta rabiei (35 countries), Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris (32 countries) Uromyces ciceris-arietini (25 countries), bean leafroll virus (23 countries), and Macrophomina phaseolina (21 countries). [38] Ascochyta disease emergence is favored by wet weather; spores are carried to new plants by wind and water splash. [39]

The stagnation of yield improvement over the last decades is linked to the susceptibility to pathogens. [40] Research for yield improvement, such as an attempt to increase yield from 0.8 to 2.0 tons per hectare by breeding cold-resistant varieties, is always linked with pathogen-resistance breeding as pathogens such as Ascochyta rabiei and F. o. f.sp. ciceris flourish in conditions such as cold temperature. Research started selecting favourable genes for pathogen resistance and other traits through marker-assisted selection. The use of this method is a promising sign for the future to achieve significant yield improvements. [41]

See also

Related Research Articles

Bean common name for plant seeds of the Fabaceae

A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.

A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animals, plants, fungi, and protists. Nutrients can be incorporated into cells for metabolic purposes or excreted by cells to create non-cellular structures, such as hair, scales, feathers, or exoskeletons. Some nutrients can be metabolically converted to smaller molecules in the process of releasing energy, such as for carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and fermentation products, leading to end-products of water and carbon dioxide. All organisms require water. Essential nutrients for animals are the energy sources, some of the amino acids that are combined to create proteins, a subset of fatty acids, vitamins and certain minerals. Plants require more diverse minerals absorbed through roots, plus carbon dioxide and oxygen absorbed through leaves. Fungi live on dead or living organic matter and meet nutrient needs from their host.

Sprouting practice of germinating seeds to be eaten raw or cooked

Sprouting is the natural germination process by which seeds or spores put out shoots, plants produce new leaves or buds, or other newly developing parts experience further growth.

Plant nutrition Study of the chemical elements and compounds necessary for normal plant life

Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements and compounds necessary for plant growth, plant metabolism and their external supply. In 1972, Emanuel Epstein defined two criteria for an element to be essential for plant growth:

  1. in its absence the plant is unable to complete a normal life cycle.
  2. or that the element is part of some essential plant constituent or metabolite.
Phytic acid chemical compound

Phytic acid is the phosphate ester of inositol. It contains six phosphate groups. At physiological pH, these phosphates are partially ionized. The resulting anion is a colorless species that has significant nutritional role as the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds. It is also present in many legumes, cereals, and grains. Phytic acid has a strong binding affinity to the dietary minerals, calcium, iron, and zinc, inhibiting their absorption.

Biological value (BV) is a measure of the proportion of absorbed protein from a food which becomes incorporated into the proteins of the organism's body. It captures how readily the digested protein can be used in protein synthesis in the cells of the organism. Proteins are the major source of nitrogen in food. BV assumes protein is the only source of nitrogen and measures the proportion of this nitrogen absorbed by the body which is then excreted. The remainder must have been incorporated into the proteins of the organisms body. A ratio of nitrogen incorporated into the body over nitrogen absorbed gives a measure of protein "usability" – the BV.

Protein (nutrient) nutrient for the human body

Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body. They are one of the building blocks of body tissue and can also serve as a fuel source. As a fuel, proteins provide as much energy density as carbohydrates: 4 kcal per gram; in contrast, lipids provide 9 kcal per gram. The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition.

Protein combining is a dietary theory for protein nutrition that purports to optimize the biological value of protein intake. According to the theory, vegetarian and vegan diets may provide an insufficient amount of some essential amino acids, making protein combining with multiple foods necessary to obtain a complete protein. The terms complete and incomplete are outdated in relation to plant protein. The position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is that protein from a variety of plant foods eaten during the course of a day supplies enough of all essential amino acids when caloric requirements are met.

<i>Didymella rabiei</i> species of fungus

Didymella rabiei, commonly called chickpea ascochyta blight fungus is a fungal plant pathogen of chickpea. Didymella rabiei is the teleomorph of Ascochyta rabiei, which is the anamorph, but both names are the same species.

<i>Cucumeropsis mannii</i> species of plant

Cucumeropsis mannii is a species of melon native to tropical Africa west of the East African Rift, where it is grown for food and as a source of oil.

Animal nutrition focuses on the dietary needs of animals, primarily those in agriculture and food production, but also in zoos, aquariums, and wildlife management.

<i>Sphenostylis</i> genus of plants

Sphenostylis is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the subfamily Faboideae. Sphenostylis contains several species useful as food sources including Sphenostylis stenocarpa.

Aquafaba residual water from cooking legumes, used in recipes to substitute egg whites

Aquafaba is the viscous water in which legume seeds such as chickpeas have been cooked.

Dal Nepali and Indian food

Dal is a term used in the Indian subcontinent for dried, split pulses (legumes). The term is also used for various soups prepared from these pulses. These pulses are among the most important staple foods in South Asian countries, and form an important part of the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.

Chickpeas are a major pulse legume grown in Nepal, either by themselves or as an intercrop with maize or rice. Chickpeas are an important legume to the population, as it is the primary protein source for nearly 2 million Nepalese people. In 2013, Nepal imported approximately US$10.1 million in dried shelled chickpeas, mostly from Australia and also from Canada, creating a need to increase production for its own people and to balance bilateral trade. Chickpeas are an excellent source of protein, especially when compared to other legume pulses. They are high in unsaturated fatty acids and minerals, including calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium.

International Year of Pulses

2016 was declared as the International Year of Pulses by the sixty eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly on December 20, 2013. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been nominated to declare a year for pulses.

An International Year designation provides an unprecedented opportunity to raise awareness and to celebrate the role of beans, chickpeas, lentils and other pulses in feeding the world. Even more importantly, it will be a galvanizing moment to draw together key actors to further the contributions pulses make to health, nutrition, and sustainability.

Like the human practice of veganism, vegan dog foods are those formulated with the exclusion of ingredients that contain or were processed with any part of an animal, or any animal byproduct. Vegan dog food may incorporate the use of fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetable oils, soya, as well as any other non-animal based foods. The omnivorous domestic canine has evolved to metabolize carbohydrates and thrive on a diet lower in protein, and therefore, a vegan diet may be substantial if properly formulated and balanced.

References

  1. "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species" . Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  2. "Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) - Feedipedia". www.feedipedia.org. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  3. "Cicer arietinum L. - Plants of the World Online - Kew Science". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  4. 1 2 "Wikisource-logo.svg Baynes, T.S.; Smith, W.R., eds. (1880). "Gram"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 11 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 36–37.
  5. 1 2 3 "Cicer arietinum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  6. S, Bell (March 31, 2014). "The small but mighty chickpea". Phys.org. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  7. Advances in Agronomy. Elsevier. 2 April 2001. ISBN   9780080543994 . Retrieved 26 February 2018 via Google Books.
  8. 1 2 3 "Chickpea production in 2016, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  9. 1 2 "Chickpea". Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper. 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  10. "Garbanzo bean". Oxford Reference. 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  11. Zohary, Daniel and Hopf, Maria, Domestication of Plants in the Old World (third edition), Oxford University Press, 2000, p 110
  12. 1 2 Culpeper, Nicholas. Chick-Pease, or Cicers. The Complete Herbal (1652, originally titled The English Physitian).
  13. 1 2 "Introduction: Chickpeas". International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  14. "Chickpea (Chana)". CRN India. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  15. "Global research team decodes genome sequence of 90 chickpea lines". International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  16. Varshney, Rajeev K; Song, Chi; Saxena, Rachit K; Azam, Sarwar; Yu, Sheng; Sharpe, Andrew G; Cannon, Steven; Baek, Jongmin; Rosen, Benjamin D (2013-01-27). "Draft genome sequence of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) provides a resource for trait improvement". Nature Biotechnology. 31 (3): 240–246. doi:10.1038/nbt.2491. ISSN   1087-0156. PMID   23354103.
  17. 1 2 3 "Chickpea (Cicer arietinum)". www.Feedipedia.org. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  18. "Taxonomy and Nomenclature for Family Leguminosae Juss., Cicer arietinum subsp. arietinum". Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
  19. 1 2 Marks, Gil (2010), Encyclopedia of Jewish Food, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 269-271
  20. Ferretti, Elena (5 April 2010). "There's Hummus Among Us". Fox News. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  21. "Order Sweets Online- Delivery all India -Khaochatpata.com".
  22. Gormley, Shannon (7 May 2019). "Little Bean Proves Chickpea Ice Cream Isn't as Weird as It Sounds". WWeek.com. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Bampidis, V.A.; Christodoulou, V. (2011). "Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) in animal nutrition: A review". Animal Feed Science and Technology. 168 (1–2): 1–20. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.04.098.
  24. Milán-Carrillo J, Valdéz-Alarcón C, Gutiérrez-Dorado R, Cárdenas-Valenzuela OG, Mora-Escobedo R, Garzón-Tiznado JA, Reyes-Moreno C (2007). "Nutritional properties of quality protein maize and chickpea extruded based weaning food". Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 62 (1): 31–7. doi:10.1007/s11130-006-0039-z. PMID   17243010.
  25. "Nutrition facts for Chickpeas (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt, 100 g, USDA Nutrient Database, version SR-21". Conde Nast. 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 El-Adawy, T.A. (2002). "Nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) undergoing different cooking methods and germination". Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 57 (1): 83–97. doi:10.1023/A:1013189620528. PMID   11855623.
  27. Jukanti AK, Gaur PM, Gowda CL, Chibbar RN (2012). "Nutritional quality and health benefits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): a review". Br J Nutr. 108 (Suppl 1): S11–26. doi:10.1017/S0007114512000797. PMID   22916806.
  28. 1 2 3 Ibrikci, H.; Knewtson, S.J.B.; Grusak, M.A. (2003). "Chickpea leaves as a vegetable green for humans: evaluation of mineral composition". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 83 (9): 945–950. doi:10.1002/jsfa.1427.
  29. Pittaway, JK; Robertson, IK; Ball, MJ (2008). "Chickpeas may influence fatty acid and fiber intake in an ad libitum diet, leading to small improvements in serum lipid profile and glycemic control". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 108 (6): 1009–13. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.03.009. PMID   18502235.
  30. Mixed Bean Salad (information and recipe) from The Mayo Clinic Healthy Recipes. Accessed February 2010.
  31. Naghavi, M.R., & Jahansouz, M.R. (2005). Variation in the agronomic and morphological traits of Iranian chickpea accessions. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. 47(3): 375-379 doi : 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00058.x
  32. 1 2 3 Bampidis, V.A. & Christodoulou, V. (2011). Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) in animal nutrition: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 168: 1-20. doi : 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.04.098
  33. 1 2 3 Mishra, U.S., Sirothia, P., & Bhadoria, U.S. (2009). Effects of phosphorus nutrition on growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) under rain fed conditions. International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences, 5(1): 85-88.
  34. 1 2 Wery, J., Deschamps, M., & Leger-Cresson, N. (1988). Influence of some agroclimatic factors and agronomic practices on nitrogen nutrition of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Developments in Plants and Soil Sciences, 32: 287-301.
  35. Hinsinger, P. (2001). Bioavailability of soil inorganic P in the rhizosphere as affected by root-induced chemical changes: A review. Plant and Soil, 237(2): 173-195.
  36. Johnson, S.E., Lauren, J.G., Welch, R.M., & Duxbury, J.M. (2005). A comparison of the effects of micronutrient seed priming and soil fertilization on the mineral nutrition of chickpea (Cicer arietinum), lentil (Lens culinaris), rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum acstiyum) in Nepal.
  37. Datta, J.; Lal, N (2012). "Application of molecular markers for genetic discrimination of fusarium wilt pathogen races affecting chickpea and pigeonpea in major regions of india". European Journal of Agronomy. 58 (1): 55–65. doi:10.1170/T921.
  38. Sheila, J.; Sharma, N. (1996). "A World list of Chickpea and Pigeonpea Pathogens". International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics, ICRISAT (5).
  39. "PlantVillage".
  40. Pfaff, T; Kahl, G (2003). "Mapping of gene-specific markers on the genetic map of chickpea ("Cicer atietinum"L)". Molecular Genetic Genomics. 269 (2): 243–251. doi:10.1007/s00438-003-0828-0 (inactive 2018-04-01). PMID   12756536.
  41. Millan, Teresa; Heather, J.Clarke; Kadambot, H.M.Siddique; et al. (2006). "Chickpea molecular breeding:New tools and concepts". Euphytica. 147 (1–2): 81–103. doi:10.1007/s10681-006-4261-4.