Latin American cuisine

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A typical Brazilian Feijoada, a stew of beans with beef and pork Feijoada 2008.JPG
A typical Brazilian Feijoada, a stew of beans with beef and pork
Asado with lols (offal) and sausages. Asado is a term used for a range of barbecue techniques and the social event of having or attending a barbecue in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela and southern Brazil. In these countries asado is the standard word for "barbecue". Asado uruguayo.JPG
Asado with lols (offal) and sausages. Asado is a term used for a range of barbecue techniques and the social event of having or attending a barbecue in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela and southern Brazil. In these countries asado is the standard word for "barbecue".

Latin American cuisine is the typical foods, beverages, and cooking styles common to many of the countries and cultures in Latin America. Latin America is a highly diverse area of land that holds various cuisines that vary from nation to nation. Some items typical of Latin American cuisine include maize-based dishes arepas, pupusas, tacos, tamales, tortillas and various salsas and other condiments (guacamole, pico de gallo, mole, chimichurri, chili, aji, pebre). These spices are generally what give the Latin American cuisines a distinct flavor; yet, each country of Latin America tends to use a different spice and those that share spices tend to use them at different quantities. Thus, this leads for a variety across the land. Sofrito, a culinary term that originally referred to a specific combination of sautéed or braised aromatics, exists in Latin American cuisine. It refers to a sauce of tomatoes, roasted bell peppers, garlic, onions and herbs.

Latin America Region of the Americas where Romance languages are primarily spoken

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish, Portuguese, and French are predominantly spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America. The term "Latin America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of the America. Idea for a Federal Congress of the Republics", by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao. The term was used also by Napoleon III's French government in the 1860s as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas, along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed, including the Spanish-speaking portions of the United States Today, areas of Canada and the United States where Spanish, Portuguese and French are predominant are typically not included in definitions of Latin America.

Maize Cereal grain

Maize, also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits.

Arepa typical food from Venezuela

Arepa is a type of food made of ground maize dough, originating from pre-Columbian northern region of South America, and is notable in the cuisines of Colombia and Venezuela.

Contents

Latin American beverages are just as distinct as their foods. Some of the beverages can even date back to the times of the Native Americans. Some popular beverages include coffee, mate, hibiscus tea, horchata, chicha, atole, cacao and aguas frescas.

Hibiscus tea drink made from sepals of Hibiscus sabdariffa

Hibiscus tea is a herbal tea made as an infusion from crimson or deep magenta-colored calyces (sepals) of the roselle flower. It is consumed both hot and cold. It has a tart, cranberry-like flavor.

Horchata drink

Horchata, or orxata, is a name given to various plant milk beverages of similar taste and appearance.

Chicha beverage

In South and Central America, chicha is a fermented (alcoholic) or non-fermented beverage usually derived from grains, maize, or fruit. Chicha includes corn beer, known as chicha de jora, and non-alcoholic beverages such as chicha morada. Archaeobotanists have found evidence for chicha made from maize, the fruit of Schinus molle and Prosopis pods. Chichas can also be made from quinoa, kañiwa, peanut, manioc root, palm fruit, potato, Oxalis tuberosa, chañar or various other fruits.

Desserts in Latin America are generally very sweet in taste. They include dulce de leche, alfajor, rice pudding, tres leches cake, teja and flan.

Dulce de leche confection

Dulce de leche is a confection from Latin America prepared by slowly heating sweetened milk to create a substance that derives its flavour from the Maillard reaction, also changing colour, with an appearance and flavour similar to caramel. Dulce de leche in Spanish for "candy [made] of milk" or "caramel". In Chile dulce de leche is known as "manjar de leche" or just "manjar". Its origin is disputed.

Alfajor

An alfajor or alajú is a traditional confection found in Argentina, Uruguay, El Salvador, Peru, Bolivia, Southern France, Ecuador, Andorra, Spain, Paraguay, Venezuela, Southern Brazil and the Philippines. The archetypal alfajor entered Iberia during the period of al-Andalus. It is produced in the form of a small cylinder and is sold either individually or in boxes containing several pieces.

Rice pudding dish made from rice mixed with water or milk

Rice pudding is a dish made from rice mixed with water or milk and other ingredients such as cinnamon and raisins. Variants are used for either desserts or dinners. When used as a dessert, it is commonly combined with a sweetener such as sugar. Such desserts are found on many continents, especially Asia where rice is a staple. Some variants are thickened only with the rice starch, others include eggs, making them a kind of custard.

History

Cultural influences

Native American influence

Information about Native American cuisine comes from a great variety of sources. Modern-day Native peoples retain a rich body of traditional foods, some of which have become iconic of present-day Native American social gatherings (for example, frybread). Foods like cornbread are known to have been adopted into the cuisine of the United States from Native American groups. In other cases, documents from the early periods of contact with European, African, and Asian peoples allow the recovery of food practices which passed out of popularity in the historic period (for example, black drink). Archaeological techniques, particularly in the subdisciplines of zooarchaeology and paleoethnobotany, have allowed for the understanding of other culinary practices or preferred foods which did not survive into the written historic record. The main crops Native Americans used in Mexico and Central America were corn and beans, which are used in contemporary dishes such as pupusas, tamales, pozole, chuchitos, and corn tortillas. The main Native American crops used by Native Americans in South America were potatoes, corn and chuño, used mainly in modern-day Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, Bolivian and Paraguayan dishes such as arepas, papa a la huancaína, humitas, chipa guasu, locro and many more.

Frybread cuisine

Frybread is a flat dough bread, fried or deep-fried in oil, shortening, or lard. Made with simple ingredients, frybread can be eaten alone or with various toppings such as honey, jam, powdered sugar, venison, or beef. Frybread can also be made into tacos, like Navajo tacos.

Cornbread food

Cornbread is any quick bread containing cornmeal, and a Native American cuisine. They are usually leavened by baking powder.

Black drink Ritual beverage used in purification ceremonies brewed by Native Americans in the Southeastern United States

Black drink is a name for several kinds of ritual beverages brewed by Native Americans in the Southeastern United States. Traditional ceremonial people of the Yuchi, Caddo, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Choctaw, Muscogee and some other Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands use the black drink in purification ceremonies. It was occasionally known as white drink because of the association of the color white with peace leaders in some Native cultures in the Southeast.

African influence

Africans brought and preserved many of their traditions and cooking techniques. They were often given less desired cuts of meat, including shoulder and intestines. Menudo, for example, was derived from the habit of the Spaniards of giving the slaves cow's intestines. Slaves developed a way to clean the offal and season it to taste. Slaves in the southern United States also did the same thing to the pig's intestines given to them. In South America, the scraps of food the landlords did not eat, and by mixing what they got they usually ended coming up with new plates that nowadays have been adopted into the cuisine of their respective nation (such being the case with the Peruvian tacu-tacu).

Menudo (soup) Mexican soup

Menudo, also known as pancita or mole de panza, is a traditional Mexican soup, made with cow's stomach (tripe) in broth with a red chili pepper base. It shares a name with a stew from the Philippines made with pork and pork liver.

Offal internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal

Offal, also called variety meats, pluck or organ meats, refers to the internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal. The word does not refer to a particular list of edible organs, which varies by culture and region, but includes most internal organs excluding muscle and bone. As an English mass noun, the term "offal" has no plural form. Some cultures strongly consider offal as food to be taboo, while others use it as everyday food, or in delicacies. Certain offal dishes—including foie gras, pâté and sweetbread—are considered gourmet food in international cuisine. Others remain part of traditional regional cuisine and may be consumed especially in connection with holidays. This includes Scottish haggis, Jewish chopped liver, U.S. chitterlings, Mexican menudo as well as many other dishes. Intestines are traditionally used as casing for sausages.

European influence

Europeans brought their culinary traditions, but quickly adapted several of the fruits and vegetables native to the Americas into their own cuisines. Europe itself has been influenced by other cultures, such as with the Moors in Spain, and thus their food was already a mix of their world. The European influence for many Latin American cuisine mainly comes from Spain. Spain, Portugal, Italy, and to a lesser extent France, although some influences from cuisines as diverse as British, German and Eastern European are also evident in some countries' cuisines such as Argentina and Uruguay which have Italian cuisine as a main influence, with great Spanish, British, German, Russian, French, and Eastern European influence as well.

Moors medieval Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta

The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors initially were the indigenous Maghrebine Berbers. The name was later also applied to Arabs.

Spanish cuisine cuisine originating from Spain

Spanish cuisine is heavily influenced by historical processes that shaped local culture and society in some of Europe's Iberian Peninsula territories. Geography and climate had great influence on cooking methods and available ingredients. These cooking methods and ingredients are still present in the gastronomy of the various regions that make up Spain. Spanish cuisine derives from a complex history where invasions and conquests of Spain have modified traditions which made new ingredients available. Thus, the current and old cuisine of Spain incorporates old and new traditions.

Portuguese cuisine Culinary tradition of Portugal


Despite being relatively restricted to an Atlantic sustenance, Portuguese cuisine has many Mediterranean influences. Portuguese cuisine is famous for seafood. The influence of Portugal's former colonial possessions is also notable, especially in the wide variety of spices used. These spices include piri piri and black pepper, as well as cinnamon, vanilla and saffron. Olive oil is one of the bases of Portuguese cuisine, which is used both for cooking and flavouring meals. Garlic is widely used, as are herbs, such as bay leaf and parsley.

Asian influence

A wave of immigrants from Asia, such as China and Japan, also influenced the cuisine of Latin America. The Chinese brought with them their own spices and food-styles, something that the people of Latin America accepted into their tables. Not only that, but several Asian restaurants also adapted a whole lot of Latin American food-styles into their own. This case can clearly be seen in the Peruvian chifa. Other countries in Latin America such as Uruguay and Argentina have adapted Armenian and Israeli cuisine due to mass immigration from those countries to Argentina and Uruguay.

Caribbean

Caribbean cuisine is a fusion of African, European, and Amerindian cuisine. These traditions were brought from the many homelands of this region's population. In addition, the population has created from this vast wealth of tradition many styles that are unique to the region.

Seafood is one of the most common cuisine types in the islands, though this is certainly due in part to their location. [1] Each island will likely have its own specialty. Some prepare lobster, while others prefer certain types of fish. For example, the island of Barbados is known for its "flying fish."

Another Caribbean mainstay is rice, but the rice on each island may be a little different. Some season their rice, or add peas and other ingredients such as coconut. Sometimes the yellow rice is served as a side, but it is oftentimes part of a dish. Though it comes in many forms, it is a common side dish throughout the region.

Cuba

Authentic Cuban dish of ropa vieja, black beans, and yuca Cubanfood.jpg
Authentic Cuban dish of ropa vieja, black beans, and yuca

Cuban cuisine is a distinctive fusion of Spanish, African and Caribbean cuisines. Cuban recipes share their basic spice palette (cumin, oregano, and bay leaves) and preparation techniques with Spanish and African cooking.the black Caribbean rice influence is in the use of local foods such as tropical fruits, root vegetables, fish, etc. A small but noteworthy Chinese influence is the daily use of steamed white rice as the main carbohydrate in a traditional Cuban meal. Rice is essential to a Cuban meal. It is usually eaten during lunch and dinner almost everyday. [2]

Unlike nearby Mexico and Central America which have tortillas in their cuisines, the only resemblance to the use of tortillas is an item left from pre-Columbian indigenous times which is called Casave. This flat bread is produced by grinding the yuca (cassava) root to form a paste which, when mixed with water, becomes a dough. This is lightly cooked as a flat circular disk and air dried to preserve its consumption for a later time. It is traditionally reconstituted in salted water and eaten with roasted pork. The other culinary curiosity is a regional dish made up of a roasted rodent uniquely found in Cuba and called Jutia (desmarest's hutia).

Haiti

A table setting of Haitian food Ayiti&DR 2007 085.jpg
A table setting of Haitian food

Haitian cuisine is a mixture of various cuisines, predominately of a similar nature with fellow Latin American countries. In addition to native Taino cooking, French and Spanish colonization in concordance with the introduction of African slaves heavily influenced the culinary practices of Haiti. For example, a staple food of major Haitian cities (e.g. Port-au-Prince) is French baguettes. The French and Spanish brought Roman Catholicism along with them, so the Haitian food calendar follows that of the Catholic tradition. For example, soup joumou (also known as giraumon soup) is served on New Year's Day. Joumou is a pumpkin soup made with salt beef and seasoned with nutmeg and other species. [3] Haitians eat traditional foods (e.g. benye, white beans, kremas) in excess on feast days. Poorer areas, which were more impacted by the immigration of Syrians and the Lebanese in the 19th century, popularized Pain Haitien. Slaves created various popular Haitian dishes such as pain patate, akra de mori, and thiaka. Other staple foods are rice (diri), other grains, and millet (piti mii) for the poor. All of these foods are usually in every meal along with beans. Poultry is far more popular than pork or meat; however, the majority of the protein provided in a Haitian diet is from rice and beans. Some foods are regional staples. Seafood, while popular everywhere, has a heavy cultural influence on coast towns. Fruits and nuts from the mountains of Haiti are exported across that region of the island, providing Haitians with delicious and healthy drinks and deserts. [2] Though similar to other cuisine in the region, it carries a uniqueness native only to the country and an appeal to many visitors in the island.

Puerto Rico

Although Puerto Rican cooking is somewhat similar to other Hispanic cuisines; as in other Latin American countries, it has its own unique blend of influences. Comidapr 1.jpg
Although Puerto Rican cooking is somewhat similar to other Hispanic cuisines; as in other Latin American countries, it has its own unique blend of influences.

Puerto Rican cuisine has its roots in the cooking traditions and practices of Europe (Spain), Africa, and the Amerindian Taínos.

When in 1493 Spanish colonizers began a period of great change on the islands. The Spanish introduced foods from around the world including Europe, Asia, and Africa. They realized that not all the food they introduced to this new location were viable. So, while they had to abandon some of what was fundamental to their home country, they began to discover the local assets such as pigs and cattle. Still, some of what the Spaniards brought to Puerto Rico became of great importance to modern traditional dishes such as plantains, bananas, and coffee; all of which are now prominent in current Puerto Rican food culture. [4]

In the latter part of the 19th century the cuisine of Puerto Rico was greatly influenced by the United States in the ingredients used in its preparation. Puerto Rican cuisine has transcended the boundaries of the island and can be found in several countries outside the archipelago . Many crops cultivated in Puerto Rico stem from New World origins like plaintains. [5]

Central America

North American cuisine is a term used for foods native to or popular in countries of North America, as with Canadian cuisine, Cuisine of the United States, and Cuisine of Mexico. It has influences from many international cuisines, including Native American cuisine and European cuisine.

The cuisines of nearby Central America and the Caribbean region – sometimes grouped with the North American continent – may be considered part of North American cuisine in the technical sense that they are not assigned to their own continents.

Belize

Traditional Belizean dinner Belize mealUploaded on August 4, 2007 by Jimmcclarty.jpg
Traditional Belizean dinner

Belizeans of all ethnicities eat a wide variety of foods. Breakfast consists of bread, flour tortillas, or fry jacks that are often homemade. They are eaten with various cheeses, refried beans, various forms of eggs or cereal, topped off by milk for younger ones and coffee or tea for adults. Eating breakfast is called "drinking tea". Midday meals vary, from lighter foods such as rice and beans with or without coconut milk, tamales, panades, (fried maize shells with beans or fish) and meat pies, escabeche (onion soup), chirmole (soup), stew chicken and garnaches (fried tortillas with beans, cheese, and sauce) to various constituted dinners featuring some type of rice and beans, meat and salad or coleslaw. In the rural areas meals may be more simplified than in the cities; the Maya use recaudo, corn or maize for most of their meals, and the Garifuna are fond of seafood, cassava (particularly made into hudut) and vegetables. The nation abounds with restaurants and fast food establishments selling food fairly cheaply. Local fruits are quite common, but raw vegetables from the markets less so. Mealtime is a communion for families and schools and some businesses close at midday for lunch, reopening later in the afternoon. Conversation during meals, unless the topic is important, is considered impolite.

Costa Rica

Gallo pinto of Costa Rica Gallo Pinto at breakfast.jpg
Gallo pinto of Costa Rica

The main staple, known as gallo pinto (or simply pinto), consists of rice and black beans, which in many households is eaten at all three meals during the day.

Other Costa Rican food staples include corn tortillas, white cheese and picadillos. Tortillas are used to accompany most meals. Costa Ricans will often fill their tortillas with whatever they are eating and eat it in the form of a gallo (direct translation: rooster, however, it resembles a soft Mexican taco). White cheese is non-processed cheese that is made by adding salt to milk in production. Picadillos are meat and vegetable combinations where one or more vegetables are diced, mixed with beef and garnished with spices. Common vegetables used in picadillos are potatoes, green beans, squash, ayote, chayote and arracache. Often, picadillos are eaten in the form of gallos.

El Salvador

Salvadorean pupusas Plain pupusas revueltas.jpg
Salvadorean pupusas

Salvadoran cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of El Salvador. The traditional cuisine consists of food from the Pipil people, with a European twist in most modern dishes. Many of the dishes are made with maize (corn).

El Salvador's most notable dish is the pupusa, a thick hand-made corn flour or rice flour tortilla stuffed with cheese, chicharrón (fried pork rinds), refried beans or loroco (a vine flower bud native to Central America). There are also vegetarian options, often with ayote (a type of squash), or garlic. Some adventurous restaurants even offer pupusas stuffed with shrimp or spinach.

Two other typical Salvadoran dishes are yuca frita and panes rellenos. Yuca frita, which is deep fried cassava root served with curtido (a pickled cabbage, onion and carrot topping) and pork rinds with pescaditas (fried baby sardines). The yuca is sometimes served boiled instead of fried. Panes con Pavo (turkey sandwiches) are warm turkey submarines. The turkey is marinated and then roasted with Pipil spices and handpulled. This sandwich is traditionally served with turkey, tomato, and watercress along with cucumber, onion, lettuce, mayonnaise, and mustard. A lot of Salvadoran food is served with French bread, or pan frances in Spanish.

Guatemala

Fiambre, a traditional dish eaten in November. It consists of over 50 ingredients. Fiambre.JPG
Fiambre, a traditional dish eaten in November. It consists of over 50 ingredients.

The cuisine of Guatemala reflects the multicultural nature of Guatemala, in that it involves food that differs in taste depending on the region. Guatemala has 22 departments (or divisions), each of which has very different typical foodstuffs. Guatemalan cuisine is widely known for its candy originating from Antigua Guatemala.

There are also foods that it is traditional to eat on certain days of the week - for example, by tradition it is known that on Thursday, the typical food is "paches" which is like a tamale made with a base of potato, and on Saturday it is traditional to eat tamales.

Honduras

Fried Yojoa Fish from Honduras Fishyyojoa.GIF
Fried Yojoa Fish from Honduras
Honduran Breakfast DesayunoCatracho2.jpg
Honduran Breakfast

Spanish, Caribbean and pre-Columbian dishes

Honduran Cuisine combines Spanish, Caribbean and pre-Columbian influences of the indigenous Maya-Lenca population. Its most notable feature is that it uses more coconut than any other Central American cuisine in both sweet and savory dishes. Regional specialties include pollo con tajadas (fried fish with fried green banana chips) fried fish, carne asada, and baleadas. Platano maduro fritos with sour creme are also a common dish.

In addition to the baleadas, the following are also popular: meat roasted with chismol carne asada, chicken with rice and corn, fried fish (Yojoa style) with encurtido (pickled onions and jalapeños). In the coastal areas and in the Bay Islands, seafood and some meats are prepared in many ways, some of which include coconut milk.

Among the soups the Hondurans enjoy are: conch soup, bean soup, Mondongo soup, or soup of intestine, seafood soups, beef soups, all of which are mixed with plaintains, yuca, cabbage among other things, and complemented with corn tortillas.

Other typical dishes are the montucas or corn tamale, stuffed tortillas, tamales wrapped up with banana leaves, among other types of food. Also part of the Honduran typical dishes are abundant selection of tropical fruits such as: papaya, pineapple, plums, epazotes, passionfruits, and a wide variety of bananas and platains which are prepared in many ways.

Mexico

Chiles en Nogada Chile en nogada.jpg
Chiles en Nogada
Cheese counter at a market in Coyoacan CheeseCounterCoyoacan.JPG
Cheese counter at a market in Coyoacán

Mexican cuisine is a style of food which is primarily a fusion of indigenous Mesoamerican cooking with European (especially Spanish) cooking developed after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. The basic staples remain the native corn, beans and chili peppers but the Europeans introduced a large number of other foods, the most important of which were meat from domesticated animals (beef, pork, chicken, goat and sheep), dairy products (especially cheese) and various herbs and spices. [6] While the Spanish initially tried to superimpose their diet on the country, this was not possible thanks largely to Mexico's highly developed indigenous cuisines. Instead, the foods and cooking techniques of both the indigenous Mexicans and the Spanish began to be mixed contributing to the development of an even more varied and rich cuisine. Over the centuries, this resulted in various regional cuisines, based on local conditions such as those in the north, Oaxaca, Veracruz and the Yucatán Peninsula. Mexican cuisine is highly tied to the culture, social structure and its popular traditions, the most important example of which is the use of mole for special occasions and holidays, particularly in the South region of the country. For this reason and others, Mexican cuisine was added by UNESCO to its list of the world's "intangible cultural heritage". [7]

Mexican cuisine is known for its intense and varied flavors, colorful decoration, and enormous variety of spices. Mexican culture and food is one of the richest in the world, both with respect to diverse and appealing tastes and textures; and in terms of proteins, vitamins, and minerals.

Most of today's Mexican cuisine is based on pre-Hispanic traditions, including the Aztecs, Maya, and the Indigenous peoples of Mexico combined with culinary trends introduced by Spanish colonists.

Mexican-Americans in the United States have developed regional cuisines largely incorporating the ingredients and cooking styles of authentic Mexican cuisines. Tex-Mex is a term describing a regional American cuisine that blends food products available in the United States and the culinary creations of Mexican-Americans influenced by Mexican cuisine. [8] The cuisine has spread from border states such as Texas and those in the Southwestern United States to the rest of the country. Tex-Mex is very different from the Southwest cuisine found in Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. In these areas, the preferred southwest cuisine is New Mexican cuisine, also heavily influenced by authentic Mexican cuisine. The southwestern state of Nevada and West Coast state of California (which is home to Cal-Mex cuisine) tend to lie in the middle as far the preferred style of Mexican-American food. In some places, particularly outside of Texas, "Tex-Mex" is used to describe a localized version of Mexican cuisine. It is common for all of these foods to be referred to as "Mexican food" in Texas, other parts of the United States, and some other countries. In other ways, it is Southern cooking using the commodities from Mexican culture. In many parts of the U.S. outside of Texas the term is synonymous with Southwestern cuisine.

Mexican cuisine is very well known outside of Mexico and features prominently in Latin America as a source of influence to many Latin American cuisines thanks enormously to the spread of crops originally from Mexico to other Latin American countries. Maize or corn, which originated in the highlands of the Mexican states of Oaxaca and Jalisco, is a staple in most Latin American cuisines today. The tomato, another crop with origins in Mexico is also widely consumed and incorporated in the cuisines of most Latin American countries. The Spanish are largely responsible for introducing indigenous Mexican crops to other regions worldwide.

Mexican cuisine varies by region, because of local climate and geography and ethnic differences among the indigenous inhabitants and because these different populations were influenced by the Spaniards in varying degrees. There is also a variety of different chili peppers that are popular depending on region, as well as methods of preparation of other staple foods like corn and beans. [9]

Central Mexico's cuisine is largely made up of influences from the rest of the country, but also has its authentics, such as barbacoa, pozole, menudo, tamales, and carnitas. Southeastern Mexico, on the other hand, is known for its spicy vegetable and chicken-based dishes. The cuisine of Southeastern Mexico also has quite a bit of Caribbean influence, given its geographical location. Veal is common in the Yucatán. Seafood is commonly prepared in the states that border the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico, the latter having a famous reputation for its fish dishes, in particular à la veracruzana. In modern times, other cuisines of the world have become very popular in Mexico, thus adopting a Mexican fusion. For example, sushi in Mexico is often made with a variety of sauces based on mango or tamarind, and very often served with serrano-chili-blended soy sauce, or complemented with vinegar, habanero and chipotle peppers. The most internationally recognized dishes include chocolate, tacos, quesadillas, enchiladas, burritos, tamales and mole among several others. Regional dishes include mole poblano, chiles en nogada and chalupas from Puebla, cabrito and machaca from Monterrey, cochinita pibil from Yucatán, Tlayudas from Oaxaca, as well as barbacoa, chilaquiles, milanesas, and many others.

Nicaragua

The Cuisine of Nicaragua is a fusion of Spanish, Caribbean and pre-Columbian dishes of the indigenous peoples. When the Spaniards first arrived in Nicaragua they found that the indigenous peoples had incorporated foods available in the area into their cuisine. [10] Despite the blending and incorporation of pre-Columbian and Spanish influenced cuisine, traditional cuisine changes from the Pacific to the Caribbean coast. While the Pacific coast's main staple revolves around fruits and corn, the Caribbean coast makes use of seafood and the coconut.

As in many other Latin American countries, corn is a main staple. Corn is used in many of the widely consumed dishes, such as nacatamal, and indio viejo. Corn is also an ingredient for drinks such as pinolillo and chicha as well as in sweets and desserts. Nicaraguans do not limit their cuisine to corn, locally grown vegetables and fruits have been in use since before the arrival of the Spaniards and their influence on Nicaraguan cuisine. Many of Nicaragua's dishes include fruits and vegetables such as jocote, grosella, mimbro, mango, papaya, tamarind, pipián, banana, avocado, yuca, and herbs such as cilantro, oregano and achiote. [10]

Gallo pinto is Nicaragua's national dish, consisting of red beans and rice. The dish has several variations including the addition of coconut oil or grated coconut which is primarily prepared on Nicaragua's Caribbean coast. It is thought to have originated in Nicaragua; however, there is some controversy about the origins of this dish.

Panama

Panamanian cuisine has its own unique and rich cuisine. As a land bridge between two continents, Panama is blessed by nature with an unusual variety of tropical fruits, vegetables and herbs that are used in native cooking. Also, as a crossroads of the world catalyzed by the Panama Canal, Panamanian cuisine is influenced by its diverse population of Hispanic, native Indian, European, African, Colombian, Jamaican, and Chinese migration. A common Panamanian diet includes seafood such as crab, lobster, and squid, many versions of chicken soup, and vast amounts of fruit such as papayas, coconuts, and bananas. [11] They also drink chicha, a very common drink found in Panama.

South America

The richest products of South America come from the middle of the continent, the Amazonia Potatoes are frequently grown as a result of this, and also plants such as quinoa. Lima itself was declared the "Gastronomic Capital of the Americas" in 2006. Many plains are also on this continent, which are rich for growing food in abundance. In the Patagonia south of Chile and Argentina, many people produce lamb and venison. King crab is typically caught at the southern end of the continent. Antarctic krill has been recently discovered and is now considered a fine dish. Tuna and tropical fish are caught all around the continent, but Easter Island is where they are found in abundance. Lobster is also caught in great quantities from the Juan Fernández Islands.

Argentina

Asado of Argentina, a style of barbecue Asado argentino.jpg
Asado of Argentina, a style of barbecue

The cuisine of Argentina is strongly influenced by Italian and Spanish cuisines and cooking techniques. Indigenous gastronomies derived from groups such as the Quechua, Mapuche, and Guarani have also played a role. There are many regional differences, specially in the provincial states of the north, west, east and central Argentina, with many plants, fruits and dishes that are not known or barely known in Buenos Aires.

Another determining factor in Argentine cuisine is that Argentina is one of the world's major food producers. It is a major producer of meat (especially beef), wheat, corn, milk, beans, and since the 1970s, soybeans. Given the country's vast production of beef, red meat is an especially common part of the Argentine diet. Due to the very large number of Argentines of Italian ancestry, pizza and especially pasta are also very popular, but there are food traditions from other European nations as well, including the English afternoon tea.

Bolivia

Bolivian cuisine is the result of Spanish cuisine with infusions of ancient Andean tradition and varies greatly due to the geography of Bolivia. People in the Altiplano region enjoy implementing lots of spices in their meals, while the dwellers of the Bolivian lowlands eat mainly yucca, fish, fruits, and vegetables. [12]

Brazil

Moqueca of Brazil MOQUECAB.jpg
Moqueca of Brazil

The cuisine of Brazil, like Brazil itself, varies greatly by region. Brazilian cuisine can be divided into several distinct locations. From the north of Brazil through the Amazonian jungle, and directly down the Brazilian coastline.

This diversity reflects the country's mix of native Amerindians, Portuguese, Africans, Italians, Spaniards, Germans, Syrians, Lebanese and Japanese among others. This has created a national cooking style marked by the preservation of regional differences.

Coffee, being one of the main agricultural products of Brazil, [13] is an indispensable part of every Brazilian's diet. "Yerba mate," an herb coffee, and the super caffeinated "cafezinho" are commonly served at meals, between meals, and for snacks. The average Brazilian drinks 12-24 of these concoctions per day. [14]

Chile

Caldillo de Congrio of Chile Caldillo de congrio.jpg
Caldillo de Congrio of Chile

Chilean cuisine stems from the combination of traditional Spanish cuisine with indigenous ingredients.

European immigrants also brought with them various styles and traditions in cooking, heavily influencing the cuisine of Chile, including Italian, German, and French influences as well as the English afternoon tea. These mixtures have created a unique fusion. Seafood is widely used and an array of produce which historically has grown throughout the region have been implemented into Chilean gastronomy. Many recipes are accompanied and enhanced by Chilean wine such as Curanto.

Colombia

Bandeja paisa of Colombia Banpaisa.png
Bandeja paisa of Colombia

The cuisine of Colombia consists of a large variety of dishes that take into account the difference in regional climates. For example, in the city of Medellín the typical dish is the bandeja paisa. It includes beans, rice, ground meat or carne asada, chorizo, fried egg, arepa and chicharrón. It is usually accompanied by avocado, tomato and sauces.

Inland, the plates resemble the mix of cultures, inherited mainly from Amerindian and European cuisine, and the produce of the land mainly agriculture, cattle, river fishing and other animals' raising. Such is the case of the sancocho soup in Valledupar, the arepas (a corn based bread like patty). Local species of animals like the guaratinaja, part of the wayuu Amerindian culture.

Ecuador

Fanesca of Ecuador Fanesca.jpg
Fanesca of Ecuador

The food in Ecuador is diverse, varying with altitude and associated agricultural conditions. Ecuadorian cuisine is an amalgamation of Spanish, Andean, and Amazonian cuisines and to a lesser degree Italian, African, and Chinese.

Most regions in Ecuador follow the traditional 3 course meal of sopa/soup and segundo/second dish which includes rice or pasta and a protein such as meat, poultry, pig or fish. Then dessert and a coffee are customary. Dinner is usually lighter and sometimes just coffee or agua de remedio/herbal tea with bread.

Some of the typical dishes in the coastal region are: a variety of ceviches, pan de yuca, corviche, guatita, papas con queso, encebollado, empanada de viento (deep fried flour cover and cheese/scallion filling, served sprinkled with sugar) or empanada de verde (green plantain cover and cheese filling), mangrove crab, arroz con menestra (lentil or bean stew) y carne asada, caldo de bola (beef soup featuring a green plantain ball filled with meat, egg, and spices); in the mountain region: hornado, fritada, humitas, tamales, llapingachos, lomo saltado , and churrasco .

Pork, chicken, beef, and cuy (guinea pig) are popular in the mountain regions and are served with a variety of grains (especially rice and corn or potatoes). A popular street food in mountain regions is hornado , consisting of potatoes served with roasted pig. Fanesca, a fish soup including several types of bean, is often eaten during Lent and Easter. During the week before the commemoration of the deceased or All Souls' Day, the fruit beverage colada morada is typical, accompanied by t'anta wawa which is stuffed bread shaped like children.

Paraguay

Sopa paraguaya Sopa Paraguaya.jpg
Sopa paraguaya

Meat, especially beef, is a staple of the Paraguayan diet. This is reflected in the Asado, a series of barbecuing practices and the social event that are traditional to Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay. The cuisine of Paraguay also includes unique dishes such as sopa paraguaya, kiveve prepared using a pumpkin, also known as "andai", or Chipa Guasú. Chipa Guasú, an original dish to Paraguay, is a cake made with corn grains that is now widely served in Northeastern Argentina as well. The national drink of Paraguay is known as terere, in addition to fruit juices and soft drinks being very common throughout the country. Yucca and corn are two important ingredients in Paraguayan cuisine [4]

Peru

Ceviche, a Peruvian dish that has grown rapidly in popularity. Ceviche from Peru.jpg
Ceviche, a Peruvian dish that has grown rapidly in popularity.

Peru has a varied cuisine with ingredients like potato, uchu or Ají (Capsicum pubescens), oca, ulluco, avocado, fruits like chirimoya, lúcuma and pineapple, and animals like taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis), llama and guinea pig (called cuy). The combination of Inca and Spanish culinary traditions, resulted in new meals and ways of preparing them. The arrival of Africans and Chinese immigrants in the 19th century also resulted in the development of Creole cuisine in the city of Lima, where the vast majority of these immigrants settled.

Some typical Peruvian dishes are ceviche (fish and shellfish marinated in citrus juices), the chupe de camarones (a soup made of shrimp (Cryphiops caementarius)), anticuchos (cow's heart roasted en brochette ), the olluco con charqui (a casserole dish made of ulluco and charqui), the Andean pachamanca (meats, tubers and broad beans cooked in a stone oven), the lomo saltado (meat fried lightly with tomato and onion, served with french fries and rice) that has a Chinese influence, and the picante de cuy (a casserole dish made of fried guinea pig with some spices). Peruvian food can be accompanied by typical drinks like the chicha de jora (a chicha made of tender corn dried by the sun). There are also chichas made of peanuts or purple corn, known as chicha morada.

Uruguay

The cuisine of Uruguay is traditionally based on its European roots, especially from Italy, Spain, France, Portugal, Germany and Britain. Many foods from those countries such as pasta, sausages, and desserts are common in the nation's diet. The Uruguayan barbecue, asado, is one of the most exquisite and famous in the world. A sweet paste, Dulce de Leche is the national obsession, used to fill cookies, cakes, pancakes, milhojas, and alfajores.

Venezuela

Arepas with chicken schnitzel, avocado, mayonnaise and red onion. Arepas with chicken schnitzel, avocado, mayonnaise and red onion.jpg
Arepas with chicken schnitzel, avocado, mayonnaise and red onion.

Due to its land, diversity of agricultural resources, and the cultural diversity of the Venezuelan people, Venezuelan cuisine often varies greatly from one region to another. Its cuisine, traditional as well as modern, is influenced by its European, West African and Native American traditions. Food staples include corn, rice, plantain, yams, beans and several meats. Potatoes, tomatoes, onions, eggplants, squashes, spinach and zucchini are also common sides in the Venezuelan diet.

Traditional eating customs

There are many different kinds of traditions associated with eating in Latin America. There are a variety of special days where certain foods are consumed, as well as many holidays that are celebrated in Latin America.

Traditions

There are many forms of gratitude that inhabitants of Latin America employ when they discard excess food. Some people kiss the bread while others cut it before discarding it. [15] Other such traditions are upheld largely by the country, Argentina and Uruguay have one such tradition known as a "es:Ñoquis del 29" or "the Gnocchi 29", where on the 29th of each month a family eats gnocchi, sometimes placing money under their plate to wish for abundance in the next month.

There is a holiday celebrated in Latin America known as Three Kings Day (otherwise known as Epiphany) which is celebrated on January 6 of each year where families feast in honor of God's manifestation in human form in Jesus.

In many countries of Latin America families consume lentils on the first day of the New Year because they are thought to bring prosperity.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Corn tortilla Unleavened flatbread made from ground corn (maize)

In North America and Central America, a corn tortilla or just tortilla is a type of thin, unleavened flatbread, made from hominy. In Guatemala and Mexico, there are three colors of maize dough for making tortillas: white maize, yellow maize and blue maize.

Costa Rican cuisine

Costa Rican cuisine is known for being fairly mild, with high reliance on fresh fruits and vegetables. Rice and black beans are a staple of most traditional Costa Rican meals, often served three times a day. Costa Rican fare is nutritionally well rounded, and nearly always cooked from scratch from fresh ingredients. Due to the location of the country, tropical fruits and vegetables are readily available and included in the local cuisine.

Puerto Rican cuisine

Puerto Rican cuisine has its roots in the cooking traditions and practices of Europe, Africa and the native Taínos. Starting from the latter part of the 19th century, the cuisine of Puerto Rico has been greatly influenced by the United States in the ingredients used in its preparation. Puerto Rican cuisine can be found in several other countries.

Jamaican cuisine includes a mixture of cooking techniques, flavours, spices and influences from the indigenous people on the island of Jamaica, and the Spanish, Irish, British, Africans, Indian and Chinese who have inhabited the island. It is also influenced by the crops introduced into the island from tropical Southeast Asia. Jamaican cuisine includes various dishes from the different cultures brought to the island with the arrival of people from elsewhere. Other dishes are novel or a fusion of techniques and traditions. In addition to ingredients that are native to Jamaica, many foods have been introduced and are now grown locally. A wide variety of seafood, tropical fruits and meats are available.

Peasant foods

Peasant foods are dishes specific to a particular culture, made from accessible and inexpensive ingredients, and usually prepared and seasoned to make them more palatable. They often form a significant part of the diets of people who live in poverty, or have a lower income compared to the average for their society or country.

Salvadoran cuisine

Salvadoran cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of El Salvador. The traditional cuisine consists of food from Native American cuisine, indigenous Lenca, Pipil and European Spanish peoples. Many of the dishes are made with maize (corn).

<i>Chicharrón</i> Spanish pork dish

Chicharrón is a dish generally consisting of fried pork belly or fried pork rinds. Chicharrón may also be made from chicken, mutton or beef.

New Mexican cuisine cuisine originating from New Mexico

New Mexican cuisine is the cuisine of the Southwestern US state of New Mexico, the region is primarily known for its fusion of Pueblo Native American with Hispano Spanish and Mexican cuisine originating in Nuevo México. This cuisine had adaptions and influences throughout its history, including early on from the nearby Apache, Navajo, and throughout New Spain and the Spanish Empire, also from French, Italian, Mediterranean, Portuguese cuisine, and European cafés, furthermore during the American territorial phase from cowboy chuckwagons and Western saloons, additionally after statehood from Route 66 American diners, fast food restaurants, and global cuisine. Even so, New Mexican cuisine developed in fairly isolated circumstances, which has allowed it to maintain its indigenous, Spanish, and Mexican identity, and is therefore not like any other Latin food originating in the contiguous United States.

Native American cuisine Culinary traditions of Peoples Indigenous to the Americas

Native American cuisine includes all food practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Modern-day native peoples retain a varied culture of traditional foods, some of which have become iconic of present-day Native American social gatherings. Foods like cornbread, turkey, cranberry, blueberry, hominy and mush are known to have been adopted into the cuisine of the United States from Native American groups. In other cases, documents from the early periods of contact with European, African, and Asian peoples allow the recovery of food practices which passed out of popularity. The most important native American crops include corn, beans, squash, pumpkins, sunflowers, wild rice, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, peanuts, avocados, papayas, potatoes and chocolate.

Colombian cuisine

Colombian cuisine is a compound of the culinary traditions of the six main regions within the country. Colombian cuisine varies regionally and is particularly influenced by Indigenous Colombian, Spanish, and African cuisines, with slight Arab influence in some regions. Furthermore, being one of the most biodiverse countries in the world, Colombia has one of the widest variety of available ingredientes depending on the region.

Honduran cuisine

Honduran cuisine is a fusion of indigenous (Lenca) cuisine, Spanish cuisine, Caribbean cuisine and African cuisine. There are also dishes from the Garifuna people. Coconut and coconut milk are featured in both sweet and savory dishes. Regional specialties include fried fish, tamales, carne asada and baleadas. Other popular dishes include meat roasted with chismol and carne asada, chicken with rice and corn, and fried fish with pickled onions and jalapeños. In the coastal areas and in the Bay Islands, seafood and some meats are prepared in many ways, some of which include coconut milk.

Dominican Republic cuisine

Dominican Republic cuisine is predominantly made up of a combination of Spanish, indigenous Taíno, and African influences. Many Middle-Eastern dishes have been adopted into Dominican cuisine, such as the "Quipe" that comes from the Lebanese kibbeh. Dominican cuisine resembles that of other countries in Latin America, those of the nearby islands of Puerto Rico and Cuba, most of all, though the dish names differ sometimes.

Guatemalan cuisine

Most traditional foods in Guatemalan cuisine are based on Maya cuisine and prominently feature corn, chilies and beans as key ingredients.

Belizean cuisine is an amalgamation of all ethnicities in the nation of Belize and their respectively wide variety of foods. Breakfast often consists of sides of bread, flour tortillas, or fry jacks that are often homemade and eaten with various cheeses. All are often accompanied with refried beans, cheeses, and various forms of eggs, etc. Inclusive is also cereal along with milk, coffee, or tea.

Texan cuisine is the food associated with the U.S. state of Texas. Texas is a large state, and its cuisine has been influenced by a wide range of cultures, including Southern, German, British, African American, Cajun/Creole, Mexican, Native American, Asian, and to a lesser degree, Jewish and Italian.

Oaxacan cuisine Regional cuisine of Oaxaca, Mexico

Oaxacan cuisine is a regional cuisine of Mexico, centered on the city of Oaxaca, the capital of the state of the same name located in southern Mexico. Oaxaca is one of Mexico's major gastronomic, historical, and gastro-historical centers whose cuisine is known internationally. Like the rest of Mexican cuisine, Oaxacan food is based on staples such as corn, beans and chile peppers, but there is a great variety of other ingredients and food preparations due to the influence of the state's varied geography and indigenous cultures. Corn and many beans were first cultivated in Oaxaca. Well known features of the cuisine include ingredients such as chocolate, Oaxaca cheese, mezcal and grasshoppers (chapulines) with dishes such as tlayudas, Oaxacan style tamales and seven notable varieties of mole sauce. The cuisine has been praised and promoted by food experts such as Diana Kennedy and Rick Bayless and is part of the state's appeal for tourists.

Cuisine of Veracruz

The cuisine of Veracruz is the regional cooking centered on the Mexican state that stretches over most of the country’s coast on the Gulf of Mexico. Its cooking is characterized by three main influences, indigenous, Spanish and Afro-Cuban, due to its history, which included the arrival of the Spanish and that of slaves from Africa and the Caribbean. These influences have contributed many ingredients to the cooking including native vanilla, corn and seafood, along with rice, spices and tubers. How much the three mix depending on the area of the state, with some areas more heavily favoring one or another. The state has worked to promote its cuisine both in Mexico and abroad as part of its tourism industry.

Cuisine of Chiapas

The cuisine of Chiapas is a style of cooking centered on the Mexican state of the same name. Like the cuisine of rest of the country, it is based on corn with a mix of indigenous and European influences. It distinguishes itself by retaining most of its indigenous heritage, including the use of the chipilín herb in tamales and soups, used nowhere else in Mexico. However, while it does use some chili peppers, including the very hot simojovel, it does not use it as much as other Mexican regional cuisines, preferring slightly sweet seasoning to its main dishes. Large regions of the state are suitable for grazing and the cuisine reflects this with meat, especially beef and the production of cheese. The most important dish is the tamal, with many varieties created through the state as well as dishes such as chanfaina, similar to menudo and sopa de pan. Although it has been promoted by the state of Chiapas for tourism purposes as well as some chefs, it is not as well known as other Mexican cuisine, such as that of neighboring Oaxaca.

References

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