Orgeat syrup

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A bottle of Italian orgeat syrup Orgeat syrup flavored drinks.jpg
A bottle of Italian orgeat syrup

Orgeat syrup is a sweet syrup made from almonds, sugar, and rose water or orange flower water. It was originally made with a barley-almond blend. It has a pronounced almond taste and is used to flavor many cocktails. Orgeat syrup is an important ingredient in the Mai Tai and many Tiki drinks. [1] [2] [3]

Syrup thick, viscous liquid consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water

In cooking, a syrup or sirup is a condiment that is a thick, viscous liquid consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. Its consistency is similar to that of molasses. The viscosity arises from the multiple hydrogen bonds between the dissolved sugar, which has many hydroxyl (OH) groups.

Sugar generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. The various types of sugar are derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose, fructose, and galactose. "Table sugar" or "granulated sugar" refers to sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into fructose and glucose.

Rose water Rose-flavored water

Rose water is a flavoured water made by steeping rose petals in water. Additionally, it is the hydrosol portion of the distillate of rose petals, a by-product of the production of rose oil for use in perfume. It is used to flavour food, as a component in some cosmetic and medical preparations, and for religious purposes throughout Europe and Asia. Rose syrup is a syrup made from rose water, with sugar added.

Contents

History

An early (but toxic) recipe for orgeat can be found in the The English and Australian Cookery Book: [4] "Take a pound and a quarter of bitter almonds, and half a pound of sweet almonds, which have been blanched, nine pounds of loaf sugar, six pints of water, and the rinds of three lemons. Pound the almonds in a mortar with the sugar, and add the water a little by degrees; then put the mixture on the fire with the lemon-peel. After a boil pour off the syrup and press the almonds, to extract the milk; add this to the syrup, and strain the whole through a sieve. When cold add a little orange flower water, and bottle the mixture. The orgeat is used as a summer drink, mixed with water, according to taste."

<i>The English and Australian Cookery Book</i> 1854 publication in London by Tasmanian author

The English and Australian Cookery Book is considered to be the first Australian cookbook. Published in London in 1864, the full title of the first edition reads: The English and Australian Cookery Book: Cookery for the Many, as well as the Upper Ten Thousand - by an Australian Aristologist. The author, who listed himself only by the initials "E.A." in the introduction, was a Tasmanian named Edward Abbott.

Bitter almonds as a general rule contain cyanide and can be lethal in large quantities. [5] Napoleon Bonaparte died reputedly in part from drinking too much orgeat that others had also concocted with additional poisons. [6] For this reason modern syrups generally are produced only from sweet almonds. Such syrup products do not contain significant levels of hydrocyanic acid, so are generally considered safe for human consumption unless the person is allergic. [7]

Almond Species of plant

The almond is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, but widely cultivated elsewhere. The almond is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by corrugations on the shell (endocarp) surrounding the seed.

Cyanide any chemical compound with cyanide anion

A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N. This group, known as the cyano group, consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom.

Napoleon 18th/19th-century French monarch, military and political leader

Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader of Italian descent who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.

Word origin

The word "orgeat" ( /ɔːrˈʒɑː, ˈɔːriət/ ) is derived from the Latin hordeaceus "made with barley" through the French, where barley is called orge. The Catalan word orxata has the same origin, though today the two drinks have little else in common.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Catalan language Romance language

Catalan is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain. It is the only official language of Andorra, and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia. It also has semi-official status in the Italian commune of Alghero. It is also spoken in the eastern strip of Aragon, in some villages of Region of Murcia called Carche and in the Pyrénées-Orientales department of France. These territories are often called Països Catalans or "Catalan Countries".

Regional uses

In Tunisia and Libya, it is called rozata and is usually served chilled in wedding and engagement parties as a symbol of joy and purity because of its white colour and its fresh (flowery) flavor. It comes in many different flavours, such as traditional almond, banana, mango, pistachio, among others. In Suriname, there is a drink called orgeade , which is a similar syrup made of sugar and almonds. Maltese ruġġata is made of almond and vanilla essence and may include cinnamon and cloves. [8] In Cyprus and on the Greek islands of Chios and Nisyros, a similar syrup is known as soumádha (Greek : σουμάδα). Soumada has a very ancient history at least in Cyprus, stretching back into the Roman period, and it was given as an exotic delicacy by King Peter I of Cyprus to King Casimir the Great of Poland at the Congress of Kraków, held in Poland in 1364. [9]

Tunisia Country in Northern Africa

Tunisia, officially the Republic of Tunisia, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, covering 163,610 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was 11.435 million in 2017. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast.

Libya Country in north Africa

Libya is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, and Tunisia to the northwest. The sovereign state is made of three historical regions: Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres (700,000 sq mi), Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, and is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world. The largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over one million of Libya's six million people. The second-largest city is Benghazi, which is located in eastern Libya.

Suriname Country in South America

Suriname, officially known as the Republic of Suriname, is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. At just under 165,000 square kilometers, it is the smallest sovereign state in South America. Suriname has a population of approximately 558,368, most of whom live on the country's north coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo.

See also

Horchata drink

Horchata, or orxata, is a name given to various plant milk beverages of similar taste and appearance.

Falernum

Falernum is a syrup liqueur from the Caribbean best known for its use in tropical drinks. It contains flavors of ginger, lime, and almond, and most often also of cloves or allspice. It may be thought of as a spicier version of orgeat syrup.

Fassionola is a typically red colored syrup that is fruit flavored that was more frequently used in tropical drinks during the 1930s but is now a relatively unusual ingredient. It also comes in green and gold varieties that sometimes are made to taste differently. It is used as a fruit punch concentrate and some claim that a red colored fruit syrup called fassionola was an ingredient in the original Hurricane cocktail. Although a frequent attribution, solid evidence of fassionola's use in the Hurricane from before 1956 is currently lacking, and it is not known what the precise ingredients in the earliest version of fassionola were.

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References

  1. "In honor of orgeat". alcoholprofessor.com. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  2. "Upgrade your orgeat". nationalpost.com. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  3. "Tiki cocktail history basics". drinks.seriouseats.com. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  4. Abbott, Edward (1864). The English and Australian Cookery Book.
  5. "What are bitter almonds". thespruceeats.com. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  6. "The Assassination of Napoleon". napoleon-series.org. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  7. Chaouali N, Gana I, Dorra A, Khelifi F, Nouioui A, Masri W, Belwaer I, Ghorbel H, Hedhili A (2013). "Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup". ISRN Toxicol. 2013 (19 September): 610648. doi:10.1155/2013/610648. PMC   3793392 . PMID   24171123.
  8. Georgina Lawrence. "Ruġġata tal-lewż". Ilovefood.com.mt. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  9. Maria Dembinska and William Woys Weaver, Food and Drink in Medieval Poland (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999) p.41